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^ibrarg of \\i p;«s«um 


OF 


COMPARATIYE ZOOLOGY, 


AT DAKVAKD COllEGE, CAMBRUGE, MASS. 


J^ounUea ijji jivfbate subscifjitfon, in 1861. 


DR. L. DE KONINCK'S LIBRARY. 


No. /<0^J' 



THE 

FOSSILS OF THE SOUTH DOWNS, 

&c. 



LONDON: 

TEINIED BV THOJIAS DAVISOK, WHIXEFRIARS. 



T.ib.VI. 




<^.^ 







tfary Ann. MmiteU ^ 



BTIRATA AT CASTLE HIILL, NIEAK KTEAVWIHAVEN 



THE 



FOSSILS OF THE SOUTH DOWNS; 



OR 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



GEOLOGY OF SUSSEX. 



BY GIDEON MANTELL, F.L.S. 

FELLOW OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS, MEMBER OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, &c. 



THE ENGRAVINGS EXECUTED BY 
MRS. MANTELL, 

FROM DRAWINGS BY THE AUTHOR. 



" Bhs I'instant que je me suis consacrfi a la medicine, persuade que la connoissance des corps 
naturels, source vinique de la mati^re medicalej est indispensable au m^decin, qui en tire tous ses secours, 
et qui y retrouve tout ce qui dans I'ordre physique peut faire le bonheur, ou causer le malheur des 
homines ; je n'ai cesse d'y employer les momens, dont les occupations norabreuses attach^es a notre ^tat, 
m'ont laiss^ la disposition." 

Oryctographie de Bruxelles, par F. X. Burtin. 

" The mind wliich has been directed to the investigation of a favourite science, is unwilling to 
persuade itself, that its powers, however feeble, have been concentrated in vain; since the faintest 
rays, when collected into a focus, produce some degree of illumination." 

Dr. Armstrong- 



LONDON : 

LUPTON RELFE, 13, CORNHILL. 

1822. 



>._ - 



M 



DAVIES GILBERT, ESQ., M.P. F.R. S. and L. S. 

PRESIDENT OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF CORNWALL, &c. &c. &c. 
THIS VOLUME IS INSCRIBED 



TRIBUTE OF THE HIGHEST RESPECT TO HIS TALENTS, 



OF GRATITUDE FOR HIS FRIENDSHIP. 



Castle Place, Lewes, 
May 1, 1822. 



PREFACE. 



The flattering manner in which the Prospectus of the present volume 
has been received, and the condescension of His Majesty, who has been 
graciously pleased to honour it with his august patronage, are circum- 
stances which demand my most grateftd acknowledgments, and are the 
more gratifying to my feelings, as they were whoUy unexpected. 

It is, however, with much diffidence that 1 appear before the public 
in the characters of an artist and an author, conscious as I am, that my 
humble talents can offer but few pretensions to its favour, or indulgence. 

Having at an early period in life, imbibed a predilection for the study 
of natural history, and subsequently been educated in a profession inti- 
mately connected with that science, upon fixing my residence at Lewes, 
I resolved to devote my leisure moments to the investigation of the 
" Organic remains of a former world ; " a study replete with interest and 
instruction. 

The fossils of Sussex had not then excited attention, and this con- 
sideration induced me to select them for the more immediate objects of 
examination ; since in a district previously unexplored by the geologist. 



vm PREFACE. 

there was reason to hope, that some interesting and useful information 
might be obtained :^iow far that expectation has been realized, it is for 
the reader to determine. 

In the prosecution of these researches, the physical structure of the 
country necessarily came under consideration, and the enquiry assumed 
a new and more important character. The extraneous fossils were no 
longer regarded merely as subjects of natural history, but as memorials of 
revolutions which have swept over the face of the earth, in ages ante- 
cedent to all human record and tradition. 

The following pages contain the result of my labours. They have 
been composed under circumstances particularly unfavourable to literary 
pursuits; and such as those only can duly appreciate, who are aware of 
the numerous and anxious duties, which a country practitioner is called 
upon to perform. Few indeed have been the moments dedicated to this 
work, that have not been snatched from the hours of repose, after active 
and laborious exertion during the day. 

Another formidable obstacle has arisen from local situation, which has 
prevented access to a comprehensive library, and thus deprived me of the 
important aid to be derived from an unlimited reference to the works of 
others. 

If I allude to these circumstances, it is not from the unmanly wish of 
shrinking from candid and honourable criticism; but neither prudence 
nor policy require me to suppress any thing that can be offered in 
extenuation of the imperfections of this volume. 



PREFACE. ix 

As the engravings are the first performances of a lady but Httle skilled 
in the art, I am most anxious to claim for them every indulgence. I am 
well aware that the partiality of a husband may render me insensible to 
their defects ; but although they may be destitute of that neatness and 
uniformity, which distinguish the works of the professed artist, they 
will not, I trust, be found deficient in the more essential requisite of 
correctness. 

It was originally intended to have restricted these researches to the 
South-eastern division of Sussex ; but they have insensibly extended over 
a wider field, and now, in a great measure, comprehend the geological 
phenomena of the whole county. That the sketch is incomplete, I most 
readily acknowledge ; nor am I desirous that it should be considered in 
any other Hght than as a collection of facts illustrative of the physical 
structure of the district. 

The Essay on the Mosaic account of the Creation, was communicated 
to me by a clergyman of the estabhshed church, soon after the announce- 
ment of the present work for pubhcation. The vast importance of the 
subject, and the abihty and temper with which it is discussed, render any 
apology for its insertion unnecessary. I will not, however, conceal the 
gratification it affords me, that the excellent author has chosen these 
humble pages as the medium of its appearance before the pubUc ; since 
the arguments he has adduced must effectually silence the idle clamours 
that have been raised against geological speculations, from their supposed 
tendency to scepticism. 

I now arrive at the most gratifying 'part of my labours ; that of 
returning my warmest thanks for the kind and able assistance which my 



X PREFACE. 

scientific friends and correspondents have so liberally afforded me : but 
there are others to whom a deeper debt of gratitude is due ; who have 
taken a Uvely interest in the success and reputation of the authoi-, and 
have patronized his undertaking with a zeal and liberahty far exceeding 
his most sanguine expectations*. To these excellent and much valued 
friends, I am indeed under infinite obligations ; and whatever may be the 
fate of this volume, the consciousness that it has procured me the ac- 
quaintance and esteem of characters as eminent in science, as they are 
estimable in private life, will more than compensate for any pains and 
anxiety it may have occasioned. 

Castle Place, Lewes, 
May 1st, 1822. 

* Among these, Mrs. Durrant, and William Baldock, Esq. of Mailing House, near 
Lewes, merit my warmest acknowledgments. 



SUBSCRIBERS. 



HIS MAJESTY. Four Copies. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Ashburnham. 

John Armstrong, M. D. Physician to the Fever Institution of London. 

John Abernethy, Esq. F. R. S. Bedford Row, London. 

Sii' Charles Burrell, Bart. M. P. Knapp Castle, Sussex. 

His Excellency Count Breunner, F. M. G. S, Vienna. 

Walter Burrell, Esq. M. P. for the county of Sussex, West Grinsted Park. 

William Baldock, Esq. Mailing House. Five Copies. 

Robert Blencowe, Jun. Esq. 

Rev. W. Buckland, F.R.S. M.G.S. Professor of Mineralogy and Geology at the 

University of Oxford. 
The very Rev. H. Beeke, D.D. Dean of Bristol, F.L.S. &c. 
Robert Barclay, Esq. Berry Hill. 
G. W. Braikem-idge, Esq. Bristol. 
Rev. Sackville Bale, Withyham, Sussex. 
Thomas Blair, M. D. Brighton. 
Miss Benett, Norton House, Warminster, Wilts. 
W. H. Baldock, Esq. Petham House, near Canterbury. 
Richard Bright, Esq. H. M.G.S. Hamgreen, near Bristol. 
Rev. Edward John Burrows, A.M. F.R. & L.S. M.G.S. London. 
Henry Blackman, Esq. Lewes. 
William Borrer, Jun. Esq. F. L. S. Henfield, Sussex. 
Col. Birch, Bath. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Chichester, Stanmer Park. 
The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Chichester. 
Lord George Cavendish, Burlington House. 
The Dowager Lady Crewe, Calke Abbey, Derbyshire. 
J. M. Cripps, Esq. M.A. F.A. & L.S. Brighton. 

Rev. E. D. Clarke, L.L.D. Professor of Mineralogy at the University of Cambridge. 

b2 



SUBSCRIBERS. 

Rev. W. D. Conybeare, F. R. S. M. G. S. Brislington, near Bristol. 
George Cook, D. D. M. G. S. Tortworth, Gloucestershire. 
E. J. Curteis, Esq. M. P. for the county of Sussex, Windmill Hill. 
George Courthope, Esq. Bedford Square, London. 

Rev. Courthope, Lewes. 

William J. Campion, Esq. Danny. 

Major Cator, Royal Artillery. 

Rev. J. Constable, Ringmer. 

Rev. P. G. Crofts, M. A. Lewes. 

Thomas Cooper, Esq. Lewes. 

Mrs. Curteis, Heronden, near Tenterden, Kent. 

Henry Campion, Esq. Deanery, Mailing. 

Rev. James Capper, Wilmington. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Cobbold, Holywell, near Ipswich. 

The Rev. George Cookson, A. M. Bath. 

The Hon. and Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Durham, L.L.D. H.M.L. S. 
Mrs. Durrant, MalHng House. Two Copies. 
Samuel Durrant, Esq. MalUng House. Two Copies. 
Col. Downman, C.B. Royal Artillery. 
J. M. Durrant, Esq. Mailing House. 
W. Delmar, Esq. Kenfield House, near Canterbury. 
George D'Albiac, Esq. BuckhamHill, Sussex. 
John Apseley Dalrymple, Esq. Gate House, Sussex. 

Davies, Esq. Brompton. 

Mr. Joseph Davey, Lewes. 

John Drewett, Esq. Peppering, near Arundel. 

Dr. Davis, Bath. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Egremont, Petworth. 
Exeter College Library, Oxford. 
John Ellman, Esq. Southover, near Lewes. 
Owen Evans, Esq. Little Hampton, Sussex. 

The Right Hon. Lord Viscount Gage, Firle Place. 

Davies Gilbert, Esq. M. P. F. R. & L. S. M. G. S. P. G. S. C. Eastbourne. Two Copies, 

Mrs. Gilbert, Eastbourne. 

G. B. Greenough, Esq. F.R. & L.S. M.G.S. London. 

Mr. Gabriel Grover, Cliffe, Lewes. 

Miss Godlee, Lewes. 

Mrs. Gent, Devizes, Wilts. 



SUBSCRIBERS. xm 

John Hawkins, Esq. F.R.S. H.M.G.S. Bignor Park, near Petwoith, Sussex. Three 

Copies. 
Rev. Robert Hallifax, M.G. S. Standish, near Gloucester. 
John Hoper, Esq. Lewes. 
Thomas Hodson, Esq. M. R. C. S. Lewes. 
Rev. Henry Hoper, A. M. Portslade, near Brighton. 
Miss Harris, Petham House, near Canterbury. 
Rev. Thomas Poole Hooper, A. M. 
Thomas Humphrey, Esq. Chichester. 
Mrs. Thomas Harrison, Spring Gardens Terrace, London. 
George Harrison, Esq. Treasury Chambers, Whitehall. 
Rev. John Hanley, Amberley, Sussex. 
H. H. Henly, Esq. Sandringham Hall, near Lynn, Norfolk. 
Rev. T. Horsfield, Lewes. 

Ebenezer Johnston, Esq. Lewes. 

Mrs. Jackson, Lewes. 

Rev. H. Jenkins, A.M. Magdalen College, Oxford. 

Thomas Read Kemp, Esq. Lewes. 

Christopher Kell, Esq. Lewes. 

Samuel Luck Kent, Esq. Carpenter's Hall. 

Charles Lyell, Jun. Esq. M.A. M.G.S. Bartley Lodge, Hants. 

Mr. Loder, Brighton. 

The Lewes Library Society. 

Wilson Lowry, Esq. Great Titchfield Street, London. 

Wilham Mabbott, Esq. Uckfield. 
George Mantell, Esq. Farringdon, Berks. 
Mrs. Moody, Bathampton House, near SaUsbury. 
Rev. Thomas Miller, Bockleton, Worcestershire. 

Mrs. Newton, Southover. 

The Rev. Sir H. Poole, Bart. The Hook, Chailey. 
J. Parkinson, Esq. M.G.S. Hoxton Square, London. 
Thomas Partington, Esq. OfFham. 
Rev. J. B. Powell, Newick Parsonage. 
George Phillips, Esq. Lombard Street. 



xiv SUBSCRIBERS. 

J. Watts Russell, Esq. M.P. F.R.S. 

Mr. Cater Rand, Lewes. 

John Rickman, Esq. Wellingham. 

Mr. John Relfe, Gracechurch Street, London. 

The Library Society of Rye. 

Sir George Shifiher, Bart. M. P. Coombe Place. 

Rev. A. Sedgewick, Woodwardian Professor, F. R. and M. G. S. University of Cam- 
bridge. 
Josias Smith, Esq. Lewes. 
The Royal College of Surgeons, London. 

Thomas Smith, Esq. F.R. and L.S. M.G.S. Paper Buildings, Inner Temple, London. 
John Smith, Esq. Foreign Consul, Brighton. 
Rev. George Griffin Stonesti-eet, East Cowes, Isle of Wight. 
Mrs. Sober, Western Lodge, Brighton. 
G. B. Sowerby, Esq. F. L. S. King Street, Covent Garden. Six Copies. 

Inigo Thomas, Esq. Ratton, Sussex. 
Rev. F. Tuttee, Glyndbourne, Sussex. 
John Tilney, Esq. London. 
Thomas Toui-le, Esq. Landport, near Lewes. 
Thomas George Thomas, Esq. Ratton. 

Edward Verrall, Esq. Lewes. 

Richard Verrall, Esq. Inner Temple, London. 

Edmund Vallance, Esq. Brighton. 

G. Wilhams, M. D. F L. S. Reg. Prof. Bot. and Radclivian Librarian, University of 

Oxford. 
H. Warburton, Esq. F.R. and L.S. M.G.S. London. 
Richard Weekes, Esq. F.L.S. Hurstperpoint. 
John WooUgar, Esq. M.A.S. Lewes. 
Mr. Nehemiah Wimble, Lewes. 

W. Wood, Esq. F. R. and L. S. Strand, London. Two Copies. 
Rev. Peter Wood, A. M. Broadwater, Sussex. 
G. E. Woodhouse, Esq. Oxford Street, London. 
Mrs. Woodhouse, Kentish Town. 
William Henry Williams, M.D. F.L.S. &c. Ipswich. 
Rev. C. P. N. Wilton, M.A. F.C. P.S. Blakeney, Gloucestershire. 
James Woodhouse, Esq. London. 
Arnold Wainwright, Esq. Calcot, near Reading. 



CONTENTS. 



I. Preliminary Essay ■ ...--- -1 

II. Geographical Description of the South-Eastern Division of Sussex - 14 

III. Geological Structure of the County - - - - - 21 

IV. § I. Green Sand Formation - - - - - 24 
V. 1. Iron Sand ... - . - - S5 

VI. 2. Tilgate Limestone, &c. - - - - - - - 37 

VII. 3. Weald Clay, and Sussex Marble - - - - - 61 

VIII. 4. Green Sand ----- ... 69 

IX. § II. Chalk Formation ... . - - 79 

X. 5. Blue Chalk Marl - - - - - - - 80 

XI. 6. Grey Chalk Marl - - - - - - 99 

XII. 7. Lower Chalk - - - - - - - - 135 

XIII. 8. Upper, or FUnty Chalk - - - - - - 139 

XIV. § III. Tertiary Formations ... . . . 247 

XV. 9. Druid Sandstone ... ... 253 

XVL 10. Plastic Clay - - - ... - 256 

XVII. 11. London Clay - - - - - - - 267 

XVm. § IV. Alluvial Formations - - - - - 274 

XIX. 12. Diluvium ... - . - - 275 

XX. 13. Alluvium - - - - - - - 285 

XXI. Concluding Observations .... . - 295 

XXII. List of new Genera and Species . _ - . . 307 

XXIII. Explanation of the Plates ... - . . 309 

Index - - - --- -■ ^^^ 



ERRATA. 

The distance of the author from the press, and the hasty manner in which he has been 
compelled to inspect the proofs, have occasioned mistakes, which a more deliberate revision of 
the text would have prevented. Errors that are merely typographical are too obvious to re- 
quire notice ; those which affect the sense are here subjoined. 

Page 15, hne 28, for "Jirst," read Arun. 

22, 19, — " Bracksley," read Bexley. 

23, ' 18, — " west," read coast. 

27, 7, — " i7isulated," read inshiuated. 

30, 3, — " these" read there. 

38, 'il9, — " they" read the stiata. 

82, — - 16, — " aucula 'pectinat" read munda pecthiata. 

101, 5, — " the marl," read since the marl. 

106, 26, — " spi7ious obtuse," read obtuse spincnis. 

—^ 108, 8, — " closet," read closely. 

112, 11, — "have,'" read has. 

—^ 141, — — 31, — " B?-ongniai-ti,^' read Hoperi. 

164, 29, — " spongus corptis," read spongus. — coipus 

^— 172, 9, — "a state," read the state. 

174, 18, — " been closed," read be enclosed. 

178, 15, — " et d'eponge." read d'eponge. 

253, 20, — " circumstances similar," read similar circumstances. 

In the Wood cut, p. 175, the letters of reference b. c. are misplaced: the former should 
stand in the place of the latter. 

*»* Since this Volume was committed to the press, the public have been favoured with an elegant and highly 
interesting work on the Trihbitcs and fossil Crusiacea, by M. M. Brongniart and Desmarest, in which allusion is 
made to the specimens from the Sussex chalk ; and it is highly gratifying to me to find that the opinions of these 
eminent naturalists coincide with those I have advanced in the following pages. On the species which I have 
named Astacus Leachii, (see p. 221.) M. Desmarest offers the following remarks: — " Le crustac^ auquel apparte- 
naient ces pinces, avail la forme ordinaire des Macroures, et ne presentait, sur les pieces que nous avons vues' 
d'autres caracteres ext(?rieurs que ceux qui consistaient dans la presence de trois forts tubercules sur chaque cot^ 
de la carapace, qui etait d'ailleurs tres-rugueuse. II ^tait un peu plus grand que I'Ecrevisse fluviatile." — Crust. 
Foss. p. 137. The fossil Crustacea of the Blue marl, (see p. 97.) this celebrated philosopher considers, with Dr. 
Leach, as being nearly related to the genus Corystes, {Crust. Foss. p. 125). The Scyllarus Mantelli of M. Des- 
marest {Crust. Foss. p. 130.) is, I beUeve, from Sussex, but as I have some doubts on the subject, it is not noticed 

in this volume. Vide Histoire Naturelle des Crustaces Fossiles, par A. Brongniart, et A. G. Desmarest. one vol. 

4to. with Eleven Plates, price 1/. \s. 



I. 
PRELIMINARY ESSAY. 



ON THE CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN THE MOSAIC ACCOUNT OF THE 
CREATION, AND THE GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH. 

(in a letter to the author.) 
Dear Sir, 

Sound philosophy, and revealed religion, are naturally connected with 
each other. However widely they may differ as to the manner in which 
they severally proceed, they are both professedly tending towards one 
common object, — the establishment of truth. Philosophy sets out in its 
pursuit of this object, from the lowest point, — Eehgion from the highest : the 
former begins with the last effect, the latter commences with the first cause. 
Hence the mutual advantages to be derived from alliance are obvious ; 
for where both parties are found to arrive from various directions, at the 
same conclusions, each will acquire an increased degree of confidence, as 
to their attainment of the grand object which both had in view. 

With these ideas respecting the general connexion which ought to 
subsist between philosophy and religion, you will perhaps excuse my 
taking the liberty of sending you a few observations, relative to their 
particular connexion, with respect to that department, on which you 
have publicly announced your intention of entering. 

Geology and rehgion are inevitably brought into contact, on the great 
point of the creation of the world, and it appears to me highly desirable 



2 PRELIIVIINARY ESSAY. 

to ascertain, whether each, when rightly understood, does not declare the 
same thing on this interesting subject. 

Now I am aware that some of the commonly received opinions 
respecting the Mosaic account of the creation, are entirely at variance 
with the inferences reasonably deduced from the researches of Geology. 

Eut common opinions are often far removed from truth, and it might 
be particularly expected, that they would be erroneous in such a case as 
the present. The ordinary Christian rarely looks to the Bible with a 
philosophic eye; even where the opportunity and power of close exa- 
mination exist, it is seldom that men inquire farther than into the 
authoritative evidence in favour of revelation ; and finding that evidence 
sufficient to satisfy their minds, they at once receive the Bible as the 
Word of God. 

The same conviction which leads them to this implicit faith in the 
Bible, as containing a revelation of divine truth, leads them also to look 
to it without the smallest reference to the deductions of science. It is 
viewed simply as the great repository of religious instruction ; and even 
the historical parts, are rarely considered in any other Mght, than as the 
vehicles of improvement under the form of example. Hence it happens, 
that we are particidarly Hable to error, with respect to those parts which 
incidentally touch upon scientific points. Even the best informed and 
most serious Christian, never having been accustomed to consider them 
scientifically, is in great danger of giving way to vulgar prejudices, and 
thus of falling into the most palpable mistakes. 

Our consideration of the Mosaic account of the creation, will present 
us with more than one instance of this description. 

It will probably occur to most readers that they can recollect the time 
when they presumed that every night and day mentioned in the first 
chapter of Genesis, must be strictly confined to the term of twenty-four 
hours ; though there can be no doubt but that Moses never intended any 
such thing. Critics moreover inform us, that his words ought never to 
have been so translated as to lead us into the suspicion, that he intended 
to make any declaration to this effect. 



PRELIMINARY ESSAY. 3 

We are told that the word which is translated day, does in fact, signify 
an indefinite period of time ; but common sense ought to have led us to 
the same conclusion, in regard to the three first days. For how could 
Moses intend to limit the duration of the day to its present length, 
before, according to his own shewing, the sun had begun to divide the 
day from the night. 

But there are other prevailing errors with respect to the Mosaic 
account, of much greater consequence as touching the discoveries of 
Geology. 

Moses is generally understood to give a particular description of the 
Creation of the World out of nothing ; and he is supposed to fix the 
date of this creation, to a period, either immediately previous to, or 
actually contemporary with the three first days afterwards mentioned. 

But surely these suppositions are wholly gratuitous. Ail that Moses 
says of the creation of gross matter is, 1st, that it was created by God ; 
2dly, that this creation took place in the beginning. Nothing can be 
more summary than the first of these declarations, nothing can be more 
indefinite than the second. 

First, as to the manner in which the mass of the earth came into 
existence, we are left wholly in the dark ; Moses simply declares it to be 
a creation; and he claims the glory of its creation for the one true God. 

Secondly, as to the period when tliis mass was made, he only says that 
it was in " the beginning," a period this, which might have been a million of 
years before, just as well as on, or immediately previous to, the three first 
days. But that it could not have been on these days, appears to me plain 
from Moses' own words in the second verse ; " And the earth was without 
form, and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep, and the spirit 
of God moved upon the face of the waters." Moses here describes an 
intermediate state of our planet, between the creation in the beginning, 
and that of the six days ; and it is especially remarkable, that he speaks 
of the earth and water, as being actually in existence during this inter- 
mediate state — " The earth loas" — " the deep" of " waters" also was. 

The force of these remarks is much increased, first, by the negative 

B 2 



4 PRELIMINARY ESSAY. 

circumstance, that Moses afterwards passes on to the creation of light, 
atmosphere, &c. without the most distant allusion to any other creation 
of earth and water *. 

Secondly, by the positive circumstance, that in verses 6, 7, and 9, he 
evidently speaks of land and loater again, as abeady existing, and probably 
existing much in their present state ; except only, that the water covered 
the earth, and the continents of the earth which lay buried beneath the 
water, had not their present superficial form ; " The earth loas without form!' 

On these grounds, I may perhaps be allowed to infer, that the common 
opinions above stated are erroneous. 

These opinions being removed, it appears to me that the Mosaic 
account of the creation, talHes with the inferences deducible from the 
discoveries of Geology, in the most remarkable and satisfactory manner. 

First, it carries back the original creation of the sohd mass of the 
earth, to an indefinitely distant period, beyond the first date given in 
verse 5. 

Geology infers the immense antiquity of the earth, from the numerous 
strata of which it appears to be composed, lying one above the other, 
and many, if not all of them, bearing strong marks of their having been 
gradually formed. 

2dly. The Mosaic account signifies that this planet was subject to 
great and violent revolutions, of which it gives one remarkable instance, in 
the chaotic state, which immediately preceded the present creation f . 

Geology infers the same thing, from the forced positions of the 
strata, and from the various materials of which they are composed. 

* He describes God as saying, " Let the light be, &c." but he never represents him as. 
saying, " Let the earth or the water be," which most undoubtedly he would have done, if he had 
intended to give us the same particular account of the creation of the gross matter of the 
planet, as he has done of what may be called the furniture with which it is at present provided. 

t We may consider Noah's deluge as the second instance of the same natiu-e, though it 
was carried to a less extent. It is remarkable, that St. Peter, speaking of this event, describes 
it as a perishing of the world. Of any other revolution it did not come within the design of 
Moses to speak, as the great purpose of his account was to furnish man with a history of his 
own race. 

The New Testament however, supplies an instance of a tliird revolution. See the 
following note. 



PRELIMINARY ESSAY. S 

3dly. Moses, so far as he goes, countenances the opinion that the 
earth's crust was formed from water, since he represents the whole earth 
as covered with Water, and the "Spirit of God moving," or brooding, 
" upon the waters." 

The Geologist concludes, that even the granite which forms the peaks 
of the highest mountains, has been deposited from water, since it is full 
of regular crystallizations*. 

The secondary strata are decidedly traced to a similar origin. 

4thly. While the Mosaic account leaves abundant room for the 
presumption, that the earth may have been inhabited, at one or more 
than one period, previously to the present order of things, it clearly 
shews that whatever beings may have existed, they were either wholly, or 
partly different, from those by which the earth is now tenanted. 

Moses declares that at the chaotic period, the earth was "void," that 
is, according to Patrick, " having no beasts, or trees, or herbs, or any thing 
else wherewith we noiv behold it adorned." 

Geology appears to establish the fact, that there must have been an 
order, or orders of created beings in existence, previously to the present ; 
and it shews, that this order, or these orders, must have been principally 
different from that now on the earth -f. 

* This remark is inferred, from what M. Cuvier says in the 7th chapter of his Essay on 
the Theory of the Earth, but I am aware that it is open to objection : the crystalHzations 
alluded to, might have taken place, after a state of igneous fusion. I cannot help noticino- 
here, that while Moses leads us to infer, that the great agent in the earth's last grand revo*^ 
lution, was water, the New Testament tells us, that the great agent in the earth's next 
revolution, will he fire. 

Wliether toater, or fire, had been instrumental in operating any former revolutions, it was 
not the object of the Writers of the Old, or New Testament, to inform us. The observations 
of the Geologist would lead us to suppose, that each might have been in action, at different 
periods; and the Bible supports this supposition, — but, let it be especially observed, that it is 
not committed in the support of it, any farther than as regards the earth's last, and its now 
approaching revolutions. 

-f- Those fossil animals which are satisfactorily identified with the present species, and 
which are found in situations where it is impossible to account for their appearance, from the 
action of any of those existing causes, which are now operating in the production of strata, 
may generally be carried back to the time of the deluge. 

The solitary instance of man in a fossil state, which is preserved in the British Museum, 
was obtained from a very recent formation on the island of Antigua : (see' page 254 of Jame- 
son's Cuvier, where it is questioned whether the man was not a Carib.) Cuvier decidedlv 



6 PRELIMINARY ESSAY. 

5thly. On the presumption that the earth was inhabited previously 
to the chaotic period, the Mosaic account leads us decidedly to conclude 
that the whole former order of creation had perished, through want 
of the due support from light and atmosphere. In declaring that the 
present light and atmosphere were not called into existence tiU the first 
and second days, Moses leads us necessarily to infer, that during the. 
period immediately previous to these days, there had been no light and 
atmosphere. 

Now it will be very difficult for the Geologist to give any explanation 
of certain common phenomena in his province, without having recourse 
to some inference, similar to that just derived from the account of Moses *. 

The immense accumulations of fossil animals, can hardly be attributed 
to any tiling less, than the absolute destruction of whole orders of creation. 
The state also in which these animals are continually found seems to 
require, that they should have perished in some such manner as that 
which I -have just inferred from the Mosaic account. In numerous in- 
stances, the organs of life appear to have been in the most perfect con- 
dition to the last. And yet they seem to have died without violence, in 
the most quiet manner, as it were by suspension of animation. This 
observation is the more remarkable, as a great proportion of these animals 
are aquatic, and appear to have perished thus quietly in the midst of their 
own element -j-. 

asserts that no fossil bones of man have been found, which can be attributed to a date prior to 
the revokition which preceded the deluge. The following observation of the same author is 
worthy our particular notice, with refei-ence to what has been advanced in this note. " The 
bones of species which are apparently the same with those which stUl exist ahve, are never 
found except in the very latest alluvial depositions, or those which are either formed on the 
sides of rivers, or on the bottoms of ancient lakes and marshes now dried up, or in the sub- 
stance of beds of peat, or in the fissures, and caverns of certain rocks, or at small depths below 
the present surface, in places where they may have been overwhelmed by debris, or even 
buried by man." . • n j j 

* I find that Cuvier (chap. 5.) endeavours to account for the extensive destruction alluded 
to under this head, by presuming that the animals perished in consequence of exposure to 
various and disagreeing fluids. Marine animals died on exposure to fresh water inundations, 
and fresh water animals vice versa. Surely this theory is liable to objection, particularly 
where it is found that several distinct marine formations, all equally filled with marine animal 
remains, succeed each other. 

-f- Any inundation like that of the deluge, which was not acompanied by a loss of atmo- 
sphere, would be utterly insufficient to account for so extensive a destruction, among tribes of 



PRELIMINARY ESSAY. 7 

A circumstance which is easily explained on the supposition, that they 
died in consequence of losing the support of the atmosphere in which 
they had lived. 

6thly. Kesuming our former presumption, that the earth was in- 
habited previously to the chaotic period, and adding the further inference, 
that the whole of that former order of creation had been destroyed 
at that period, we are plainly taught, that aU the remains of that order, 
were, during the same period, subjected to the various operations of the 
immense body of water, with which the earth was covered. 

This again, is exactly what Geology seems to require, from the various 
states in which fossil remains are found. 

Though some, from having probably been protected by inequalities in 
the earth's surface, or from other unknown causes, are fou^nd in almost 
the exact state in which they were at the moment of death ; others have 
evidently been subjected to the greatest violence. The hardest animal 
substances have been, as it were, ground to the smallest pieces, by the 
action of the waters ; and then, by the subsequent stagnation of the 
waters, they have been suffered to settle into a mass of compact rock. 
Perhaps also, the confusion as to climate which is observable in the fossil 
creation, may be attributable to the force of the chaotic waters *. 

Let us now turn our attention to a few points, in the account 
which Moses gives, of the present order of things. 

animals, to which such a catastrophe would be but partially, and accidentally prejudicial. Of 
Noah's deluge we may observe, that the water subsided gradually, allowing time for most of 
the water animals to escape, and leaving the orders of testacea to be almost the only sufferers. 
Probably the aquatic remains of this event, which may be found in various parts of the world, 
will, on inspection, prove to be chiefly of this description. I cannot allow the present opportunity 
to pass, without noticing, that the deluge (however inconsiderable it may have been in its effects, 
when compared with chaos, or the end of the world,) is a most important event with reference 
to our present subject, as it affords an instance of a revolution " sui generis ;" a revolution, in 
which a partial destruction of the organized creation must have taken place; and it is well 
worthy of remark, that this partial destruction must have affected in a more especial degree 
that species of animals, whose remains are found in such preponderating quantities in the 
bowels of the earth. 

Cuvier at the conclusion of his essay, remarks, that it has not yet been explained why 
shells should be found almost every where, while fish are confined to a few places. 

* Vide page 12, and note. 



8 PRELIMINARY ESSAY. 

The works of the two first days do not come within the limits of 
geological inquiry ; yet I cannot help noticing, that though Moses speaks 
of an original creation of light and atmosphere, he does not forbid the 
presumption, that the earth had enjoyed Hght, and atmosphere, previously 
to the chaotic period. 

In the second day's work, moreover, an operation is described, which 
is exactly such, as geology seems to require, for the original deposition of 
strata. It is to be presumed, that the body of water with which the 
globe was covered, held a quantity of earth in suspension and solution. 

Now during the second day, or period of time, when a. Jirmameiit was 
made, we are told that the waters were divided, and a great body of them 
was elevated in the form of vapour. 

The natural consequence of this operation, would be the deposition 
of a vast body of earth ; I say, such would have been the natural con- 
sequences of this operation, for no positive inference on this point, can be 
drawn from the words of Moses ; and much less can we infer any thing 
from INIoses, as to the extent of the effects produced. We must presume, 
however, that its effects could only have been superficial, as the mass of 
the earth had been created before ; and as geology gives us reason to 
conclude, that no very great deposition of strata has taken place, since the 
last order of creation perished. 

The only purpose, therefore, for which I would be understood to make 
the above remarks, is to shew that tendency of the Mosaic account to 
which I have already alluded, viz. its leading us to infer, that the last 
crust of the earth was formed by deposition from water. 

The next work described is more decidedly to our purpose, and most 
remarkably illustrates the observations of the geologist. On the third day 
Moses represents the Almighty, as willing, first, that the waters should 
be gathered together into one place ; secondly, that the dry land should 
appear. Here are two operations exactly corresponding with what the 
geologist declares to be necessary, in order to account for the present 
appearance of the immediate surface of the earth. 



PRELIMINARY ESSAY. 9 

Cuvier observes, that the present continents must have been formed 
by the recession of the water, and the elevation of the earth *. 

With respect however to the second operation mentioned by Moses, 
it appears to me sufficient to account for many circumstances in the 
earth's form, which are most perplexing to the geologist. 

The elevation of our present continents above the level of the basins 
which contain the waters of the ocean, the irregularities which occur in 
the strata of which these continents are composed, their inchnation, 
dislocation, &c. clearly shew to the geologist that they must have been 
subjected to very great violence ; violence proceeding from some cause 
far more powerful than any at present known to be in ordinary operation 
on the earth -f . 

Such a cause is undoubtedly to be found, in the express will of the 
great Creator ; and surely it cannot be thought fanciful, to suppose that 
when God said " Let the dry land appear" this cause actually produced 
the above extraordinary effects it. 

This remark seems to gather much force from the observations of 
Cuvier, in the Essay already so often referred to. He professedly devotes 
a great part of the 3 1st chapter to the proof of the proposition, that 
"the present surface of the earth is not of very ancient formation." In 
the beginning of liis last chapter, he distinctly states, that " if there be 
any one circumstance thoroughly established in geology, it is that the 
crust of our globe has been subjected to a great and sudden revolution." 
And while as to the manner of this revolution, he again speaks of the 
bed of the last ocean being laid dry, (according to Moses the dry land 
appearing at the word of God,) as to the date of this revolution, he makes 
this most important remark: "The epoch of this revolution cannot be 

* It is unnecessary to refer to particular passages, as M. Cuvier repeatedly alludes to both 
these operations in his Essay on the Theory of the Earth. 

f " The thread of operation is here broken, the march of natiu-e is changed, and none of 
the agents which she now employs are sufficient for the production of her ancient works." 
Cuvier, chap. 8. 

J I would by no means be understood to signify, that all the uTegularities in the earth's 
strata, are to be traced to this single epoch, many may have occurred in the course of former 
revolutions of the earth. 



10 PRELIMINARY ESSAY. 

dated much furtlier back than five or six thousand years/' A period 
this, strikingly corresponding with the date probably to be assigned to 
the third day of the Mosaic creation, which, on the presumption that the 
following days after the first appearance of the sun, were actually days of 
the present length, will be about 5820 years. This coincidence is the 
more valuable, as it is plain that it does not arise from any intention in 
M. Cuvier, to accommodate himself to the account of Moses. 

Indeed it is remarkable, that the only revolution for wliich Cuvier has 
recourse to the authority of the word of God, is that of the deluge, and 
the date of this event will bring him considerably short of the latest 
period, which he has liimself fixed for the last great catastrophe, I cannot 
leave the present point without observing, that Cuvier states it as his 
own opinion, that even the primitive strata were more or less affected by 
the last revolution of which we have been speaking. In the fourth and 
seventh chapters, he has these striking remarks : — having before spoken 
of the previous revolutions, by which those primitive masses which 
now form the peaks of the highest mountains, were originally " hfted 
up," at the end of the seventh chapter he observes, that "these 
primitive masses have also suffered other revolutions posterior to the 
formation of the secondary strata, and have perhaps given rise to, or at 
least have partaken of some portion of the revolutions and changes, which 
these latter strata have experienced." There are actually considerable 
portions of the primitive strata uncovered, although placed in lower 
situations than many of the secondary strata, and we cannot conceive 
how it should have so happened, unless the primitive strata in these 
places had forced themselves into view after the foi'mation of those which 
are secondary. Cuvier mentions other remarkable circumstances tending 
to estabhsh the same point. 

I find from Dr. Kidd's excellent work on Geology, that he agrees with 
Saussure and De Luc, in supposing that operations of a nature very similar 
to those above inferred from the Mosaic account, must have taken place 
shortly previous to the appearance of the present order of creation on 
the earth's surface. Saussure was of opinion that there had been a great 



PRELIMINARY ESSAY. 11 

earthquake, or movement of the solid mass of the earth, beneath the 
chaotic ocean: and that this movement had been followed by a most 
violent irruption of the waters, after which irruption the waters gradually 
subsided ; for which gradual subsidence the INIosaic account affords suf- 
ficient room in the indefinite duration of the third day. I cannot pass 
over, in this place, Saussure and De Luc's united opinions, that the 
human race cannot be very old. They would seem indeed, according to 
Dr. Ividd's representation, to be decidedly of opinion, that the origin of 
the human race must be dated subsequent to the above catastrophe ; and 
though they do not, like Cuvier, go so far as to date that catastrophe, 
yet they would plainly lead us to conclude, that that catastrophe was the 
last which had materially affected the crust of the earth ; that since it 
had occurred, the earth's surface had continued much in its present state ; 
as even the very boulders which it had produced had not been removed, 
nor yet, in all cases, covered. 

Before I leave the consideration of the Mosaic account, I cannot 
forbear offering a few observations on the passage from verse 14 to 19*. 

Now in this passage, Moses surely cannot be understood to speak of 
the first creation of the sun and planets, for he had told us before, that 
God had made them in the beginning; Moses therefore must here be 
understood to signify, merely that God now gave them a fresh regulation 
with respect to the earth and to each other. 

With respect to the earth, he tells us, that they were now made to 

* To guard against the imputation of rashness in consequence of the observations which I 
have presumed to offer on this passage, let me request the reader's very attentive perusal of 
the following most excellent note, extracted from the works of Bishop Beveridge, and cited by 
the learned editors of the Family Bible lately published by the Society for promoting Christian 
Knowledge. 

" We must distinguish betwixt God's saying let such a thing he, and let such a thing 
do, so or so. By the first, he produced the thing out of nothing ; by the other, he gave laws 
to it, then in being. As when he said, ' Let there be light,' by that word, the light which was 
not before, began to he ; but when he said, let there be hght in the firmament to divide the 
day from the night, &c. he thereby gave laws to the light he had before made, where he 
would have it he, and what he would have it do. This is what we call the law of nature ; that 
law which God has put into the nature of every thing, whereby it always keeps itself within 
such bounds and acts according to such rules as God has set it, and by that means shews forth 
the glory of his wisdom and power." 

c 2 



12 PRELIMINARY ESSAY. 

serve as lights : and being lights, they became further useful, by their 
own and the earth's mutual motion, to distinguish times and seasons. 

That Moses must be understood to speak, not of the planets them- 
selves, but only of their becoming lights with respect to the earth, is 
evident, not only from the circumstance of his having previously mentioned 
their creation, in the first verse, but also, from his detaching the creation 
of hght, from what is afterwards said to be the making of the sun, moon, 
and stars. This latter circumstance plainly shews, that Moses understood 
light, to be quite independent of the heavenly bodies. Having therefore 
previously spoken of the separate and independent creation of the heavens 
and the hght, we may conclude, that in the passage under consideration, he 
could only have intended some fresh regulation respecting them, and this 
regulation could only have been that which he very clearly describes. 
They became the great points from which light was to be communicated 
to the earth *. And as by the communication of hght, they now first, 
after the period of chaos, in which darkness prevailed f, became visible 
from the earth, they now first, after the same period, became useful for 
the purpose of marking the change of day and night, summer and winter. 

Whether they had ever served the same purpose before this period, 
under any former order of tilings, it did not come within the intention 
of the Mosaic account to declare, though nothing in that account forbids 
such a supposition ; and it is open to the geologist to draw what inferences 
he can, from the presumed natui-e of the fossils he meets with^, and from 
the actual situations in which he finds them. 



* Herschel's conjecture that the sun's light is only communicated, and that it arises from 
luminous nebulae surrounding a solid and habitable orb, strikingly illustrates this part of the 
Mosaic account. 

-f- What may have been the state of other planets of our system during the period of 
darkness with respect to the earth, it were equally useless and unavailing to inquire ; but I 
cannot forbear observing, that the instances, j^r*^, of the earth itself on the original creation of 
light, secondly, of Saturn with his ring, shew that each planet may have had light independent 
of the sun. 

_ J I am informed that all the fruits which have been found in a fossil state are tropical. 
This would seem to favour the presumption that the earth did not formerly receive light in the 
same way as at present. 



PRELIMINARY ESSAY. 13 

I must now conclude with a few general remarks on the account which 
Moses has left us of the creation. 

It is plain to common sense, that he had not the most distant idea of 
entering into, or accommodating himself to philosophical inquiries. 

His first object was to claim for the God of Israel, the glory of having 
created the whole visible universe. His second object was, to give an 
account of the origin of man, and of that order of things which first began 
to exist at the same time with man. 

Such being manifestly the sole objects of Moses, all we can reasonably 
expect from him touching scientific points is, first, that he should say 
nothing directly contrary to the certain conclusions of philosophy. — 
Secondly, that he should furnish some few hints in aid of such conclusions. 
It appears to me that he has answered both these expectations; and 
in answering them, he has given a strong proof that he wrote under 
the direction of wisdom superior to his own. When alluding thus to the 
divine authority of Moses, it will be necessary that I should guard against 
a misapprehension of my meaning, I would by no means intimate, that 
the writings of Moses need any support from reasonings, such as those 
into which we have been led. The avithoritative and moral evidence to 
which I have referred in a former part of this letter as sufficient to satisfy 
the generahty of inquirers, is the great, and only true ground, on which 
the authority of Moses always has rested, and always must rest. 

But while on this ground, I firmly believe that " God spake by Moses," 
I am glad to find that evidence which brings me to the same point, and 
which comes even home to my senses, has been furnished by the researches 
of geology. 

I am. 

Yours, &c. 



14 GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE 



11. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE SOUTH-EASTERN DIVISION 

OF SUSSEX. 



Sussex is a maritime county, bordered on the west by Hampshire, on 
the north by Surrey, on the east and north-east by Kent, and on the 
south by the British Channel*. 

The strata of which it is composed, form three principal groups, each 
possessing characters that materially affect the geographical features of 
the county, and present a striking instance of the intimate relation that 
exists between the physical appearance of the surface of the earth, and 
its geological structure. The popular division of this tract into the 
Downs, Weald, and Forest-Ridge, may therefore be considered as 
sufficiently correct and comprehensive for our present purpose, since it is 
descriptive of the external characters of the district, and is agreeable to 
the natural arrangement of the strata. 

The Downs f are a chain of hills covered with a fine verdant turf, 
possessing in a striking degree that smoothness and regularity of outhne, 
for wliich the mountain masses of the chalk formation, are so remarkable. 
Commencing with the bold promontory of Beachy-Head, they traverse the 
county in a direction nearly east and west, and pass into Hampshire near 

* " Northernmost point 5ZacA;-Corwer, N. lat. 51° 9'. — 48' long. W. of Greenwich. 
Southernmost . . Selsey Bill, N. lat. 50" 43'— 47' W. long. 
Easternmost . . Kent Wall, N. lat. 50" 56'— 49' E. long. 
Westernmost . . Stansted Pari:, N. lat. 50" 53'— 58' W. long. 
Dallaway's History of the Western Division of the County of Sussex, 4to. 1815, vol. i. p. 5. 

f " Though I have now travelled the Sussex Downs upwards of thirty years, yet I still 
investigate that chain of majestic mountains with fresh admiration, year by year. This range, 
which runs from Chichester east as far as Eastbourne, is about sixty miles in length, and is 
called the South Downs, properly speaking, only round Lewes." Natural History of Selbourne, 
1802, p. 276. 



SOUTH-EASTERN DIVISION OF SUSSEX. 15 

Compton. Their length is between fifty and sixty miles, their greatest 
breadth seven miles, and their mean altitude about five hundred feet 
above the level of the sea. Their northern escarpment is in general steep 
and abrupt, but on the south they descend by a gentle dechvity, and 
unite almost imperceptibly with the low lands of the coast. 

From Beachy-Head to Brighton, they present an immediate barrier 
to the sea, forming a bold and precipitous line of coast ; but proceeding 
westerly, they extend inland in an obHque direction, and occupy the 
centre of Western Sussex. From this circumstance, a considerable 
difference exists in the geological relations of the eastern and western 
divisions of the county ; the latter being characterized by a range of 
chalk hills in the centre, with a maritime district formed of clay and 
gravel on the south, and a weald composed of sand and clay on the 
north. 

Throughout its whole extent this chain exhibits decisive manifestations 
of the action of water ; not only are the ridges and summits of the hills 
rounded and even, but their surface is every where furrowed by coombes, 
or narrow undulating ravines ; these uniting terminate in vaUies, that inter- 
sect the downs in a direction nearly north and south, and form extensive 
outlets for the rivers that flow from the interior of the country into the 
British Channel. The course of the smaller excavations or coombes is 
exceedingly various, but their general bearing is east and west; they 
gradually increase in breadth as they descend, and their opposite sides 
have corresponding angles and sinuosities ; this appearance however is not 
observable in the principal valhes. 

The chalk hills of Sussex are separated into five distinct masses, by 
the following rivers ; viz. the Arun, the Adur, the Ouse, and the Cuckmere. 

The first is situated in Western Sussex : it rises in the forest of St. 
Leonard, near Horsham, and taking its course to the westward for a few 
miles, turns suddenly to the south, passes through the chalk near Arundel, 
and falls into the sea to the west of Little Hampton. 

The Adur constitutes the western boundary of the South Downs, 
properly so called; Hke the former, it has its origin in St. Leonard's 



16 GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE 

forest, and passing by Steyning and Bramber, enters the British Channel 
at New Shoreham. 

The Ouse, which is the principal river in the south-eastern part of the 
county, rises by two branches ; the one has its source in St. Leonard's 
forest, and the other in the forest of Worth, north of Cuckfield. The 
river formed by the confluence of these streams pursues a tortuous course 
to the southward, and passing to the east of Lewes, which it separates 
from the adjacent town of the ChfF, flows through the flat alluvial tract of 
Lewes Levels, and discharges itself into the sea at Newhaven harbour. 

The Cuckmere has its source near Warbleton, and being augmented 
by numerous tributary streams, in its course by Helhngly, Arhngton, 
Alfriston, &c., falls into the British Channel at the haven which bears its 
name. 

By these rivers the drainage of the country is effected, and it is worthy 
of observation, that they invariably flow from an older over a newer 
country ; or, in other words, that the strata forming the district from 
whence they take their rise, are of anterior formation to the chalk vallies 
by which they empty themselves into the ocean. 

The Weald * of Sussex, is an extensive vale that occupies the centre 
of the south-eastern part of the county, and running parallel with the 
Downs, forms their northern boundary. It was anciently an immense 
forest, (called by the earher colonists Coid Jndred, by the Komans, Siha 
Anderida, and by the Saxons Andreadsimld,) which even in the time of 
Bede, was a mere retreat for deer and swine ; the greater part is now in 
an excellent state of cultivation. It consists of various beds of clay, 
sand, and limestone, and is comparatively of low eletation : its breadth is 
from 5 to 10 miles, and its length from SO to 40 miles ; it is estimated to 
contain 425,000 acres. The surface is intersected by numerous vallies, 
which generally occur at the outcrop or basseting edges of the strata, and 
form channels for the numerous streams that are tributary to the rivers in 

* " Opposite to the South Downs on the north are the Surrey hills falling abruptly south- 
ward, and sloping gradually to the north, and between these two lines of hills, is the Weald 
of Sussex and Surrey." Youngs Agricultural Survey. 



SOUTH-EASTERN DIVISION OF SUSSEX. 17 

their vicinity. The whole tract rises with a gradual sweep from the foot 
of the Downs, and unites with the higher lands of the forest ridge. 

The FoREST-KiDGE constitutes the north-eastern extremity of the 
county. It is composed of the more elevated portions of the sand 
formation, and from the rocky and abrupt termination of its ridges, which 
are for the most part either crested with forests, or overgrown with 
underAvood, forms a tract of country remarkable for its romantic and 
picturesque scenery. The principal heights in this range are Wych Cross, 
Brighthng Down, Dane's Hill, Fairlight Down, and Crowborough Beacon ; 
the last mentioned is the highest and most central eminence, and is 804 
feet above the level of the sea. 

" The climate in the western part of the maritime division is very 
warm, and highly favourable to the poAvers of vegetation. The Downs 
fronting the south-west are bleak, being exposed to violent winds, which 
are impregnated with saline particles, occasioned by the spray beaten 
against the sea-beach ; and this influence affects the animals as well as 
vegetables indigenous to the hills. In the Weald the due circulation of 
air is greatly impeded by the forests and thick hedges, and the climate is 
in consequence cold and damp *." 

Such are the geographical features of the masses which compose the 
county of Sussex ; but as our present investigation has a more immediate 
reference to the south-eastern division, it will be necessary to point 
out with greater precision the course and position of the chalk hiUs of 
that district, and more especially of those in the vicinity of Lewes and 
Brighton. 

The South Downs are that portion of the Sussex range which hes 
between Eastbourne and Shoreham. They are twenty-six miles long, 
about seven miles in breadth, and are divided by the intervention of 
rivers into four groups. 

The easternmost rises with a gentle slope near Eastbourne, proceeds 
inland as far as Folkington, and is separated from the middle division by 

* Dallaway's Western Sussex, page 6. 



18 GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE 

the Cuckmere. The southern escarpment composes a rocky and preci- 
pitous range of cliffs, extending eastward along the coast from the 
embouchure of Cuckmere river to Beachy Head, where it rises to the 
altitude of 564 feet. 

The middle group is bounded on the east by the line of separation 
above mentioned, on the west by Lewes levels, and on the south by 
cliffs which reach from Cuckmere haven to Seaford point, from whence 
to Newhaven harbour it is skirted by a low marshy coast ; the northern 
margin is formed by the elevated ridge of Firle hills. 

The M^estern division embraces the most considerable extent of Down 
in the county. The Adur forms the natural limits of this chain on the 
west, and the Ouse on the east ; the southern slope is washed by the 
British Channel, except towards the south-west, where a flat maritime 
district, extending from near Brighton to Shoreham harbour, intervenes 
and separates it from the sea-shore. The ridge by which it is bounded 
on the north, presents a steep escarpment to the Weald, and is the 
highest land in the county, Ditchhng beacon, the centre of this hne, being 
864 feet above the level of the sea. Eastward of the beacon lies 
Plumpton plain, an elevated platform commanding an extensive view 
of the rich scenery of the Weald on the one hand, and of the Downs and 
British Channel on the other. Bay mentions the prospect from this 
spot as equal to any he had seen in the finest parts of Europe, extending 
30 miles towards the sea, and 40 miles inland to Surrey *. 

Brighton and Lewes, two of the principal towns in the county, are 
situated in tliis division of the South Downs. The former hes nearly in 
the centre of the southern edge, on the margin of an extensive bay, 
comprehended between Beachy Head and Selsey Bill, and is sheltered 
by a range of hills on the east, north, and north-east : the peculiarities 
of its site, and the structure of the cliffs in its vicinity, will be hereafter 
particularized. 

Lewes is delightfully situated on the eastern extremity of this range ; 

* Whites Nat. Hist, of Selhourne, 1802, page 276*. 



SOUTH-EASTERN DIVISION OF SUSSEX. 19 

it lies 50° 52' north latitude, and is distant 50 miles south from London. 
The Downs form an amphitheatre of hills to the east and west of the 
town ; but the northern and southern slopes are skirted by the Levels. 

The CLIFF HILLS coustitute the last division of the South Downs ; 
they are a small insulated group, separated from the central and western 
chains by the intervention of Lewes Levels. The edge of this range runs 
parallel with the road from Southerham to Glynd and Glyndbourne, 
passes near Eingmer in its course westward, and terminates at Old 
Mailing near the banks of the Ouse. The south-eastern angle is formed 
by Mount Caburn, and the western escarpment is deeply indented by the 
steep valley of the Coombe. 

" The soil of the Downs is subject to considerable variation. On the 
summit it is usually very shallow ; the substratum is chalk, and over 
that a layer of chalk rubble, with a shght covering of vegetable mould. 
Along the more elevated ridges there is sometimes merely a covering of 
flints, upon which the turf grows spontaneously. Advancing down the 
hills the soil becomes deeper, and at the bottom is constantly found to 
be of very sufficient deptli for ploughing : here the loam is excellent, 
generally ten or twelve inches thick, and the chalk rather broken, and 
mixed with loam in the interstices*." 

Some parts of the South Downs are converted into arable, but in 
general they are reserved for pasturage, and support a breed of sheep 
equal, if not superior, to any in the kingdom-]-. 

Lewes levels, which have already been mentioned as intervening 

* Ycnings Agricultural Survey of Sussex, 8vo. page 5. 

f The sheep fed on the South Downs amount to nearly 200,000 ; and as there are no 
natural springs on the chalk hills, the flocks are supplied with water from large circular 
ponds, made on the summits of the Downs ; the bottoms of these excavations are covered 
with a layer of ochraceous clay, to prevent the water from percolating through the chalk, and 
they are seldom known to fail even in the hottest summers. The late Mr. White considered 
this circumstance as very remarkable, and has particularly noticed it, in his interesting volume 
on the Natural History of Selbourne. " To a thinking mind few phenomena are more strange 
than the state of little ponds on the summits of chalk hills, many of which are never dry in the 
most trying droughts of summer : on chalk hills, I say, because in many rocky and gravelly 
soils, springs usually break out pretty high on the sides of elevated grounds and mountains ; but 
' no person acquainted with chalky districts will allow that they ever saw waters of so pervious 
a stratum as chalk, all lie on one dead level, as well-diggers have assured me again and again. 
" Now we have many such little round ponds in this district, and one in particular on one 

D 2 



20 GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION. 

between the western and central divisions of the South Downs, fomi 
a marshy alluvial plain, through which the Ouse winds its way to the 
British Channel. This tract consists of silt, clay, and peat, and is nearly 
ten miles long ; its breadth varying from half a mile to two miles and 
a half. Towards the north-western confines of this plain, are two 
remarkable oval mounds or hillocks of chalk marl, situated at a short 
distance from each other, near the borough of Southover. They bear 
the name of Rhies, a provincial term derived from the Saxon hryg, a 
heap, or longitudinal projection*, and are about seventy feet high, and 
from two to three furlongs in length. 



The sketches comprised in Tablet II. will, it is presumed, assist in 
illustrating the relative position of the several chains of hills by which 
this district is traversed, and remove any obscurity that may occur in the 
preceding description. 

No 1. presents an outline of the southern aspect of the country in 
the vicinity of Lewes, taken from a mill near the town ; it shews the 
Firle and JSTewhaven hills, the extensive tract of marsh land that fills up 
the interval between them, and the Bhies, which are situate in the midst 
of the Levels. 

The view from the eastern brow of Mount Harry, No. 2, exhibits the 
relative situation of Beachy Head, Firle and Newhaven hills, and several 
other ranges of Downs, that either have been already noticed, or to which 
we may have occasion to refer in the course of these investigations. 

No. 3. is a profile of Cliff Hills; it exposes a partial section of the 
strata, and points out the situation of several of the principal chalk-pits 
in the vicinity of Lewes. 

sheep down, three hundred feet above my house ; which though never above three feet deep in 
the middle, and not more than thirty feet in diameter, and containing perhaps not more than two 
or three hundred hogsheads of water, yet never is known to fail, though it affords drink for 3 
or 400 sheep, and for at least 20 head of large cattle beside." White's Nat. Hist, of Selhoimie, p. 206. 
What however appears to me more extraordinary is the fact, that soon after a new pond 
has been made, and has received a partial supply of water from a few passing showers, it 
becomes inhabited by various kinds of fresh-water plants and shell-fish, and even frogs and 
lizards ; although it may be remote from any other pond, and at an elevation of four or five 
hundred feet above the level of the surrounding country. 
* History of Lemes, 8vo. 1795j page 416. 



GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF SUSSEX. 21 

III. 
GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF SUSSEX. 



The investigation of the geological structure of this district is attended 
with considerable difficulty. The displacement and disintegration which 
some of the strata have sustained; the excess of soil and vegetation with 
which in many places their basseting edges are covered at the Hne of 
junction ; and the absence of sections in those situations Avhere the re- 
lative position of the rocks is involved in obscurity, present numerous, 
and, in some instances, insuperable obstacles, to accurate examination. 
Under such circumstances, induction and analogy must supply the place 
of actual observation ; but the relative position of the principal masses 
having been correctly ascertained, whatever errors may have originated 
from the causes alluded to, are of minor importance ; since they chiefly 
relate to the geographical extent of the strata, and cannot affect the 
geological deductions that may be di-awn from these researches. 

For the information of the general reader, it may be necessary to ob- 
serve, that in Sussex, as in every other part of England, the strata main- 
tain a certain order of superposition, and that however great the displace- 
ment or interruption they may have sustained, this order is never inverted. 
To illustrate this remark, we may observe, that the blue chalk marl, v.hich 
separates the grey chalk marl from the green sand at Hamsey, Ringmer, 
and Laughton, is altogether wanting at Eastbourne, and several other 
places; but in these instance the grey chalk marl reposes immediately upon 
the green sand, the relative position of the masses remaining unaltered, by 
the absence of the intervening deposit. 

The following arrangement of the strata of the south-eastern division 
of Sussex, is that which, after much reflection, I have been led to consider 
as agreeable to their natural order of succession. 



22 



GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF SUSSEX. 



Order of Superposition of the Strata of the South-eastern Division of Sussex; 
Ccommencing trith the lo'west and most ancient Formation. _) 



SECONDARY FORMATIONS. 



Formations. Principal Divisions, 
f 



GREEN SAND 
FORMATIONS. 



i. Iron Sand. 



ii. Tilgate Beds. 



Subdivisions. Localities. 

r Fail-light Down^ Dane's Hill, Bright- 
Sand and sandstone, containing | ling Down, (alt. 616 feet) Crow- 
layers and concretions of iron--^ borough Beacon, (804 feet alt.) 
stone. "Wytch Cross, Uckfield, Ashburn- 

L ham, Ashdown Forest, &c. 
„, „ ,. , ,, ^. -ii, f Hastings, Archer's Wood, near Ash- 

SheUy hinestone.al ernating with ) ^^.^Im, Rotherfield, Framfield 
beds of blue shale and clay. J Isfield tc i'<"<'ucm. 

Coal and lignite. Bexhill, Newick, Waldron. 

pandstone limestone, and lime--| ^^^^j Handcross, Cuckfield, Til- 
stone slate, reposing on blue > ^ate ncc ">-«-"ciii, ±u- 

(^ clay. ' S J *• • 



- ^r ^^ ni f^^^'"""'!'""'^-?'""^"^ '^^^ I"''- 1 Tln-oughout the Weald of Sussex, 
m. Weald, or Oak 7 ing into marl. J ° 



Tree Clay. 



iv. Green Sand. 



fPetworth, West Grinsted, Ditchling 
\ Common, Plmnpton, Laughton. 



I Petworth, or Sussex marble. 

rContaining thi^ck beds and con- Ynaslemere, Bracksley Heath, Black, 
cretions of chert, with veins of V .^^ „ ,, n.-.^ „.,, ' '^'^'^^ 



J chalcedony. 
White sand, and sandstone, 
Red sand, and sandstone. 
Green sand. 



down Hill, Tilvester Hill. 



On the Broyle, near Ringmer. 
Ditchling, NorUngton, &c. 
f Broyle, Ringmer Park, Beech Wood, 
\ near Off'ham. 
Passing into iron sand, and con- f Parham Park, Danny, near Hurst- 

taining concretions of ironstone, \ perpoint. 
Alternating with and passing into 1 Eastbourne, 
soft grey sand. J 



§11. 

CHALK 

FORMATIONS. 



§111. 

FORMATIONS 

ABOVE THE 

CHALK. 



V. BlueChalkMarl. 

vi. Grey Chalk 
Marl. 

vii. Lower Chalk. 

viii. Upper Chalk. 



Druid Sand- 
stone. 



X. Plastic Clay. 



f IMalra rock. 

\Blue chalk marl or gait. 

chalk marl. 



Western Sussex, near Bignor. 
Ringmer, Laughton, Harasey, &c. 

} Grey chalk marl. { "Zwns. ^'°"'''""' ■^''' "^ *' 

f AVith very few flints, and harder J Southerhara : forms the lower portion 
( than the Upper Chalk. ( of the Downs. 

With numerous beds of flints. The South Downs. 

TERTIARY FORMATIONS. 

r Boulders on the summits, plains, T Lewes Race Course, summits and 
J and vaUies of the chalk, and.^ valleys of the Downs, Palmer, 

(^ in diluvial beds. (_ Shingle Bed at Brighton. 

f Ferruginous breccia, with peb-1 r>i,-„t- /-■ ti xt i. » 

hies of a greenish colour. j <^h"it>°S Castle, Newhaven, &c. 

< Various beds of sand, marl, and] 



j clay, and of gravel formed of /-Castle Hill, Newhaven. 
l_^ roUed chalk flints. J 

relay containing fossils, the same j 
I with those of the Calcaire gros- VBracklesham Bay. 
xi. London Clay. ■{ «'<;?• of Paris. J 



I Calcareous sandstone containing j -g „, 

l_ green earth. J ° 



GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF SUSSEX. 



23 



Formatinns. Principal Divisions. 



ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS. 

Subdivisions. 



Localities. 



§IV. 

ALLUVIAL 

FORMATIONS. 



'Calcareous rubble, beds of gravel") ti • \.^ /-^vir 
and sand. ^ | Brighton Cliffs. 



Chalk rubble, and beds of ochra-~| r\ ^r. •» i i • .1. 

1 -ii. 1- i,»i 11 1 I On the summits, slopes, and m the 

r.Tv tZ'. ^^ ^ I rallies, of the Downs. 

!■ Brighton HillSj hills near Piddinghoe. 



xii. DILUVIUM. ■{ chalk flints. " ' j 

Boulders of ferruginous breccia 
Druid sandstone, &c. 

'^^^;^S^:^:X^' iNear Brighton, Arundel, &c, 
'Blue clay, silt, &c. Lewes Levels. 

xiii. ALLUVIUM, Tufaceous depositions. Spring, near Pounceford. 

(the effect of causes<( Sand and comminuted shells "j 
still in action.) I drifted inland by winds from >Near Shoreham. 
l^ the sea shore. } 

The general inclination of the beds is towards the south-east, conse- 
quently, a hne drawn from the west, tlxrough the interior of the country, 
would pass over the basseting edges of the strata in regular succession. 
On the surface the occurrence of a new formation is for the most part in- 
dicated by the intervention of a rivulet or valley, by a difference in the 
physical appearance of the country, and a corresponding change in the 
nature of the soil and its productions. 

On the annexed map, I have dehneated the outcrop, or geographical 
extent of the strata, with as much accuracy, and detail, as my time and 
opportunities for examination would permit, and have subjoined a section 
of the country, from Castle Hill, near Newhaven, to Little Horsted, which, 
with but one exception, comprehends the entire series of the Sussex 
formations. 

The plan of the stratification, (Table 3, fig. 1.) is merely ideal, and in- 
tended to illustrate the arrangement of the beds, and convey a general 
idea of the geological structure of the district. 

I shall now proceed to describe the strata according to their natural 
order of succession, beginning with the lowest or most ancient deposit. 



24 GREEN SAND FORMATION. 

§ I. GREEN SAND FORMATION. 



In conformity with the arrangement of Professor Buekland, the whole 
of the Sussex beds below the chalk marl, are included in the present 
formation, although they differ most essentially from each other, both in 
their physical characters, and in the nature of their organic remains. 
But the term for^nation is now employed by geologists in a very extended 
sense, denoting not only a series of similar and contemporaneous strata, 
but also an assemblage of contiguous beds, which although differing from 
each other in dimensions, colour, constituent substance, mineralogical 
productions, and organic remains, are yet presumed to be more nearly 
related to each other, than to any other group of deposits. 



V. 
§ I. 1. IRON SAND, 

CONSISTING PRINCIPALLY OF FERRUGINOUS SAND AND SANDSTONE, AND CONTAINING SUBORDINATE 
STRATA OF IRONSTONE, MARL, AND CLAY, WITH SHELLY LIMESTONE; ALTERNATING IRREGU- 
LARLY; AND ALSO BEDS OF WOOD COAL. 



The iron sand is considered by Mr. Conybeare as the lowest of the 
formations which intervene between the ooHtes and the chalk. The 
sand and sandstone are entirely siliceous, and contain a great proportion 
of brown or yellow oxide of iron ; often indeed in such quantity, that 



IRON SAND FORMATION. 25 

many of its beds were formerly worked for the purpose of obtaining the 
ore of that metal. 

The texture of the sandstones is evidently mechanical, and they often 
form coarse-grained conglomerates, consisting of quartzose pebbles of 
various sizes, imbedded in a ferrugino-siliceous cement *. 

The Forest ridge, and a considerable portion of the Weald, consist of 
this deposit, which rises from beneath the Weald clay, and occupies the 
north-eastern division of the county. It forms a range of hills which 
run in a W. N.W. direction from Hastings to near Horsham, having a 
soil either of sandy loam upon grit stone, or of black vegetable earth 
upon clay or marl. Its principal elevations have been already mentioned. 
A great proportion of these hills is but little better than barren sand, of 
which St. Leonard's and Ashdown forests are computed to contain nearly 
thirty thousand acres. The sterility of this extensive tract is ascribed 
to the ferruginous impregnation of the soil from the beds of iron- 
stone. 

On the coast, the ironstone is first seen near Bexhill, rising from 
beneath the marsh land of Pevensey Levels ; from whence it forms a line 
of cliffs that extends to Hastings, and terminates near Winchelsea. 

We shall proceed to notice a few localities of this deposit, in the 
south-eastern part of the county. 

At Little Horsted, five miles N. N.E. from Lewes, the iron sand first 
appears; it is seen. immediately below the turf on the brow of a gentle 
elevation near the forty-fifth mile-stone; and forms the hill on which 
Horsted church, and the seat of Ewan Law, Esq. are situate. On the 
east side of the road, the strata appear in the following succession, dipping 
towards the south-west. 

1. Sand-stone of a ferruginous colour. 

* Extracted from a Memoir on the Iron Sand, by the Rev. W. D. Conybeare, F.R.S. 
pubhshed in the new edition of Phillips'' Outlines of Geology, 1822. This interesting little 
A olume is certainly one of the most valuable works on geology that has appeared in this, 
or any other country. It contains a complete epitome of all that is at present known 
concerning the geological structure of the British islands ; and abounds with the most useful 
information. 



26 IRON SAND FORMATION. 

2. Grey sand about 6 or 8 inches thick, containing minute 

fragments of charred wood. 

3. Sandy marl two feet thick. 

4. Sand and sandstone highly ferruginous. 

5. White sand and sandstone. 

On the southern slope of Horsted hill the sand is covered by a bed 
of peat, six feet tliick, which extends over several fields, and is cut for 
domestic purposes. 

The wells in the neighbourhood are about sixty feet deep, and have 
a constant supply of good water. 

Proceeding northward, the sandstone presents a bolder outline, and 
rocks of considerable magnitude protrude through the soil on both sides 
of the road. The strata are from three to six feet thick, and are separated 
from each other, by thin layers of soft sandstone shale ; their incHnation 
is towards the south-west except in a few instances, where a contrary 
direction is observable. 

In the immediate vicinity of Uckfield, grey sandstone rocks of low 
elevation are very numerous. Their summits are rounded and covered 
for the most part with coppices and underwood; but their sides are bare, 
and exhibit evident traces of diluvian action. 

Near " The Kocks," the seat of Mrs. Jackson, about half a mile west 
of Uckfield, a group of sandstone rocks occurs, under circumstances of 
considerable beauty and picturesque effect. The path that leads to this 
interesting spot lies to the right of the road, and, by a circuitous route, 
conducts the spectator to the centre of a wood, when a beautiful lake, 
nearly surrounded by rocks, suddenly opens to the view. The cliffs, over- 
hanging the water, are from twenty to thirty feet high, and are sur- 
mounted by forest trees and underwood. In some places the rocks are 
nearly perpendicular; in others they descend with a gentle slope to the 
water's edge, the declivity being covered by a luxuriant vegetation. On 
the northern margin, a projecting point of high rock is perforated by a 
natural archway, that has been enlarged by art, and this leads to a recess 
in the sandstone on a level with the bosom of the lake. From this point 



IRON SAND FORMATION. 27 

the picturesque beauty of the scene is exhibited to peculiar advantage. 
On the opposite shore, the base of a rock that juts into the water is in 
Hke manner excavated into an arch, beneath which a little shallop was 
moored at the time of my visit. In one of the vertical cliffs, some fine 
young birch trees had taken root between the thin layers that separate 
the strata, and in almost every fissure of the rocks numerous plants* had 
insulated themselves, and by the beauty and variety of their foliage, re- 
lieved the monotonous and sombre appearance of the smooth grey sand- 
stone. On the less elevated masses, lichens, mosses, and heaths, were 
growing in great profusion and luxuriance. The strata are nearly hori- 
zontal, and partake of the characters of those already described. 

A fine lake, overhung with sandstone rocks, and crested with a noble 
wood, near the seat of the Earl of Shefiield, in the parish of Fletching, 
might also be mentioned as affording another example of the picturesque 
scenery, to which the irregular surface of the sandstone gives rise in cer- 
tain situations. Here, as in other parts of its course, the soil is in ge- 
neral sterile ; but some spots near Fletching are remarkable for flourishing 
oaks : these contain six parts of sand, one part of clay, and a considerable 
proportion of finely divided vegetable matter. One hundred parts of this 
soil, analyzed by Sir Humphry Davey, gave the following results : 
Silica - - - - 54 parts. 

Alumina - - - - 28 

Carbonate of lime _ _ _ 3 

Oxide of iron - - - 5 

Decomposing vegetable matter - 4 

Moisture and loss _ _ _ 6 

100 1 
Near Long-ford, in the parish of Barcombe, a section is exposed by the 
road leading from Barcombe Cross to Newick Park. At this spot the 
sand bassets out from beneath the Weald Clay, and forms an elevated bank 

* Among others I noticed osmunda regalis, antirrhinum cymbalaria, polypodium vulgaris, 
T^fAy^.Jilix mas, lichen rangiferinus, erica vulgaris, &c. 
f Davey's Elements of Agricultural Chemistry, 4to. 

E 2 



28 IRON SAND FORMATION. 

on the north side of the rivulet that flows along the Hne of junction. The 
beds of sand and sandstone are here nearly twelve feet liigh, and agree in 
their nature and relations with those which occur at Horsted. 

Insulated portions of sand and sandstone rise to the surface near Isfield 
Paper-mill, and also on the opposite bank of the river ; but from the 
quantity of soil and vegetation with which they are surrounded, their 
extent cannot be determined with any degree of accuracy. 

On the coast, the cliffs near Hastings expose an interesting section of 
the iron sand. The strata are less ferruginous than in the locahties pre- 
viously described, and the sand is finer and more loose and friable ; it some- 
times contains impressions of ferns, charred wood, and the stems of 
vegetables. 

At Eye the sand is liighly ferruginous, and the sandstone of coarser 
texture. 

It is unnecessary to describe the course of the iron sand and sandstone 
more minutely, as the strata, although distributed over a considerable 
extent of country, present but little variety, and are destitute of organic 
remains : the localities, already noticed, are sufficiently characteristic of 
their usual appearance and structure. We shall therefore pass to the 
examination of the ironstone, limestone, and coal, since the history of these 
beds possesses considerable interest in an economical, as well as a geological 
point of view. 

1. Ironstone. 

This substance is internally of a dark steel grey, and generally very 
hard and compact ; occasionally it is laminated, and separates into thin 
flakes upon exposure to the air. It occurs either in irregular concretions 
in the sand, or is stratified and alternates with beds of sandstone. The 
globular masses often contain nodules of argillaceous earth, round which 
the ironstone is disposed in concentric layers. 

In some parts of the county the ironstone is of excellent quality, and ex- 
tensive founderies were anciently established in different parts of its course : 
" the almost inexhaustible quantity of wood, with which the country was 
covered in the early centuries, and the numerous lakes and morasses, which 



IRON SAND FORMATION. 29 

the total neglect of drainage had occasioned, being circumstances pecuUarly 
favourable for the conversion of the iron ore into bars. For this purpose 
the lords of the several manors which lie within the woodland district 
collected the rivulets into large ponds, and erected mills and furnaces. 
The iron, so procured, was at first principally used for agricultural imple- 
ments ;" but Fuller also observes, in his Worthies, that " it is almost in- 
credible how many great guns Avere made of the iron of this county. The 
total decline of the manufacture in Sussex is to be attributed to the esta- 
bhshments in Scotland and Wales, in which pit-coal is used, the superior 
cheapness of fuel having enabled them to monopohze the trade." There 
is now but a single foundery in the eastern division, and which belongs to 
the Earl of Ashburnham. According to the present practice, it requires 
fifty loads of charcoal, and fifty loads of ironstone (twelve bushels to each 
load) to make thirteen tons of pig iron*. 

Mr. Young, in his " General View of the Agriculture of Sussex," gives 
the following account of the strata of ironstone in the vicinity of Ash- 
burnham. " At Penhurst, near Battel, the soil is gravelly to an indeter- 
minate depth. At the bottom of the Earl of Ashburnham's park, sand- 
stone is found soHd enough for building. Advancing up the hill, the 
sand-rock is twenty-one feet in thickness, but so friable, as easily to be re- 
duced to powder. On this immediately a marl sets on, in the different 
depths of which the ironstone comes on regularly, in all the various kinds 
as follows : 

" 1. Small balls f. Provincially twelve foots, because so many feet di- 
stant from the first to the last bed. 

" 2. Grey hmestone, which is used as a flux. 

" 3. Foxes. 

" 4. Riggitt. 

" 5. Balls. 

« 6. Caballa balls. 

" 7. Whiteburn : what tripoh, properly calcined and treated, is made of 

* Ddllaways History of the Western Division of the County of Sussex, vol. i. page clxi. 
folio, 1815. 

-|- The provincial terms employed by Mr. Young are now obsolete ; at least I was unable to 
obtain any explanation of them from the workmen, on a recent visit to Ashburnham. 



30 IRON SAND FORMATION. 

" 8. Clouts. 

" 9. Pity. 

" Advancing on these is a valley, where the mineral bed seems entirely 
broken, and the sandstone sets on. At the distance of something more 
than a mile, the ironstone is again seen. Another intervention of sand, 
and then at low water when the tide goes out, the beds of ironstone 
appear regularly on the shore. In taking the range northwardly, from the 
bottom of Ashburnham Park, for twelve miles at least, the strata are 
nearly the same, there being no material inequaUty of surface that does 
not partake of sandstone, marl, ironstone, and sand again at the top. The 
limestone and ironstone generally rise very near the surface, frequently 
within three feet. The ironstone, at forty feet below the surface, is not 
so good as nearer to it, being coarser, and working heavier in the furnace. 
The very best of the veins are frequently intersected with stripes, the 
tliickness of a quill, filled with a soft marly matter ; and the marl beds 
which the iron lies in, wear a bluer appearance than where it is good. 
The iron ore, of a dark colour and good quahty, is very strongly attracted 
by the magnet *." 

2. Limestone and shale, in blue clay. 

The Hmestone of the iron sand perfectly resembles, both in appearance 
and composition, the Sussex marble of the Weald, and like that deposit is 
imbedded in a thick stratum of blue clay ; in fact, so striking is the re^- 
semblance, that but for the remarkable difference observable in their 
organic remains, the respective strata, in different parts of their course, 
could scarcely be distinguished from each other. The limestone under 
examination is of a light bluish grey, dark blue, yellowish, or reddish 
brown colour. The upper layers are sphntery, and fall to pieces by ex- 
posure to the air and moisture ; but the lower beds are extremely hard, 
and form slabs, whose superficial measure frequently equals six or seven 
feet. It is composed almost entirely of bivalve shells, imbedded in a cal- 
careous cement, and is commonly of a sub-crystaUine structure. The shells 
chiefly belong to a species of tellina; but they are in too mutilated a state 

* Youngs Agricultural Survey, 8vo. 1808. 



IRON SAND FORIVIATION. 31 

to admit of their characters being correctly determined. This hmestone 
extends from Hastings to near Battel, Ashburnham, Netherfield, Bur- 
wash, Kotherfield, and Framfield ; and although its outcrop is in many 
places obscured, or altogether concealed by alluvial deposits, yet there can 
be no doubt of its continuity beneath the surface, along the tract of country 
here described. On the estate of the Earl of Ashburnham extensive Ume- 
works have long been estabhshed, and previously to the present depressed 
state of agriculture, were carried on upon a very extended scale. These 
works are in the centre of Archer's Wood, about two miles from Battel. 
The limestone is worked by means of shafts, sunk to the depth of from 90 
to 120 feet. The following is the order in which the beds ussually occur : 

1. Loam of an ochraceous or greyish colour, with thin layers of friable 
shelly limestone. 

2. Grey limestone, remarkably firm and compact, composed of bivalve 
shells, converted into spathose calcareous spar, and held together by a 
calca: eous cement, alternating with grey marl and shale. 

3. Compact blue shale and limestone, in alternate layers, from 14 to 20 
inches thick, and destitute of organic remains. 

The depth of these beds is indeterminate, but exceeds fifty feet. The 
strata incUne towards the south-west, and dip beneath the iron sand of 
Ashburnham Park. 

Mr. Young has given the following admeasurements of the entire 
series of Hmestone and shale, exposed by one of the shafts at Archer's 
Wood ; enumerating them according to their order of succession. 



The first hmestone 

Shale 

Second Hmestone 


Feet. 

3 
8 



Inches. 

3 

9 


Shale 

Third limestone 


9 

4 






Shale 

Fourth limestone 

Shale 


39 
1 
3 



1 




Fifth Hmestone 
Shale 


Feet, ] 


3 


Inches. 

8 



Sixth Hmestone 





8 


Shale 

Seventh limestone 

Shale 


2 

8 
4 



3 



Eighth Hmestone 
Shale 


2 
1 



6 



32 IRON SAND FORMATION, 





Feet. 


Inches. 


Ninth hmestone 





6 


Shale 





4 


Tenth limestone 





9 


Shale 


1 


3 


Eleventh limestone 


1 


2 


Shale 





4 


Twelfth limestone 





8 


Shale 


1 


1 



Feet. 

Thirteenth Hmestone 1 
Shale - - 1 
Fourteenth limestone 
Shale - - 8 
Fifteenth limestone 2 


Inches. 
1 

6 
6 

3 





" The last stone is fine enough to set a razor. The Sussex limestone 
upon trial has been found to be superior both to the JVIaidstone and Ply- 
mouth stone, and it is now acknowledged that no cement equal to it in 
the kingdom has been discovered. It is the received opinion, that the 
limestone ranges eight miles from east to west, and one mile from north 
to south*." 

At Terrible Down, six miles and a half north-east from Lewes, the 
iron sand lies beneath a thick alluvial deposit of loam, sand, and marl, 
interspersed with thin laminae of ironstone shale, and rounded fragments 
of sandstone. These beds extend to Eason's Green -j-, (where they are 
succeeded by a dark blue clay, containing shelly limestone, which appears 
immediately beneath the turf, and is of very considerable thickness. 
Proceeding northwards, the clay forms a gentle declivity, which is skirted 
at the bottom by a rivulet : on the opposite side of the stream it swells 
into a low hill, and terminates in a valley near the ninth mile-stone. 

Here the sand and sandstone re-appear at the surface, rising from 
beneath the clay, and gradually uniting with the higher strata of the 
Forest ridge, near the Elack-boys, 

From the absence of natural sections, the relative position of the clay 
and sandstone is involved in some obscurity ; but the former, with its 
imbedded Hmestone, is so perfectly analogous to that of Ashburnham 
above described, that there can be no hesitation in considering them as 

* Young's Agricultural Survey. -f- Vide Tab. 3, figs. 2 and 3. 



IRON SAND FORMATION. 33 

consecutive deposits. The limestone of Framfield, like that of Ashburn- 
ham, Kotherfield, &c. is almost wholly composed of a species of Tellina * ; 
it is exposed to view on the side of the road leading from Lewes to the 
Black-boys, nearly opposite to the ninth mile-stone, and is only occasionally 
quarried. 

It lies but a few feet beneath the surface, and occurs in horizontal 
strata, divided into thin slabs by layers of blue clay, that contain laminae 
of a reddish brown shale, and shells of the same kind as the limestone. 
In the section (fig. 2. tab. III.) these beds are represented as if lying in 
a basin or hollow of the iron sand ; but subsequent observations have 
convinced me that this position is incorrect, and that the limestone forms 
an intervening deposit. 

At Isfield, about six miles from Lewes, in sinking the well near the 
Paper Mill, a layer of bivalve hmestone was discovered in a bed of blue 
clay at the depth of ninety feet. It evidently belongs to the same 
deposit as that of Framfield, but the shells appear to be of a different 
species; Mr. Wood (author of General Conchology, &c.) considers them 
as nearly related to Tellina cornea, if, indeed, they are not of the same 
species. 

The geological position of these argillaceous limestone strata is in- 
volved in some obscurity. The lowermost beds at Ashburnham are 
supposed by an eminent geologist f, to coincide with those of the Pur- 
beck hmestone ; but at the same time he remarks, " that until they shall 
have been more scientifically observed, it is impossible to speak with 
absolute certainty." In the present imperfect state of our knowledge, it 
may indeed be disputed, whether these beds alternate with the ferruginous 
sand, (as represented in fig. 3, tab. III.) are situate in a hollow or basin 

* Mr. G. B. Sowerby, author of " The Genera of Recent and Fossil Shells," kindly 
obliged me by an examination of the shells contained in the Framfield limestone. The general 
appearance of some of the specimens he thought resembled the Nuculce, but other circumstances 
led him to consider it probable that they might belong to the genus Cyrene ; the important 
question whether they are of marine, or of fresh water origin, is therefore still undecided. 

-f- Rev. W. Conybeare, in Phillips' Geological Outlines, &c. 



IRON SAND FORMATION. 



of that deposit, (as in figs, 1 and 2, tab. III.) or form a protrusion or hillock 
of the Purbeck lime-stone, as in the annexed diagram. 





a. Iron sand. h. Shelly Hmestone. c. Purbeck beds. 



§ 3. COAL. At Newick Park, Waldron, and Bexhill, seams of 
fibrous coal resembUng that of Bovey, have been discovered ; but the thick- 
ness and extent of the beds have not been correctly ascertained. To 
Mr. Cater Hand of Lewes, I am indebted for the following section of 
the strata at Newick. 

Section of the Strata in Newick Old Park, 

situate one mile from the banks of the Lewes Canal. 

1. Vegetable earth and sand. 

2. Sandstone and clay. 

3. Sandstone and indurated marl. 

4. Shivery sandstone and clay. 

5. Indurated clay rubble. 

6. Sandstone and blue clay alternating. 

7. Strong bind. 

8. Coal of the Bovey kind, examined only to the depth of eleven 
inches ; it bassets out on the side of a rivulet, and may also be observed 
in the bank of the adjoining hop grounds. Several bushels of coal were 
dug up. The strata have a slight incUnation W. N. W. 

The Newick coal in my possession has very much the character of 
jet : it is of a velvet black, does not soil the fingers, has a resinous 
lustre, and a conchoidal fracture ; is very brittle, and burns with a bright 
flame. 



IRON SAND FORMATION. 35 

At BexhiU, the south-eastern extremity of the Forest-ridge towards 
the sea, indications of coal induced some enterprising individuals to sink 
a shaft, and at the depth of 160 feet, a bed of coal of good quality, was 
discovered ; but unfortunately the works were suddenly inundated by a 
vast body of water, and the undertaking was finally abandoned. 

It appears that the enterprise originated from the suggestions of a 
Mr. James, who was sent to Bexhill in 1804, to survey the estates of the 
Duke of Dorset. This gentleman perceiving some resemblance between 
the strata exposed by the weUs at Bexhill Barracks, and those which occur 
at Bovey, imagined that a bed of coal might be found at the depth of 
about sixty yards. In consequence of this idea, a company of adventurers 
was soon formed, and the requisite operations were carried on in a close 
near the sea-shore. 

I have to offer my acknowledgements to Mr. Band, for the following 
account of the beds passed through on that occasion. 

Section of Strata at Bexhill, 
explored in a search for coal, in 1804 — 9. 



Yards. 


Feet. 


Inches. 


Yards. 


Feet. Inches. 


Sunk. Soil, clay, and sandy 








Stone grey rock 


1 








loam 


3 








Blue bind 





2 


7 


Dark Clunch 


3 








Strong white rock 


1 


1 


4 


White rock with kind 






Dark Clunch 


2 


1 


9 


partings - 


3 








Smut Coal 





2 


3 


Bored. Do. Do. - 




1 





Grey bind 


4 


2 


3 


Dark Clunch 










Blue bind with iron 








Grey Kock 




2 





ore - - _ 


3 


1 


9 


Dark Clunch 










White stone 


1 








Strong grey rock 




2 


6 


Clunch, or fire clay 


1 





2 


Blue binds 







6 


White sandstone 


1 


2 


9 


Grey rock with kind 








Kind clunch parting 








8 


partings 


6 








Brown sandy rock 





2 


9 


Blue bind - - 


1 





6 


Sharp peldron 


3 
r 2 




1 






36 IRON SAND FORMATION. 

Blue bind - - - 
Strong brown rock 
Blue-hind, containing 

impressions of fern 

leaves - - 2 1 6 



Yards. 
- 1 


Feet Inches. 

2 


Yards. Feet. Inches. 

Blue-bind with iron 


1 
IS 


1 


ore - - - - 2 
Strong Coal - 10 6 



Yards 54 1 9 



The borings were continued, but no account remains of the nature 
or depth of the strata : mention is made of a second bed of coal four 
feet six inches thick, the coal of bad quaUty, and very sulphureous. 
Salt-water oozed through the divisions of the beds, and although an 
engine of eighty horse power was employed, the works were completely 
inundated. 

I have not seen any specimens of the Bexhill coal, but according to 
Mr. Rand, it resembled that of Newick. It is not a little curious, that 
research for coal in so improbable a situation, should have been attended 
with the slightest indication of such a substance ; since if in the present 
infancy of geological science, we may venture to draw any general con- 
clusions from estabhshed facts, there was every reason to suppose, that 
such an attempt must have proved abortive. 

At Waldron, a thin bed of cannel coal has been noticed on the banks 
of a rivulet which separates that parish from Heathfield ; but it has not 
been examined with any degree of attention. It is stated to occur in beds 
of a few inches thick, that extend for a quarter of a mile immediately 
beneath the surface, at the bottom of Geer's wood. 

Organic Remains. 

The organic remains discovered in the strata above described, are few 
and unimportant. The bivalves of the Hmestone ; the hnpressioris of 
ferns in the sandstone of Bexhill and Hastings ; and the fragments of 
lignite in that of Horsted, being the only extraneous fossils that have been 
observed. 



IRON SAND FORMATION. 37 

In other parts of England, the Iron sand contains nautili, ammonites, 
belemnites, ostreae, terebratulae, and numerous varieties of spongitae, and 
other zoophytes*; but of these no traces exist in the sand of Sussex. 



VI. 

§ 1, 2. Limestone of Tilgate Forest. 

The strata that form the subject of the following observations possess 
a high degree of interest, and constitute one of the most important series 
of deposits in this part of the kingdom. Tlie nature and variety of their 
organic remains, and the general resemblance which they bear to those of 
the Purbeck limestone, and Stonesfield slate, have led me to an assiduous 
investigation of their history. 

I have however to regret, that the distance of my abode from the tract 
of country in which they are situated, has presented serious obstacles to 
an accurate determination of their geographical dimensions ; but I have 
spared neither pains nor expense to obtain a general knowledge of their 
fossil remains, and geological relations. 

As these strata are of inconsiderable extent, and hold an intermediate 
situation between the Iron sand and the Weald clay, appearing to repose 
upon the former, it seems probable, that they are either a local deposition, 
formed in an excavation, or basin, of that deposit ; or a protrusion of the 
Purbeck beds, which he beneath it. Without however, deciding in fa- 
vour of either supposition, it has been thought expedient to describe these 
strata in a separate section; and for the present, to distinguish them by a 
term derived from the central locaHty of the area they occupy on the 
surface. 

The strata of Tilgate forest consist of various layers of sandstone, hme- 
stone, and calcareous slate, lying on a bed of blue clay, of very consider- 

* Phillips' Outlines, page 140. 



38 STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 

able thickness. Advancing from the Downs, on the Brighton road, the 
outcrop of the sandstone is first seen near Taylor's bridge ; and it sub- 
sequently appears on the margin of the stream that winds along the foot 
of Cuckfield park, a quarter of a mile south of the town. At this spot an 
excavation has been made, which exposes to view a perpendicular rock of 
sandstone about twenty feet high ; the strata are nearly horizontal, and 
vary from one to five feet in thickness. 

The hiU, on the southern slope of which the town of Cuckfield is 
situated, is also composed of this formation, and in a field adjoining the 
church-yard, the sandstone is seen lying beneath a thick layer of diluvial 
affffresate, and containing; subordinate beds of hmestone. 

From the cultivated state of the country, and the quantity of loam 
and vegetable soil, I have been unable to trace the outcrop of these de- 
posits with the requisite degree of accuracy. In a northerly direction 
they extend from Cuckfield through Handcross, and Tilgate forest, to 
Crawley, and on the north-west probably as far as Horsham, and St. 
Leonard's forest ; eastward I have not noticed them beyond the vicinity 
of Lindfield ; but it must be acknowledged that from the causes already 
mentioned, their geographical extent is but imperfectly known. 

On the line of road extending from Hicksted to Crawley, several 
quarries have been opened for obtaining the stone for architectural and 
other economical purposes, and in these excavations the strata may be 
examined with facihty. 

In the sections that were accessible to observation, some variations 
were noticed in the composition and relation of the beds ; but these were 
neither constant, nor important; and the entire series is readily identified 
by the extraordinary character of its organic, remains. 

The following section is the result of numerous observations, and 
may be regarded as the order in which they generally occur; commencing 
with the lowermost deposit. 

Section of the Strata of Tilgate Forest. 
1. Blue tenacious clay destitute of organic remains, and of an indeter- 



STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 39 

minate depth. In this bed water occurs at the depth of thirty or forty 
feet. 

2. Compact hmestone, of a bluish grey colour, separated by seams of 
indurated blue marl, into layers, from three to twelve inches in thickness. 
It forms a bed about nine feet thick, and contains the bones of two species 
of turtle, of one or more species of crocodile, or monitor ; and the remains 
of vegetables aUied to the euphorbite. The upper strata are a compact 
conglomerate ; the lower are perfectly homogeneous, and Avhere in contact 
with the clay, contain shells of the genus vivipara. 

3. YeDowish sand, and soft calcareous sandstone, alternating with thin 
layers of compact limestone slate ; containing bones of crocodiles, of some 
unknown animals, and of birds ; bones and plates of two species of tor- 
toises ; carbonized wood ; remains of vegetables resembling the euphor- 
biae, arborescent ferns, gigantic reeds ; and casts of univalves and bivalves, 
&c. This bed is about seven feet tliick. 

4. Diluvial aggregate, composed of quartz pebbles, and rounded frag- 
ments of chalk, limestone, and sandstone, loosely united by a coarse grit ; 
it contains immense quantities of minute portions of bone rounded by at- 
trition, teeth of fishes, and of lacertee. Thickness from three to six feet. 

5. Vegetable mould and loam, from one to three feet thick. 
Total thickness of the beds above the clay, about twenty-five feet. 

In this enumeration of the strata, those fossils only are mentioned, 
which appear to occur most frequently in the respective beds, since the 
organic remains are distributed indiscriminately throughout the whole 
series of deposits, although certain of them are more abundant in one 
stratum, than in another. 

The limestone (No. 1.) is exceedingly compact, and offers great resist- 
ance to the hammer ; it scintillates with steel, effervesces strongly with 
acids, and varies considerably in purity. The upper part of the rock is a 
conglomerate of a mottled appearance, exhibiting various shades of blue, 
white, and gi-eyish green. It is composed of quartz pebbles and irregular 
fragments of limestone and bones, imbedded in a calcareous gangue ; and 
is interspersed with crystallized carbonate of Ume. The quartz pebbles 



40 STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 

appear to be of chemical origin, and not derived from the ruin of other 
strata. The intermediate layers are a pure bluish grey, or greenish Hme- 
stone, in texture and appearance very much resembhng the finer beds of 
the Swindon stone*. 

The inferior layers are very analogous to the Purbeck limestone, and 
where in contact with the clay, contain remains of the same kinds of tes- 
tacege. 

The bed is traversed by thin veins of calcareous spar of a light amber 
colour; and this substance generally occupies the fissures in the wood, 
bones, and other organic remains, forming groups of tabular, and lenti- 
cular crystals in the cavities of the limestone. It also contains small no- 
dular masses of carbon, and charred wood. Every kind of fossil that has 
been discovered in the strata of Tilgate forest, occurs in this bed, viz. 
bones and teeth of the gigantic monitor or crocodile ; bones and plates of 
turtles; teeth of fishes; leaves and stems of euphorbiae ; casts of univalves 
and bivalves, &c. 

The sand and sandstone, (No. 3,) vary from a Hght fawn colour to a 
deep brown, and in some parts are highly ferruginous. The sandstone 
is soft and friable, and alternates with thin layers of calcareous slate. The 
latter is compact, but readily separates into thin flakes, and these are di- 
vided by the workmen into slabs, from one, to a foot and a half square, 
which are used for roofing in that part of the country. The surface of this 
slate presents a most extraordinary appearance, being every where marked 
with undulating furrows, so strikingly resembling the impressions made on 
the sand of the sea shore, by the action of the waves, that I cannot but 
regard them as the result of a similar operation. 

The sandstone contains the teeth, vertebrse, and bones of the croco- 
dile, and large portions of the stems of vegetables allied to the euphorbiae 
and dicksoniffi ; besides others, v.^hich are in too imperfect a state to admit 
of their characters being determined. The slate abounds with the car- 



* Swindon, near Marlborough, Wilts; the stone quarried in its vicinity is a member of the 
Portland limestone. 



STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 41 

bonized foliage of unknown plants, carbonized wood, and casts of uni- 
valves and bivalves. Carbonate of lime in lenticular crystals sometimes 
occurs between the separations of the strata, and rounded quartz pebbles 
in the blocks of sandstone. 

The aggregate (No. 2.) is evidently diluvial ; it lies in horizontal layers, 
immediately beneath the vegetable mould, and varies from one to six 
feet in thickness. It is of considerable extent, and there is scarcely any 
inequahty of the surface, in the immediate vicinity of Hicksted, Crawley, 
&c., where it is not exposed to view. In the upper part of the bed, the 
chalk, limestone, sandstone, and quartz pebbles, are reduced to the size 
of small grains ; and the bones, teeth, and other organic remains, have 
suffered an equal degree of comminution ; in the inferior layers they are 
considerably larger, and the chalk and qviartz pebbles less frequent. 

The chalk appears to have undergone but little change, except that it 
has acquired considerable hardness, probably from an infiltration of crystal- 
Uzed carbonate of lime. 

The quartz pebbles exhibit their usual characters ; they are shghtly 
translucent, and being rubbed against each other, emit a strong electric 
smell, with a stream of light at the line of collision. This accumulation 
of water-worn materials is loosely united by a fine grit, apparently formed 
by the farther disintegration of the same substances. The organic remains 
contained in it are, with but few exceptions, reduced to very small frag- 
ments, which offer but sHght indications of their original form. The teeth 
and scales are the most perfect, their superior hardness having enabled 
them in some measure to resist the action of the water. Of these, the 
molar teeth of the anarhicas lupus, are the most abundant. The teeth 
and scales of the monitor or crocodile, and the bones and plates of a 
species of tortoise, are occasionally found in it ; and also the triangular 
striated tooth, (No. 14.) and the teeth of a species of squalus, (No. 13.) 

We shall now proceed to a more minute examination of the organic 
remains of these remarkable strata ; and by comparing them with the 
recent genera, and species, to which they appear most nearly related, 

G 



42 STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 

endeavour to obtain some idea of the form, and structure, of the ori- 
ginals. 

Organic Remains of the Strata of Tilgate Forest*. 
Vegetable remains. — These occur either in the form of carbona- 
ceous impressions in the hmestone slate and carstone ; or consist of sand- 
stone casts of a ferruginous colour, bearing the form and external characters 
of the original. 

1. Wood. In the state of carbon or charcoal, stiU retaining its Hgneous 
structure. The fissures in its substance are filled, in some specimens, 
with white calcareous spar, and in others, with pyrites of a briUiant ap- 
pearance ; the latter quickly undergo decomposition by exposure to the air. 

It occurs in small portions, which are generally imbedded in the more 
compact masses of carstone. 

2. The stems or culms of vegetables allied to the euphorbiae, or to 
some species of arborescent fern ; perhaps Dicksonia ? 

The surface of these fossils is rough, being covered with oblong irre- 
gular tubercles, disposed in longitudinal undulating lines. The trunk is 
nearly cyhndrical, but somewhat compressed, and is contracted at irre- 
gular intervals ; in some specimens exhibiting rudiments of branches. The 
largest are nearly fourteen inches in circumference, and upwards of four 
feet in length f; and from the imperfect state in which these occur, it is 
evident that the originals attained a very large size : sections show no 
traces of the internal structure. They are associated with impressions of 
leaves and other vegetal remains, but my distance from the quarry has 
prevented me from ascertaining the relation they bear to each other. 



* When the idea of this work first suggested itself, my information concerning these de- 
posits was too imperfect for pubUcation, and their description was in consequence exchided 
from the original plan. The organic remains I then possessed were but few and uninteresting, 
and the plates were devoted to other objects before more illustrative specimens occurred. 
Should circumstances permit, I shall hereafter lay before the public, delineations of several 
extraordinary fossils recently discovered in these strata. 

t One of the finest specimens hitherto discovered is deposited in the British Museum. 



STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 43 

They are principally found in the sand and sandstone, and are covered 
with a ferrugino-carbonaceous crust, which falls off when the surrounding 
matrix is removed. 

I am unacquainted with any vegetables, either recent or fossil, with 
which these remains can be identified. They bear some analogy to 
the PhitoUthus plantites verrucosus of Marten*, but differ in the super- 
ficial markings, and are destitute of the imbricated body observable 
in the Derbyshire fossil. They agree in their general conformation with 
the euphorbiae of the East Indies, but at the same time, present differences 
sufficiently remarkable to prove their want of identity. In all probability 
they are casts formed in the cavities cf the stems of arundinaceous plants? 
the crust with which they are invested, being the remains of the cortical 
covering of the original. 

3. A cyhndrical imbricated body, marked with interrupted longi- 
tudinal strise — the medullary or internal part of a vegetable, analogous 
to the fossils last described. It is composed of sandstone, and occurs in 
fragments of a foot or more in length, and from six to eight inches in cir- 
cumference. 

4. A hollow cylindrical body, slightly compressed ; the cortical or epi- 
dermal remains of a vegetable. 

This fossil is two inches and a half long, twelve inches in circumference, 
and one inch in thickness. The external surface is divided into compart- 
ments of a rhomboidal form, by deep cancellated sulci, and the internal is 
marked with interrupted longitudinal striae, apparently the impressions of 
a body which it formerly enclosed. This specimen is decidedly the re- 
mains of the epidermal covering of a plant, and, very probably, cf the 
same kind as the fossil, No. 3, the markings on the external surface of 
the one, and the impressions on the interior of the other, perfectly corre- 
sponding. In its structure it approaches to Plantites verrucosus o£W[ai'ten, 
but its external surface more nearly resembles that of PhitoUthus plantites 
imbricatus-f ; it is, however, essentially distinct from either. It is pro- 

* Petrificata Derbiensia ; or. Figures and Descriptions of Petrifactions, collected in Tierhy- 
shire, by William Marten, F.L.S. Wigan, 1809. Tab. 11, 12, 13. 
+ Petrificata Derbiensia, Tab. 14, fig. 5, and Tab. 50. 



44 STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 

bably part of an unknown species of palm, or arborescent fern : Mr. Konig 
observes, that " some arborescent Dicksonias are very like it with regard to 
the lozenge-shaped bases of the fronds, or leaves." 

This specimen is from the sandstone, and is the only one hitherto 
discovered *. 

5. A compressed clavated culm or stem of a plant, the surface pos- 
sessing a leafy structure, and having numerous tortuous sinuses, that pass 
into the substance of the fossil : a transverse section, tlu-ee inches in 
diameter, exposed thirty-five openings produced by this cause. 

These fossils occur in fragments from a few inches, to several feet in 
length, and some of them attain a considerable magnitude, being upwards 
of two feet in circumference. They are of an irregular club-like form, 
having a very narrow base, and are invested with a thick carbonaceous 
covering, removable by washing. Their constituent substance is a hard 
limestone, of a light ash colour, interspersed with drusy crystals of car- 
bonate of Ume. They are found associated with the fossil vegetables, pre- 
viously noticed, but are of more rare occurrence. The internal structure 
of these petrifactions resembles that of many succulent plants, and in their 
outward form they so nearly approach the euphorbiae, that it may be pre- 
sumed they are the remains either of an unknown species ol that genus, 
or of one very closely allied to it. 

6. Impressions and remains of the foliage of unknown vegetables, in a 
carbonized state, lying in confused masses in the car-stone and limestone 
shale. 

So far as their form can be distinguished, some of the leaves appear 
to be of an ovate, and others of a lineari-lanceolate shape; but they are 
too imperfectly displayed to admit of accurate determination. In some 
respects they resemble the foUage of the Derbyshire phytolite. Pet. Derb. 
Tab. 12 ; and as they are associated with the supposed euphorbiae, it 
seems probable that the stems of the latter were furnished with leaves, of 
which these are the remains. 

* Subsequent observat\ons have convinced me that this specimen is decidedly the epider- 
mal covering of Nos. 2 and 3, the latter being the casts of the internal part of the original. 



STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 45 

7. The impressions of leaves, of a species of car ex or sedge ; per-, 

haps iris? 

These are frequent in the form of reddish brown stains, and im- 
pressions ; similar remains also occur in the Stonesfield slate*. 

FOSSIL SHELLS. 

These, with but one exception, occur only in the state of casts or im- 
pressions; and their characters are so imperfectly defined, that it is 
scarcely possible to ascertain the genera and species to which they 
belong. 

8. Y'lw'v^divai fluviorum ? perhaps PaludmcB? 

These are apparently similar to the shells of the Petworth marble, 
figured in tab. XVII. figs. 5, 6. They occupy the lowermost layers of the 
car-stone, and occur in groups of fifty or sixty, disposed in relief on the 
surface of the stone, where the latter is in contact with the blue clay. 

9. Vivipara extensa, associated with the former. 

10. Casts of spiral univalves, of uncertain genera. 

11. Casts of two species of my a or unio. 

12. Casts of four species of transverse bivalves, whose generic cha- 
racters cannot be determined. Some parts of the limestone contain a 
considerable number of these nuclei, closely invested by the surrounding 
matrix, no appearance of the space formerly occupied by the shells being 
perceptible 'j'. The surface of the casts is smooth, and of a ferruginous 
colour, spotted with stellular markings of a darker shade. 

REMAINS OF FISHES. 

The teeth, and perhaps the scales, are the only parts of fishes that 
have been found in these deposits. The former, from their hardness and 
durability, are in an excellent state of preservation, retaining their original 

* It is worthy of remark, that with the exception of fragments of charred wood, the vegetal 
reliquise of the Tilgate hmestone and sandstone, consist exclusively of those which possess the 
most simple structure, viz. the monocotyledonous, or acotyledonous tribes of plants. 

f This mode of petrifaction is termed redintegration. Vide page 50, Martins Outlines of 
an Attempt to establish a Kno-iicledge of extraneous Fossils on scientific Principles, 8vo. 1809. 
Macclesfield. 



46 STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 

sharpness of outline, with their natural polish, heightened and improved 
by mineralization. Their colour is a dark chocolate, inclining to black, 
apparently produced by an impregnation with oxide of iron : they are ex- 
ceeding brittle, and have their cavities filled with the substance in which 
they are imbedded. 

1 3. A triangular tooth, of a species of Squalus or shark, resembhng in 
form the specimen represented, fig. 9. pi. xix. vol. iii. Org. Eem. but 
much smaller : it occurs also at Stonesfield, near Oxford. 

14. A triangular tooth, with two lateral processes, the surface longi- 
tudinally striated — length 0-2 inch. Mr, Parkinson has figured a similar 
fossil from the Old Passage, Gloucestershire, but does not offer any opi- 
nion as to what animal it originally belonged. 

15. Molar teeth of the Anarhicas lupus*. These are of a serai-or- 
bicular form, sometimes slightly acuminated, from the size of a millet 
seed to 0*5 or 0-6 inch in diameter : they possess a beautiful pohsh, and 
are called " fishes eyes" by the workmen, I have compared these fossils 
with the molar teeth of the recent A. lupus or sea wolf, and could not per- 
ceive the slightest difference either in their form or structure. They are 
frequently worn nearly flat, probably from the mastication of hard sub- 
stances, as the recent fish preys on crustaceous and testaceous animals. 
In one specimen twenty of these bodies are attached to a small block of 
Hmestone. They are very abundant in the alluvial aggregate, and are 
found in the Stonesfield slate. 

16. Scales of a lozenge shape, an inch long, and three-quarters of an 
inch wide, having bifurcated processes of attachment. 

These scales are very thick, and of a glossy black colour ; the process of 
attachment is of a pale brown, and of a bony, or perhaps, cartilaginous 
structure. Although in conformity with the opinion of others, I have 
been induced to consider these fossils as belonging to an unknown fish ; 
yet I entertain some doubts if they may not, with greater propriety, be 
referred to an animal of the lizard tribe. 

* Vide ParJcinson, Org. Rem. vol. 3. six. fig. 6, 7. Lhipid, iig. 1382. 1525. Scilla, Tav. 2. 
Faujas. Hist. St. Pierre, tab. xix. 



STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 47 

REMAINS OF OVIPAROUS QUADRUPEDS, 

These consist of the bones, and plates, of several species of tortoise ; 
and the scales, teeth, vertebrae, and other bones, of one or more species of 
crocodile. 

FOSSIL TORTOISES. 

The remains of these animals in my possession, clearly point out the 
existence of three species in the Tilgate beds. The first, in the form of 
its plates, resembles the Testudo mydas (esculent green turtle) of Linne, 
{testudo vh'idis of Schneider), and must either have belonged to the same 
species, or to one very analogous to it. Of this kind I have the following 
specimens. 

17. Three detached plates on a block of car-stone, resembling the 
plates on the left side of the tortoise of St. Peter's mountain. {Faujas, 
PI. XIV.) Two of these are mutilated, but the other is nearly perfect ; 
it is of a quadrangular form, measuring 2-4 by 27 inch, and its edges are 
slightly dentated. 

18. A specimen six inches long, and two wide, composed of three 
united dorsal plates. 

1 9. Dorsal plates with rudiments of the ribs. 

These fossils are evidently of the same species as the turtles found at 
Melsbroeck. It may be proper to remark, that the recent species above- 
mentioned, is an inhabitant of the coasts of the islands, and continents of 
the torrid zone. 

20. Of the second" species of testudo, I have but a few imperfect 
plates, yet their structure is so weU displayed, as to leave no doubt of 
their being distinct from those previously described. Their surface is 
covered with numerous little pits or hollows, irregularly disposed, and 
which served in the recent state, to render the soft integument of the 
animal more adherent. The specimens in my possession resemble the 
plate from the Paris basin (fig. 1. Fossiles de Paris, reptiles et poissons) 
described by Cuvier, and referred by that illustrious naturalist to the sub- 
genus Trionyx of M. GeofFroy; a division that contains freshwater species 
only. 



48 STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 

21. The existence of a third species is presumed, from a plate, to 
which a portion of the rib is still attached. Mr. Clift of the Koyal College 
of Surgeons, who did me the favor to compare it with the recent turtles 
in the Museum of the College, remarks that " this fossil resembles the third 
rib from the neck, of a species aUied to the hawk's-bill turtle," (testudo im- 
hricata) which inhabits the American, and Asiatic oceans. The rib is longi- 
tudinally striated, and precisely similar to the specimen from Melsbroeck, 
fig. E. Planche V. of Burtin *. 

Of the bones of the testudines, I have obtained the following, and 
probably several others, which at present I am unable to distinguish from 
those of other animals. 

22. Part of the Omoplate or scapula. Cuvier, Tome IV. PL 2. 5. b. 
23 clavicle. Cuvier, Tome IV. PL 2. 5. d. 

My excellent friend Mr. Lyell, informs me, that the remains of several 
species of testudo have been discovered at Stonesfield ; and that some of 
the plates which he saw, resembled the first species above enumerated . 
the circumstance is mentioned here, to point out the remarkable cor- 
respondence that exists in the contents of these deposits. 

FOSSIL LACERTJE. 

The teeth, vertebrae, bones, and other remains of an animal of the 
lizard tribe, of enormous magnitude, are perhaps the most interesting 
fossils that have been discovered in the county of Sussex. 

The teeth and scales, like those of the fishes, are generally well pre- 
served, but the bones have sustained considerable injury from fracture 
and attrition, which renders the determination of their osteological cha- 
racters exceedingly difficult. Of the numerous specimens in my collection, 
not one is perfect ; by far the greater part consisting of fragments rounded 
by the action of water, and deprived of those anatomical distinctions so 
essentially necessary to the elucidation of the form of the original. They 
are heavy, brittle, of a deep brown colour, and strongly impregnated with 

* OryctograpJiie de Bruxelles, ou Description des Fossiles tant naturels qu accidentels decouverts 
jusqiCa ce Jour dans les Envirojis de cette Ville, par M. Francois Xavier Burtin. Folio, 1784. 



STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 49 

iron ; and when exposed to the action of the blow-pipe, evince unequivocal 
proofs of their animal origin. Their cellular structure is sometimes 
beautifully displayed, being injected either with limestone, or crystallized 
carbonate of lime ; and in numerous specimens the medullary cavities of 
the long bones are filled with white semi-transparent calcareous spar. 
The vertebrae are the most entire, but even these have their bodies more 
or less compressed, and their processes broken, or altogether destroyed. 
But notwithstanding the mutilation these remains have undergone, their 
osteological characters are stiU sufficiently marked, to denote not only the 
genus of the animal to which they belonged, but also to afford some slight 
indication of its species. 

The following are the most illustrative specimens in my possession, 
and from which the suggestions hereafter offered concerning the nature of 
the original, are principally derived. 

24. Teeth of a conical form, slightly curved, their surface covered with 
numerous longitudinal ridges or striae, which converge towards the apex : 
the superior terminations are acuminated in some examples, and rounded 
or obtuse in others. 

These fossils are either round, or somewhat compressed, and vary 
considerably in size and curvature; they are from 0*2 inch to S inches 
long, and from OS inch to 2*8 inches in circumference at the base ; 
the upper part only is striated, the lowermost half being perfectly 
smooth. AVith but few exceptions they consist of the crown of the 
tooth only, appearing as if broken off close to the jaw; and although in a 
few instances part of the fang remains, yet the detached state in which 
they are found, prevents their mode of insertion from being accurately 
determined. The fangs are hollow like those of the crocodile, but the 
presence of younger teeth within the cavities of the older ones, as in that 
animal, has not been detected *. 

The teeth possessing the characters here enumerated, constitute the 
following varieties, but whether they originally occupied different situations 

* In a specimen recently discovered, this structure is however very apparent. 

H 



50 STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 

in the jaws of the same species, or belonged to different species of the 
same genus, cannot at present be determined. 

var. a. Nearly cylindrical; diminishing very gradually towards the 
apex, which is obtuse. This variety is represented by Lhwyd, figs. 1318 
and 1319 ; the largest specimens are of this kind. 

var. b. A slender delicate tooth, rather compressed, curvature gradual, 
apex slightly acuminated ; Mr. Clift, who examined a tooth of this species, 
observes " that there can be no doubt of its having belonged either to the 
crocodile, or monitor ; I know of no other animals whose teeth have the 
lateral ridges so strongly defined." I have several teeth of this kind from 
Stonesfield, collected by Mr. LyeU. 

var. c. A slender tooth, nearly straight ; very similar in form to the 
teeth in the anterior part of the jaw of the Gavial or Gangetic crocodile*. 

25. Scales of an irregular rhomboidal form, exceedingly thick, with 
one extremity sharply pointed ; these are associated with the teeth above 
described, and perfectly resemble the scales of the recent aUigator in 
Exeter 'Change. 

VEETEBR^. 

These diflPer from each other in the number, situation, and form 
of their processes, which vary according to the situation the vertebrae 
respectively occupied in the spinal column. In their general characters 
they resemble those of the crocodile, from which however they are 
separated, in having both faces shghtly concave. A similar structure has 
been noticed by Cuvier, in the vertebrse of an unknown fossil crocodile, 
discovered at Havre and Honfleur; and it is to this species that the 
osseous remains of the TUgate beds most nearly correspond. 

The vertebrae are of three kinds, viz, dorsal, lumbar, and caudal; the 
cervical have not been discovered. 

26. " Dorsal. The most perfect specimen resembles the vertebras 
delineated by Lhwyd, fig. 1607, and fig. 11. PI. If. of Cuvier; or more 

* On the authority of Clift, Esq. 

f Description des Ossemens des Environs d'Honfleur et du Havre. Cuvier, Animaux 
Fossiles, tome IV, Crocodiles Fossiles. 



STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 51 

properly speaking, partakes of the characters of both. The body is 
sUghtly contracted in the middle, and has two costal depressions, or 
concave articulating surfaces for receiving the heads of the ribs, {faucette 
costale, a. b. Cuvier, loc. cit.) between which are two fossse, each containing 
a foramen ; the faces are transversely elliptical. The dimensions of the 
vertebrae are as follow : 

Length of the body, 1 '5 inch. 

Transverse diameter of the faces, 2 inches. 

Anterio-posterior diameter, 1 '5 inch. 

The processes are wanting; but traces of the suture by which the 
annular part was united to the body of the vertebrae, are very manifest. 

9,7. * Lumbar. These resemble the former, except that the costal 
depressions are absent ; they are of a large size, and must have belonged 
to an animal of considerable magnitude. One specimen, wliich is precisely 
similar in form to the middle vertebrae, in fig. 6, Crocodiles Fossiles, PL 
I. of Cuvier, (except that both its faces are slightly concave,) is of the 
following dimensions : 

Length of the body, 5 inches. 

Diameter of the faces, 3-8 inches. 

Diameter of the middle, 2-8 inches. 

Like the vertebrae described by Cuvier, this specimen is more con- 
tracted in the middle than those of the recent crocodile, and it also 
resembles the former, in having a deep fossa immediately beneath the 
annular part. {Vide d. fig. 10. Cuvier, loc. cit.) 

28. ' Caudal. In these the axis of the body is much contracted ; they 
are of an elongated form, and bear a close analogy to the vertebrae of the 
recent crocodile, (fig. 7. PI. II. Os separes de Crocodiles, Cuvier.) One of 
the most interesting specimens* in my possession has the remains of the 
spinous and articulating processes. 

* This fossil was submitted to the inspection of Mr. CUft, who remarked, that it perfectly 
resembled the vertebra of a crocodile, except that both its extremities were concave, while 
those of the recent animals of that genus were concave anteriorly and convex posteriorly. 

H 2 



52 STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 

Length of the body, 3 inches. 

Diameter of the middle, 1 -2 inches. 

Diameter of the faces, 1 "4 inches. 

The agreement between the vertebrae here described, and those of the 
fossil crocodile of Honfleur*, is so striking, as to leave no doubt in my 
mind of their identity. This opinion is confirmed by the nature of the 
other bones entombed in the same deposit, and which we shall now proceed 
to examine. 

Of these remains the ribs are the most perfect, and their osteological 
characters are decidedly analogous to those of the lizard tribe. The 
following are selected as' the most illustrative examples. 

29. Part of a rib, with the vertebral extremity remaining. The head 
of the rib, and the tubercle by which it was attached to the transverse 
process of the vertebrge, are broken off, but the situation of these parts is 

* Two species of crocodile are found in a fossil state at Havre and Honfleur ; one having 
its vertebrae concavo-convex, as in the recent species, and the other with both faces of the 
vertebrae slightly concave. It is to the latter, that the bones in question are referable ; a 
species that Cuvier considers as extinct, but which is nearly related to the Gavial or Gangetic 
crocodile. These organic remains also correspond with those of the Tilgate strata in their 
mode of preservation, but the bed in which they are deposited, (and which I had formerly 
imagined might be identified with our Weald clay,) is referred by Mr. Parkinson, to the Blue 
Lias of Dorsetshire. It may not be uninteresting to add Cuvier's description of the strata. 

After a few prefatory observations, this illustrious naturalist thus proceeds : 

" lis sont tons dans un banc de marne calcaire endurcie, d'un gris bleuatre, qui devient 
presque noiratre quand il est humide, et qui regne des deux cotes de Tembouchure de la 
Seine, le long du rivage du pays de Caux et de celui du pays d'Auge, comme au cap de la Heve, 
et entre Touque et Dives, vis-a-vis les Vaches-noires. 

" II s'eleve en quelques endroits au-dessus du niveau des plus hautes marees, et dans 
d'autres il est reconvert par les eaux de la mer. II recele partout des huitres, de petites moules, 
et de petites tellines discoTdes d'especes particulieres, et les os eux-memes ont des huitres et 
des tuyeaux de serpules adherens a leur surface ; mais il n'est pas ais6 de dire si ces coquilles y 
tenoient deja avant qu'ils eussent ete enveloppes par la marne, ou si elles ne s'y sont attachees 
que depuis que lamer les a laves et mis a decouvert. 

" Quant a ce banc de marne, il est certainement plus ancien que la masse immense de craie 
qui repose sur lui, et qui s'elevant en falaises de 3 et 400 pieds de hauteur, forme tout le 
pays de Caux, une partie du pays A'Auge, et s'etend en Picardie, en Champagne, et jusqu'en 
Angleterre, 

" La substance des os est d'un brun tres-fonce, et prend un beau poli ; les acides la dissol- 
vent et en prennent une teinte rougeatre, qui annonce qu'elle est coloree par la fer. Elle a 
cependant conserve une partie de sa nature animale.'" Cuvier, Animautc Fossiles, Tome IV, 
Crocodiles Fossiles, p. 17, 18. 



STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 53 

sufficiently indicated, to prove the resemblance of the specimen to the 
vertebral end of the ribs of the crocodile, PI. 2, fig. 4. k. i. Os sepm^es de 
Crocodiles. Cuvier, Tome iv. 

SO. A rib twenty-one inches long, with both extremities destroyed. 
The sternal end is transversely elliptical, and about two inches in circum- 
ference ; the bone gradually increases in width towards the opposite ex- 
tremity, where its inner surface becomes nearly flat, and the outer slightly 
ridged; the width of this portion is equal to the circumference of the 
sternal end. Fragments of ribs of this kind occur also at Stonesfield. 

From the mutilated state of the following specimens, the references to 
Cuvier's figures of the bones of the recent crocodile, are probably in some 
instances erroneous ; they may, however, for the most part, be regarded 
as nearly approximating to correctness. 

31. Portion of the sternal end of the clavicle? fig. 10, PL 2. (Os 
separes de Crocodiles. Cuvier, Tom. iv.) 

32. Head of the radius ? b, fig. IS, PL 2. 

33. Carpal extremity of the radius? b, fig. 13, PL 2. 

34. Part of the os pubis? c, fig. 15, PL 2. 

35. Fragment of the os ilium? a, fig. 15, PL 2. 

36. Lower extremity of the femur? B, fig. 12, PL 2. 

37. Some fragments of a cyUndrical bone, probably the femur, indicate 
an animal of a gigantic magnitude. I have specimens from ten to twenty- 
seven inches long, and from eleven to twenty-five inches in circumference ; 
the substance of the bone being more than two inches thick ; some ex- 
amples have large foramina for the passage of blood-vessels*. 

38. Lower extremity, and other portions of the tibia? fig. 11, PL 2. 

39. Fragments of the metatarsal bones? fig. 16, PL 2. 



* I may perhaps be accused of indulging in the marvellous, if I venture to state, that 
upon comparing the larger bones of the Sussex monitor with those of the elephant, there seems 
reason to suppose, that the former must have more than equalled the latter in bulk, and have 
exceeded thirty feet in length ! and yet some fragments of bone in my possession, warrant such 
a conclusion. 



54 STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 

From the facts that have been presented to our notice, we may with 
confidence conclude, that the remains in question belonged to an animal, 
approaching in its osteological characters to the crocodile, (or perhaps to 
the genus Monitor of Cuvier,) but differing in many important particulars 
from the recent species : that they are precisely similar to the bones of 
the second species of fossil crocodile discovered at Honfleur, and which 
Cuvier considers as an extinct animal, related to the Gavial or Gangetic 
crocodile ; lastly, that this species exceeded in magnitude every animal of 
the lizard tribe hitherto discovered either in a recent or fossil state. 

TEETH AND BONES OF UNKNOWN ANIMALS. 

Associated with the remains of the monitor and turtles above de- 
scribed, are several teeth and bones, whose characters are too obscure and 
uncertain to admit of determination, without the aid of more illustrative 
specimens. A brief description of these fossils is here inserted, not in the 
hope of being able to elucidate their nature, but to record their existence 
in the Tilgate beds with a view to future inquiries. 

40. Teeth. Among these are several incisors and molares that 
have evidently belonged to the same kind of animal ; they are of a very 
singular character, and differ from any previously known. The molares 
are of an irregular pentagonal form, their sides channelled and obscurely 
striated. The masticating surface is perfectly smooth, and rather de- 
pressed in the centre, and in the largest specimen is 0*8 inch long, and 
05 wide. They consist of the crown of the tooth only, and are perfectly 
solid. 

An incisor tooth that appears to correspond with the preceding, is 
1 -S inch long ; it is slightly bowed, and nearly smooth on the inner sur- 
face, but externally has a longitudinal ridge which extends down the 
front. The crown of the tooth is 06 inch long, and 04 inch wide; its 
sides are angular, and their edges finely crenated. 

41. An incisor tooth of a cuneiform shape, 1*1 inch wide, and 1*4 inch 
long ; the crown only remains. 

^Vhen perfect, this specimen must have been of a very considerable 



STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 55 

size ; — several smaller examples were discovered by Mrs. Mantell in the 
diluvial aggregate. 

42. A curved tooth much compressed, the surface smooth, the apex 
obtuse, and the edges serrated. The external margin is thick and 
rounded, the inner edge thin and acute ; length 1 -5 inch. 

This specimen resembles fig. 1328 of Lhwyd, but does not entirely 
correspond with the figure of that author ; a reference to it will however 
serve to render this description more inteUigible. « The teeth near the 
front of the lower jaw of the baj'racouta, are very similar in form*." 

43. Part of the scale of a fish ? it is half an inch square, and its surface 
covered with irregular depressions. " The markings on its surface re- 
semble those of the dorsal scales of the sturgeon f." (Accipenser sturio.) 
May it not have belonged to a species of trionyx ? 

44. Part of the lower jaw of a fish ? (or of an animal allied to the mo- 
nitor ?) imbedded in a block of limestone. 

This interesting specimen is in the possession of my friend E. Weekes, 
Esq. of Hurtperpoint. It is part of the right side of the lower jaw, about 
1 '6 inch long. It contains seven slender curved pointed teeth, the largest 
of which is 0*2 inch long. Mr. Konig, to whose notice it was submitted, 
thought it belonged to an animal aUied to the monitor. 

45. Portion of a rib shghtly curved, and nearly flat. 

Length 14 inches ; width of the narrowest extremity 2*5 inches, of the 
widest, 3 inches ; thickness, 0*8 inch. 

This specimen bears a greater resemblance to the rib of a quadruped, 
than to those of the lacertse 



From this sketch of the strata and organic remains of the Tilgate 
strata, imperfect as it may be, several important inferences naturally arise : 
but as my information concerning these remarkable deposits is too Hmited 
and uncertain to warrant any general conclusions, I shall not at present 

* On the authority of Mr. Clift. f Mr. Clift. 



56 STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 

presume to attempt an explanation of the phenomena they exhibit, but 
conclude with a brief recapitulation of the facts which this investigation 
appears to have established. 

1. The country in the envu-ons of Tilgate forest is composed of various 
beds of limestone and sandstone, covered with a layer of diluvial detritus ; 
their total thickness being about thirty feet. 

2. These deposits (so far as our knowledge extends) are of incon- 
siderable extent, occupying a district not exceeding fifteen square miles. 

3. They contain the remains of oviparous quadrupeds and fishes; 
fresh water ? and marine shells ; and numerous vegetables. 

4. Of these remains, a few only are sufiiciently entire to point out the 
characters of the originals, the most considerable portion being reduced to 
fragments, and rounded by attrition ; and all more or less broken and in- 
discriminately mixed together. 

5. The more perfect examples are referable to the following animals 
and vegetables : viz. 

An animal of the lizard tribe, of gigantic magnitude. 

Other species of lacertae, the characters of which have not been satis- 
factorily determined. 

Three species of turtle, two of which are marine, and the third, a fresh 
water species ; of the former, one is related to Testudo mydas, and the 
other to T. imbricata. The fresh water species resembles the fossil turtle 
of the Paris basin. 

Two kinds of fishes related to recent species, at present inhabitants of 
our seas, (if not the same ?) viz. Squalus miistelus, and Anarhicas lupus. 

Several species of bivalve and univalve shell-fish; the former be- 
longing to the genera mya and unio ; the latter to the genera vivipara ? 
or paludina ? consisting of the same species as the shells of the Purbeck 
limestone. 

The vegetables resemble in their general characters, certain plants 
peculiar to tropical regions, namely, the EuphorbicB and Dicksonia ; some 
of them are evidently the remains of palms and gigantic reeds ; and one 
species is very similar to the common Carew of our rivers. 



STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 57 

It results from these observations, that the animals and vegetables of 
the Tilgate strata, must have been overwhelmed by a fluid in a state of 
violent commotion, since they are generally broken, and their fragments 
promiscuously intermingled ; yet from the perfect manner in which the 
teeth, scales, and other parts, are preserved in some examples, there is 
reason to conclude, that the originals were not transported from a distant 
country, but lived and died in the vicinity of the district, where their 
remains are now entombed. 

In fact, the existence of dry land at no great distance, seems clearly 
indicated by these remains of vegetables and amphibia ; some of the former 
must have grown on the borders of a river or lake ; and the habits of the 
recent species, most nearly related to the latter, warrant a similar conclu- 
sion, since they are well known to frequent the rivers and marshy tracts 
of tropical regions, in the sands and banks of which they deposit their 
eggs. 

Reflecting upon these extraordinary facts, may we not inquire with the 
illustrious Cuvier, " At what period was it, and under what circumsta7ices, 
that turtles and gigantic crocodiles lived in our climate, and were shaded by 
forests of palms, arid arborescent ferns f" 



On the Geological Position of the Strata in the Environs of 

Tilgate Forest. 

The geological position of these beds is involved in much obscurity, and 
cannot at present be satisfactorily determined. The analogy which they 
bear to those of Purbeck* is however so striking, that the mind naturally 

* The Purbeck beds occupy the highest place in the oolite series, and consist of thin 
strata of argillaceous limestone, alternating with schistose marls, forming an aggregate of more 
than 300 feet in thickness. 

The fossils of the Purbeck stone consist chiefly of shells, which are supposed to resemble 
fresh water species, as the viviparcE, cyclostomcc, ■planorbes, &c. ; impressions of fish, bones, 



58 



STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 



assigns to both the same relative situation ; yet the latter are well known 
to he immediately beneath the iron sand formation, while the strata in 
question, are almost in contact with the weald clay, appearing on the 
surface, as represented in the annexed diaffram. 




a. Chalk of the South Do^vns. b. Blue chalk marl. c. Green sand. 
d. Weald clay. e. Sand. / Tilgate beds. g. Iron sand. 

It is obvious from this section, that the only hypothesis by which the 
connexion of the Tilgate and Purbeck beds can be rationally explained, 
is that of supposing them to form a protrusion through the iron sand ; 
the relative position of the respective substances being such, that a de- 
nudation, or removal of the upper beds, could not have occasioned their 
present appearance. And as the thickness of the iron sand is estimated 
at 500 feet, the Tilgate strata, according to this supposition, must be 
situated on the summit of a hillock, or peak, 500 feet above the level of 
the uppermost beds of the Purbeck hmestone. 




a. a. Iron sand. b. Tilgate beds. c. Purbeck hmestone. 

and plates of one or more species of turtle ; and the bones and teeth of an animal of the lizard 
tribe allied to the crocodile. The circumstances under which these strata appear, difer greatly. 
They are distinctly seen in the Isle of Purbeck, and form a considerable district m Yorkshire, 
called the Vale of Pickering. The same strata appear in Kent, rising together with others, from 
beneath the chalk ; where from the coarseness of the limestone, it has been called the Kentish Rag. 
(Phillips' Outlines of Geology.) 



STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 59 

The discussion of this subject cannot, however, be pursued in this 
place, without leading to the anticipation of facts hereafter to be ex- 
amined ; it will therefore be more convenient to reserve any farther ob- 
servations to the concluding section of this volume. 



On the Analogy between the Organic Remains of the Tilgate 
Beds, and those of Stonesfield, near Oxford. 

In the course of this inquiry, allusion has been made to the fossils of 
the Stonesfield slate, and their general resemblance to those of the Tilgate 
strata ; this correspondence in the organic remains of deposits, whose 
geological relations are so entirely dissimilar, is a fact sufficiently in- 
teresting to require some attention. 

The Stonesfield limestone is well known to belong to the middle beds 
of the oolite, and has long been celebrated for the extraordinary character 
of its fossils ; of which, however, no detailed account has yet appeared 
before the public*. 

According to Dr. Kidd-j-, it contains crabs, birds, tortoises, and one or 
more large quadrupeds ; and the Eev. W. Conybeare, in his highly in- 
teresting memoir on the Plesiosaurus \, mentions, that it also incloses the 
remains of " an immense saurian animal, approaching to the characters of 
the monitor, and which, from the proportions of many of the specimens, 
cannot have been less than forty feet long." 

With the assistance of Charles Lyell, jun. Esq. M. A. (of Bartley 
Lodge, Hants,) and aided by an interesting collection of Stonesfield 
fossils, for which I am indebted to his liberality, I have been able to as- 
certain that the following organic remains occur in both deposits, viz. 

* In the second part of the fifth vol. of the Geolog. Trans, just pubhshed, Mr. Conybeare 
states, that Professors Kidd and Buckland have been long engaged in the study of these in- 
teresting remains, and it is expected will shortly publish the result of their observations. 

f Geological Essays, by J. Kidd, M. D. 8vo. 1815, p. 38. 

I Geological Transactions, Vol. 5. p. 592. 

I 2 



60 STRATA OF TILGATE FOREST. 

The teeth, ribs, and vertebrae of a gigantic animal of the lizard tribe. 

Bones and plates of several species of tortoise. 

Teeth of a species of squalus and anarhicas. 

Scales of fishes, and lacertae. 

Bones of birds ? and of quadrupeds ? 

A plant of the genus carex, allied to recent species. But the resem- 
blance extends no farther ; the trigonioi and belemnites of the Stonesfield 
slate do not occur in the Tilgate beds ; and the vivipartp, euphorbice, &c. 
.of the latter, have not been discovered in the former deposit. It is 
scarcely necessary to add, that the limestone slate of Tilgate exhibits no 
traces of oolitic structure. 



WEALD, OR OAK TREE CLAY. 6l 



VII. 

^1. 3. WEALD, OR OAK TREE CLAY; CONTAINING SUBORDINATE 
BEDS OF LIMESTONE AND SANDSTONE. 



St/n.—Tetsworth Clay. —Order of Superpositioti of the Strata, ^c. by Pro- 
fessor BucJcland. 

A tenacious clay, varying in colour from a yellowish brown to a dark 
bluish grey, and containing beds of limestone and sandstone, succeeds the 
iron sand deposit. It forms, as its name impHes, a soil pecuharly favour- 
able to the growth of the oak, the tract of country in which it pre- 
dominates producing the finest timber in the county. 

The weald clay appears on the surface, between the out-crops of the 
iron sand of the forest ridge, and the green sand, and its boundaries, are 
tolerably well defined by the basseting edges of those formations. Its 
occurrence is also indicated by the badness of the roads, and the lux- 
uriant forests of oak with which it is covered in many places. It is of 
considerable extent and thickness. The wells sunk in it are deep, and the 
water generally of bad quality. 

This deposit forms a vale from six to twelve miles in breadth, oc- 
cupying the lowest part of the wealds of Kent and Sussex, and skirting 
the base of the chain of sand hills situate on the boundary Hue of the two 
counties. This vale commences near Pevensey, and runs parallel with 
the northern escarpment of the Downs, to Petworth and Haslemere, its 
inner margin extending to Horsham ; it then passes into Surrey, and 
finally into Kent, where it obtains the same relative situation. 

This clay is destitute of organic remains, but is well characterized by 
beds of argillaceous shelly hmestone, that occur in various parts of its 
coiu'se in Surrey, Kent, and Sussex. 



62 WEALD, OR OAK TREE CLAY. 

We shall now proceed to particularize a few localities of this deposit, 
and afterwards give a detailed account of the limestone strata, the geolo- 
gical history of which is particularly interesting, from their supposed 
analogy to the Purbeck. 

At Swingate, near Plashett Park, in the parish of Ringmer, a well was 
sunk in the Weald Clay, to the depth of seventy feet ; and at Mr. Hill's, 
on the Broyle, a well, ninety feet deep, was carried by borings forty feet 
lower ; in both instances the water was brackish, and unfit for cuHnary 
pui-poses : no organic remains were discovered. The deepest borings in 
Mr. HiU's weU brought up ironstone and sand. 

On a farm belonging to Mr. John Eickman, at another part of the 
Broyle, trials were also made for water, but the result was equally un- 
favourable. To the intelligent proprietor of that estate, I am indebted 
for the following section : 

Section of strata in the Broyle, near Ringmer, (communicated by Mr. 
John Rickman, of Wellingham.) 

Feet. 

" 1, Ochraceous clay, becoming hard, and un tractable when dry 5 
" 2. Clay, with a thin vein of sand - - - - 5 

" 3. Blue oak-tree clay ; tenacious when wet ; crumbles very fine 
when exposed to the sun ; a good manure for light sandy soils - 5 
" 4. Yellowish brown clay - - - - - 10 

" 5. Clay of a light blue colour - - - - 10 

" 6. Clay of a deeper blue, impregnated with iron . - . 5 
" At this depth a spring suddenly burst forth, and rapidly rose to the 
surface : it has continued to flow in a gentle stream, but the water is too 
strongly impregnated with iron to be fit for domestic use." In an ad- 
joining field, Mr. R. bored to the depth of sixty feet, when the auger 
became immoveably fixed in a hard substance ; probably a bed of Sussex 
marble*. 

* The well-diggers regard the occurrence of this limestone as a sure prognostic of good 
water, and assert that where it is absent, the water of the clay is brackish and unpalatable. 



WEALD, OR OAK TREE CLAY. 63 

§ Sussex or Petworth Marble. 

Syn. — " Marmor viridi-cinereum cochleis refertum." Da Costa's Nat. 
Hist, of Fossils, p. 235, No. Ixxvii. 

" Marble from Petworth, Sussex." Woodward's Catalogue, vol. i. p. 20. 
X. b. 60 *. 

This limestone is of various shades of bluish grey, mottled with 
green, and ochraceous yeUow, and is composed of the remains of fresh 
water univalves, formed by a calcareous cement into a beautiful compact 
marble. It bears a high polish, and is elegantly marked by the sections of 
the shells which it contains. The shells belong to the genus vivipara of 
Montfort, {Helix vivipara, of Linn^,) and are supposed to resemble the 
recent species of our rivers: their constituent substance is a white crystallized 
carbonate of lime, and their cavities are commonly filled with the same sub- 
stance, presenting a striking contrast to the dark ground of the marble. 
In other varieties the substance of the shells is black, and their sections 
appear on the surface in the form of numerous lines and spiral figures. 

The Sussex marble occurs in layers, from a few inches to a foot in 
thickness, and these are commonly separated from each other by thin 
seams of clay, or of coarse friable limestone. It is frequently found in 
blocks or slabs, sufficiently large for sideboards, columns, or chimney- 
pieces, and but few of the ancient residences of the Sussex gentry are 
without them. There is historical proof of its having been known to the 
Eomans, " and in the early Norman centuries it was much sought after, 
and applied as the Purbeck marble was, when cut into small insulated 
shafts of pillars, which were placed in the triforia, or upper arcades of 
cathedral churches, as at Canterbury and Chichester. At the first men- 

* " Marble from Petworth, Sussex. The ground grey, with a cast of green. 'Tis very 
thick set in all parts, with shells chiefly turbinated. Some of them seem to be of that sort of 
river shell that Dr. Lister (Hisf. Cochlear. Aug. p. 13^5.) called Cochlea maxima, fiisca sive ni- 
gricans,Jasciata. Several of the shells are filled with a white spar, which variegates and adds to 
the beauty of the stone. This is of about the hardness of the white Genoese marble." An 
Attempt towards a Natural History of the Fossils of England, by J. Woodward, M D. London, 
1729, tome 1. p. 20. 



64 WEALD, OR OAK TREE CLAY. 

tioned, the archiepiscopal chair is composed of it. Another more general 
use was for slabs of sepulchral monuments, into which portraits and in- 
scriptions of brass were inserted. In the chancel at Trotton, there is a 
single stone, the superficial measure of which is nine feet six inches, by 
four feet six inches ; and another, in the pavement of the cathedral of 
Chichester, measures more than seven feet by three and a half*/' York 
Cathedral, Westminster Abbey, Temple Church, Sahsbury Cathedral, and 
most of the principal gothic edifices in the kingdom, contain pillars or 
slabs of this marble. It is singular, that in Woodward's time, an opinion 
prevailed, that these pUlars, &c. were artificial, and formed of a cement 
cast in moulds ; but, as that author remarks, " Any one who shall confer 
the grain of the marble of those pillars, the spar, and the shells in it, with 
those of this marble got in Sussex, wiU soon discern how little ground 
there is for that opinion, and yet it has prevailed very generally. I met 
with several instances of it as I travelled through England, and had fre- 
(juent opportunities of showing those who asserted these pillars to be fac- 
titious, stone of the very same sort with that they were composed of, 
in the neighbouring quarries -f." 

^s^umerous examples of the durability of this limestone have been 
noticed above ; yet from long exposure in damp situations, it undergoes 
decomposition, and the petrified testaceae may then be extricated almost 
entire. The specimens, figs. 5, 6. tab. xvii. are examples of this kind ; 
the slab delineated in the same plate is of the most compact and beautiful 
variety, that occurs in the south-eastern division of the county. 

Mr. Young ij: observes, that this limestone affords a very valuable 
manure, equal to chalk ; and Hasted 1| mentions, that a grey turbinated 
marble, greatly resembhng it, is found at Eethersden, in Kent : specimens 
in my possession, from the last-mentioned locality, are perfectly analogous 
to the Sussex marble. 



* Dallaway's Western Sussex, chap. 26, page 145. 

■f Woodward's Fossils, loc. cit. 

J Young s Jgriadtural Survey of Sussex. 

II liasted's Kent. 



WEALD, OR OAK TREE CLAY. 65 

From the considerable depth in the Weald clay, at which this lime- 
stone generally occurs, its geographical extent cannot be accurately de- 
fined, our knowledge of its course depending, for the most part, upon 
such sections as are accidentally exposed, by the sinking of weUs, or other 
artificial excavations. The information thus obtained is, however, suf- 
ficient to prove, that the beds traverse the county in a N.N.W. direc- 
tion, extending from Kirdford, in Western Sussex, to Laughton, six miles 
N.E. from Lewes, from whence it proceeds eastwardly, and is lost in the 
alluvial marshes of Pevensey Levels. Wherever it approaches the sur- 
face, it occupies moderately rising ground, generally on the north side of 
a rivulet. The following list contains every locahty with which I am at 
present acquainted : 

Localities of the Sussex Makble. 

Kirdford. In the quarries of the Earl of Egremont, lying on blue 
clay, twenty feet below the surface. 

North Chapel. This locahty is mentioned by Da Costa. 

Petworth. The quarries are nearly four miles from the town, and the 
marble occurs in a bed of blue clay, at the depth of twenty-five feet. 
" The bed is horizontal, and is exposed to view in the ravines. It is 
divided by fissures into large slabs, fit for tables and other purposes, 
varying in thickness, from twelve to twenty-two inches, and is more or 
less compact*." 

Wisborough Green. 

West Grinsted f . 

Friar's Oak Inn, on the Brighton road f. 

St. John's Common : in blue clay, at the depth of a few feet beneath 
the surface, generally covered with a thin bed of loam. The limestone 
is of a deeper blue than in most other places, and the slabs, where in con- 
tact with the clay, are covered with a profusion of casts of univalves, lying 
in relief The pathways leading to the cottages, situate on the road-side 

* I am indebted for this notice, to my excellent friend John Hawkins, Esq. F.R.S. &c. of 
Bignor Park, near Petworth. 

t These localities were communicated by Richard Weekes, Esq. F.L.S. &c. of Hurstperpoint. 

K 



66 WEALD, OR OAK TREE CLAY. 

from hence to near Cuckfield, are generally paved with blocks of 
limestone, that have been dug up in sinking the neighbouring wells ; by 
an attention to this circumstance, (which I have frequently noticed in 
other parts of the county) the marble may occasionally be discovered 
in situations, where its existence might not otherwise have been sus- 
pected. 

New Close; on Ditchling Common*. 

Blackbrook Wood ; beneath a bed of ochraceous clay, four feet thick. 

Plumpton Green * ; at the south end of the green, and to the north of 
the rivulet. 

Street Green ; it occurs under precisely similar circumstances. 

Cooksbridge. 

Plashett Park. A well sunk near a cottage in the south-eastern 
corner of the park, gave the following section : 

1. Ochraceous loam 

2. Weald clay _ _ ^ 

3. Sussex marble - - - 

4. Weald clay - _ _ 

5. Sussex marble 

6. Weald clay - _ _ 

7. Sussex marble - - _ 
Spring of excellent water. 

26 1 Total depth. 

Short Gate. A well thirty feet deep in the Weald clay, passed 
through two beds of Sussex marble. 

Broyle Place. In an adjoining field, blocks of the limestone are fre- 
quently exposed by the ploughs. 

Laughton. In digging the foundation of the mansion lately erected 
by Colonel Downman, of the Koyal Artillery, a fine bed of Sussex marble 
was discovered at the depth of ten feet. It is a very compact variety, 

* These localities were communicated by Richard Weekes, Esq. F.L.S.&c. of Hurstperpoint. 



Feet 


Inch 


5 





5 








5 


5 








10 


9 








10 



WEALD, OR OAK TREE CLAY, 67 

and is separated by thin layers of marl into slabs, from six to twelve inches 
thick, A spring of excellent water issues from beneath the limestone 
beds, in a well thirty feet deep. 

In concluding this account of the Sussex marble, it may be proper to 
remark, that it appeared unnecessary to specify every variation in its tex_ 
ture or colour, since these differences are merely accidental, and do not 
affect the geological history of the substance under examination. 

Organic Remains, 

The fossils of the Weald clay, consist only of the shells contained in 
the beds of limestone, and these do not present much variety. They are 
referable but to one genus, and consist of the following species : 

1, Vivipara fluviorum? Tab. xvij. fig. 5, 6. 

2, extensa. Min. Conch, tab. xxxi. fig. 2. 

From the apparent resemblance of these shells to the recent helices 
(Helta' vivipara, et H. tentaculata, of Linne) the limestone in which they 
are imbedded, has been supposed to be of fresh water origin. The correct- 
ness of such an opinion is, however, very questionable, since the characters 
of the fossils are not sufficiently defined, to admit of accurate comparison 
with their assumed prototypes *, 

The analogy between tliese strata, and the upper beds of the Purbeck, 
is so striking, that some eminent geologists have been induced to con- 
sider the Sussex marble as belonging to that series of deposits. But the 
testace^E of the Purbeck hmestone, although corresponding in many 

* Mr. G. Sowerby has favoured me with the following remarks on the specimens repre- 
sented in tab. xvij. figs. 5, 6. 

" I will briefly state the reasons which induce me to think the specimens in question are 
not of fresh water origin, and consequently not pahidincB. After a careful examination, I can- 
not perceive the least appearance of that kind of erosion, so characteristic of fresh water tes- 
taceae, and which, though not constant, is in most cases observable in a greater or less degree. 
The substance of these shells is also considerably thicker than in any species of paludina ; in- 
deed for size, their thickness is very considerable. 

" These fossils must not be confounded with the viviparce or paludina;, so common in the 
marl that lies over the fresh water beds at Headen-hill, in the Isle of Wight, and which 
are distinctly eroded, very thin, and of undoubted fresh water origin. 

" The only recent shells that resemble the fossils you have submitted to my examination, 
are a small species of turbo, (of Linne) approaching in its characters to tm-bo liitoreus." 

k2 



68 



WEALD, OR OAK TREE CLAY. 



respects with the viviparfe of the Sussex marble, are of a more slender 
and elegant form, and certainly belong to a distinct genus. In short, 
after repeated examinations of the Weald clay with its imbedded lime- 
stone, in various parts of its course through Sussex, I have no hesita- 
tion in stating my conviction, that it is perfectly distinct from the Pur- 
beck, and is separated from it by the iron sand formation, as represented 
in the annexed diagram : 




a. ^Veald clay, and Sussex marble, 
limestone. 



b. Iron sand. 



c. Purbeck 



GREEN OR CHLORITE SAND. 69 

VIIL 

§1.4. Green or Chlorite Sand. 



Syn. Phillips' Outlines of Mineralogy and Geology, p. 199- — Smith's 
Strata, p. 12. — Professor Buckland's Order of Superposition of the British 
Islands. 

The term green sand, in its limited sense, is employed to designate 
certain strata of siliceous sand and sandstone, which compose the upper 
division of the " Green Sand Formation," and are interposed between the 
Weald clay and the lower beds of the chalk. A considerable portion of 
the sand " contains little round masses of a green substance, having a near 
resemblance to chlorite, and which sometimes are so abundant as to 
give a green tinge to the aggregate of wliich they form a part : from this 
circumstance, the deposit has also been distinguished by the name of 
" Chlorite Sand.'" This substance, however, has not been chemically 
examined, and very probably may prove to be a suboxide of iron *." 

In its course through Sussex, the green sand varies so much in its ex- 
ternal appearance, physical characters, and mineral contents, that its out- 
crop is traced with difficulty. The strata comprised in this division, 
admit of the following synoptical arrangement, viz. 



GREEN SAND. 



C Thick beds and concretions of chert, (provincially termed whinstone,) 
\ with veins of chalcedony. 

White sand and sandstone. 

Red sand. - 

Green sand. 

Passing into iron sand, and containing concretions of ironstone. 

Alternating with, and passing into soft grey sandstone. 

* Phillips' Outlines. 



70 GREEN OR CHLORITE SAND. 

Such are the principal members of this deposit, that occur in Sussex. 
The lowermost beds first appear in the western part of the county at 
Haslemere, Blackdown hill, &c., where the layers and concretions of chert 
that characterize this division, are provincially termed JVhinstone. These 
are succeeded by the ferruginous sand of Parham, which continues with 
but little interruption to Hurstperpoint, and there gradually passes into 
the red and white sand and sandstone of Ditchhng. Proceeding in an 
easterly direction, the sand assumes its characteristic appearance, and at 
"Westmeston, Cooksbridge, Wellingham, Kingmer, the Broyle, &c. per- 
fectly resembles the chlorite sand of A^-^iltshire. Approaching Eastbourne, 
it passes into soft grey sand and sandstone, and is there terminated by 
the ocean. 

The outcrop of the green sand thus briefly sketched, forms an incon- 
siderable tract of country, of variable breadth, extending from Eastbourne, 
to the western extremity of the county, and lying parallel with the 
northern escarpment of the Downs. 

The subdivisions of this deposit in Sussex are not sufficiently important 
to require a separate description, and we shall therefore proceed to in- 
vestigate the phenomena they present to our notice, without adhering to 
geognostic arrangement. 

The beds and concretions of chert, occur principally in the western 
division of the county. This substance is a variety of hornstone ; it occurs 
massive, is of a greyish yellow or greenish colour, has a conchoidal frac- 
ture, and a glimmering lustre. To my excellent friend, John Hawkins, 
Esq. F. K. S. &c. of Bignor Park, I am indebted for the following account 
of its characters and position. 

" This stone is a compact mass of quartz, but not homogeneous, for 
it contains iron, and perhaps some other substance. It occurs in great 
abundance in the beds of our building stone, a ragged sandstone, which 
constitutes a chain of hills running E. and W. on the north side of the 
Arun and Pother : the strata there have a regular dip to the south, and 
basset out on the north. At Petworth and on the top of the high hill to 
the eastward, this hard stone is dug in great quantities for repairing the 



GREEN OR CHLORITE SAND. 71 

roads*, and I know not in any country a better material. It is usually 
disposed in irregular beds in the sandstone, but occasionally forms veins, 
which intersect the strata ; I call the beds irregular, because they vary 
much in breadth and appear not to continue far. 

"The Whinstone-j- shows a transition into the sandstone, and they 
are certainly of contemporaneous formation. In some situations near 
Petworth, great lenticular masses of this substance are imbedded in the 
friable sandstone, and these follow the same sedimentary hne as the 
beds of sandstone, although separated from each other by very wide 
intervals : they are therefore unquestionably in situ. These masses 
frequently measure eight or ten feet by two or three, and are invariably 
surrounded by a more friable and ochraceous sandstone than the rest of 
the strata." 

The Whinstone is sometimes traversed by veins of chalcedony, and 
it also contains cavities lined with mammiUated concretions of the same 
substance '^. 

At Parham, near the village of Storrington, and in the adjoining parish 
of Rackham, the sand is highly ferruginous, and contains irregular con- 
cretions of ironstone. These beds, which are peculiarly interesting from 
the abundance and variety of their organic remains, were first noticed 
by my brother, through whose kindness I have obtained a fine series 
of specimens. 

In Parham Park, the seat of Lord De-la-Zouche, the sand appears 
immediately beneath the turf, disposed in the following manner : 

1 . Surface soil, consisting of sand and vegetable earth ; in some parts 
of a deep brown coloui*, approaching to black. 

2. A thin layer of ferruginous sand, with small nodular masses of 
ironstone. 



* It was also noticed on Bexley Heath, and on the sides of Blackdown Hill, by Mr. 
Lyell. ' 

■f- Whinstone, the name by which the chert is distinguished in Western Sussex, is probably 
of Saxon origin ; it is unknown in the south-eastern part of the county. 

J This circumstance was communicated to me by the Rev. C. P. N. Wilton, M. .4. &c. of 
Blakeney, Gloucestershire. 



72 GREEN OR CHLORITE SAND. 

3. Brown sand, with nodular concretions of sand, enveloping traces of 
zoophytes. 

4. Yellowish brown friable sandstone, which hardens by exposure to the 
air ; it contains numerous casts and impressions of bivalves and univalves. 

5. Indurated sandstone of a deep brown colour, enclosing irregular 
nodules of ironstone. 

6. Sand and sandstone to an indeterminate depth. 

The fossils discovered in these strata, consist of the casts and im- 
pressions of many kinds of univalves and bivalves ; and these occur in the 
greatest perfection in the more compact masses of the sandstone. Of the 
shells themselves not the shghtest vestige remains, the cavities they 
formerly occupied being still empty : a circumstance that proves their 
destruction must have been effected by some chemical agent, subsequently 
to the consolidation of the sand, which now so beautifully retains their 
forms and markings. 

By a careful comparison of the casts with the corresponding im- 
pressions, the following have been identified. 

Organic Remains from Parham Park. 

1. Fragment of an Echino-spatangus. 

2. A small species of Patella, of an oval shape, conical, depressed ; the 
casts of the interior of the shell only have been discovered. 

3. 'RosteWaria Par kinsoni. Org. Rem. vol. 3. tab. V. fig. 11. It is 
evidently of the same species as the siliceous rostellarite of Devonshire, 
figured by Mr. Parkinson, and is readily distinguished by its alated outer 
lip with one spur-like process : the wreaths are from six to seven in 
number, and are shghtly costated longitudinally. 

4. Natica ? A cast one inch long, the outer whorl being seven-tenths 
of the whole : volutions four or five. It very closely resembles the nerite, 
figured by Faujas St. Fond. Hist. Nat. de la Mont, de St. Pierre, PI. 
xxviii. fig. 2. 

5. Fragments of a species of Dentalium, 1 '5 inch long, and 0*3 inch in 
diameter, at the largest extremity. 



GREEN OR CHLORITE SAND. 73 

6. My tilus. Casts of a small species, with acuminated beaks, the anterior 
side truncated and slightly curved ; a few concentric markings, probably 
the hnes of growth, are perceptible. 

7. Modiola imbricata? Min. Conch, tab. 212. figs. 1, 3. The form 
of the casts so closely corresponds with that of the figures referred to, that 
1 have but httle hesitation in considering them as the remains of the 
same species, although the imbricated external surface has not been 
noticed in the Parham specimens. 

8. TelUna. The casts of a small flat species ; these are very numerous. 

9. CucuUea. A few excellent casts in which the transverse teeth of 
the hinge (the characteristic mark of this genus) are very distinctly shewn; 
the impression of the external surface has not been observed. Some of 
the specimens are of the size and form of C. decussata (Min. Conch, tab. 
206. figs. 3 and 4.), and in all probabihty belong to that species ; an 
impression of the markings of the interval between the beaks, resembles 
those of C. oblongata, (Min. Conch, tab. 206. figs. 1 and 2.) 

10. Trigonia clavellata. Min. Conch, tab. 87. The casts of this 
species are from three to four inches long, and exhibit the structure of 
the hinge and the situation of the muscular impression. The markings 
of the external surface, upon which its specific characters depend, are also 
beautifully preserved. 

11. Trigonia aliformis. Min. Conch, tab. 215. The casts of this 
species are very bold and sharp, and seldom exceed an inch in width ; the 
impressions of the external surface are not uncommon. 

12. Venus. The casts of a shell of this genus are very numerous ; 
it is an inch long, the width a httle exceeding the length ; the external 
impressions have not been observed. 

IS. Crassatella? The cast of a species allied to this genus. 

14. Yenexiczxdiva, planicosta9 Min. Conch, tab. 50. Several remark- 
ably perfect casts of a venericardia, aUied to this species, have been 
obtained from the more compact masses of the ironstone ; they differ 
however from V. planicosta in their width exceeding their length, and in 
having but one muscular impression, which is placed near the posterior 



74 GREEN OR CHLORITE SAND. 

margin. The appearance is too constant to be the result of accident, but 
it is difficult to explain the cause of tliis deviation from the usual structure 
of the shells of this genus. The specimens are from four to five inches 
and a half wide, and weigh from one, to one and a half pounds. 

15. Mya, intermedia. Min. Conch, tab. 76. fig. 1. The casts are very 
elegant, and correspond in every respect with the specimens of this species 
that occur in the sandstone of Bognor : the impression of the hinge tooth 
is very manifest. 

It is a circumstance worthy of remark, that this shell should have been 
an inhabitant of the waters that deposited the green sand below the 
chalk, and of those which formed the sandstone of the London clay. 

16. Pecten quinquecostata. Min. Conch, tab. 56. The lower or 
convex valve only has been observed ; its form is precisely similar to the 
chalk specimens. 

17. Perna. Impressions of the hinge of a species of this genus are 
preserved in some of the masses of ironstone in my cabinet ; and a few 
casts of the shell were discovered in the sand by my brother. The largest 
specimen of the hinge is about three inches long, and exhibits six casts of 
the pits or depressions of the original ; they resemble P. aviculoides, 
Min. Conch, tab. QQ. in their general contour, bvit probably belong to a 
distinct species. 

18. Terebratula ovata. Min. Conch, tab. 15. fig. 3. It is of an ovate 
form, rather depressed, smooth, and obscurely pentangular. This species 
also occurs in the green sand of Wilts. 

19- Terebratula; a small striated species, in too imperfect a state to 
admit of determination. 



Proceeding towards the eastern division of the county, the sand is 
observed holding its course in a Hue parallel with the northern escarp- 
ment of the Downs, at Henfield, Hurstperpoint, Stonepound, Keymer, &c. 

In the pleasure grounds of W. J. Campion, Esq. of Danny, near 



GREEN OR CHLORITE SAND. • 75 

Hurstperpoint, it forms several banks of low elevation, but the sections 
which they present are inconsiderable and uninteresting. 

On the south side of the turnpike gate at Stone-pound, the sand is of 
a reddish brown colour, mottled with yellow ; on the north it lies beneath 
an alluvial deposit of, 

1. Loam and ochraceous clay, about three or four feet. 

2. Blue clay, containing a large proportion of sand, five feet. 

3. Yellowish grey sand, from eight to ten feet. 

4. Eeddish brown sand; 
these strata dip to the south. 

The httle town of Ditchhng, situated near the foot of the Downs, 
stands upon a low mound or hillock of this deposit. Here the sand is of 
various shades of red and yellow, interspersed with white ; and is inclined 
to the south, dipping beneath the blue chalk marl, which bassets out from 
under the chalk hills in the vicinity of the town. 

South of Beech wood Green* the sand rises to the surface, and forms a 
bank about eight feet high ; in this spot it perfectly resembles the chlorite 
sand of Wiltshire. Near Cooksbridge, in sinking the well attached to 
the residence of Mr. Warren Lee, chlorite sand was also found at the depth 
of forty-five feet, beneath the blue chalk marl. Other locaHties of this 
bed occur in the vicinity of Lewes, of which the following are the most 
remarkable, and will serve to convey some idea of its course through this 
part of the county. 

Localities of the Green Sand near Lewes. 

At Wellingham, near the seat of Mr. John Rickman, covered with a 
layer of diluvial clay and pebbles. 

Near the mansion of the late Wm. Green, Esq. beneath the blue chalk 
marl at the depth of thirty feet. 

At the Park-house, in the parish of Ringmer, the well is sunk in chlo- 
rite sand, forty feet deep. 

* On the road side near Allchin's cottage. 

L 2 



76 ■ GREEN OR CHLORITE SAND. 

At Norlington, in the same parish : — ^here the sand is of a red colour, 
and constitutes a low bank, near the house of Mr. New. 

In a field east of Ringmer barracks, chlorite sand appears immediately 
beneath the turf, and also on the road-side near the fourth mile-stone. 

At Willingdon, two miles N.W. of Eastbourne, the green sand is 
covered with a thick bed of diluvial sand, which occurs immediately 
beneath the surface, and varies from a light grey to a bituminous colour. 
This bed abounds with rounded fragments of fossil wood, that occur in 
great profusion in a bank on the road-side, near the residence of Mr. 
Putland. The specimens are incrusted with a covering of grey sand 
containing small pebbles of quartz, and internally are of a light reddish 
brown, clouded with darker shades of the same colour. The wood is 
calcareous, and bears a good polish, the transverse sections, displaying in 
a distinct and beautiful manner the radial insertions and annular mark- 
ings, which denote the annual growth of the tree. 

In some instances, the wood is studded with the remains of a small 
species of Fistulana*, of a pyriform shape, about 0*3 inch long, bearing 
some resemblance to F. lagenula, or F. ampullaria, of Lamarck ; the 
bivalve part of the shell has not been detected, but is in all probability 
enveloped in the indurated sandstone with which the tubes are filled. 
This species of Fistulana appears to be new, and may be distinguished by 
the name of F. pyriformis. 

The sand here described, extends to Arhngton, Selmeston, &c. ; and 
in a bank on the south side of the road, leading from Selmeston Fair 
Place, to Chilver Bridge, fossil wood of the same kind as that of Wil- 
lingdon, has been noticed by Mr. Wm. Figg, jun. 

At Chilley, near Pevensey, a bed of sandstone very strongly impreg- 
nated with bitumen, occurs beneath a thick layer of marsh land, or silt. 
It was discovered a few years since, by Mr, Cater Rand, of Lewes, while 
superintending the execution of some improvements in the drainage of 



* Fistulana. An equivalved bivalve, gaping, nearly toothless shell, included in a club- 
formed testaceous tube, open at the smaller exti'emity. Ojg. Rem, vol. iii. p. 199. 



GREEN OR CHLORITE SAND. 77 

Pevensey Levels *. This substance is of a dark chocolate colour, 
is easily scraped with the knife, and emits a strong bituminous odour. 
Exposed to the action of the hydro-oxygen blow-pipe it burns with a 
bright flame, and fuses into a steel grey enamel f. 

On the coast near Southbourne, the sand bassets out from beneath the 
chalk marl, and forms a low crumbling cliff, which extends but a short 
distance to the north, and then disappears beneath the alluvium of 
Pevensey Levels. 

This sand is of a grey colour, and is thickly interspersed with particles 
of the green substance previously described ; it also contains specks of 
mica. Where in contact with the superincumbent bed of chalk marl, it 
becomes intermixed with that deposit, and some of the fossils pecuhar to 
each, are associated together at the line of junction. In a hasty visit to 
this spot, in the summer of 1818, I collected several species of Inocera- 
mus, Pecten, Plicatula, Terebratula, NautiHtes, Ammonites, Cirrus, a few 
Spongitae, and other zoophytes. Few of these, however, are decidedly 
analagous to the species which occur in the green sand of Wiltshire : but 
partake more of the characters of the chalk marl fossils ; indeed it is ob- 
vious, that the strata in this place are not exposed to a sufficient depth, 
to allow of our obtaining the usual productions of the former. 

From what has been previously remarked, the general agreement 
between the fossils of the green, grey, and ferruginous sands of Sussex, 
and those of the chlorite sand of Wiltshire and Devonshire, is however 
sufficiently estabhshed. The TrigonicB, Cucullea, RostellaricB, Pectinites, 
Terehratulce, &c. are common to each county, but the mode in which these 
remains are preserved differs remarkably. In Wiltshire, the shells have 
undergone but little change; in Devonshire, they are converted into chal- 

* This bed was worked by the Romans, who employed it in the construction of part of 
Pevensey Castle. In the alluvial clay near Chilley, Mr. Rand discovered the remains of a 
Balista, and a considerable number of enormous balls of bituminous sandstone ; the latter wei-e 
in all probability intended to supply the engine, which (as is well" known) was employed for 
hurling large stones. 

t A specunen analysed by my brother, contained 15'4 per cent of bitumen. 



78 GREEN OR CHLORITE SAND. 

cedony ; in Sussex, with but few exceptions, they are entirely destroyed, their 
casts and impressions being the only indications of their former existence. 

Organic Kemains. 
As these have been described in the preceding pages, it is only ne- 
cessary to subjoin a brief catalogue. 

1. Wood; in the sand of WiUingdon, Selmeston, &c. 

2. PateUa*. 

3. KosteUaria Parkinsoni. 

4. Natica? 

5. Dentahum. 

6. Mytilus. 

7. Modiola imbricata. 

8. Tellina. 

9. Cucullea decussata. 
10. Trigonia clavellata. 
11. aliformis. 

12. Venus. 

13. CrassateUa. 

14. Venericardia p/fln«cos^G? 

15. Mya intermedia. 

16. Pecten quinquecostata. 

17. Perna. 

18. Terebratula ovata. 

19. a small striated species. 

20. Fistulana pyriformis ; in the fossil wood of WiUingdon, &c. 

21. Echino-spatangus. 

* This and the following, with the exception of Fistulana pyriformis, are from Parham 
Park. 



CHALK FORMATION. 79 

IX. 

§ II. CHALK FORMATION. 



Comprising 5. Blue chalk marl, or Gait. 

6. Grey chalk marl. 

7. Lower chalk. 

8. Upper, or flinty chalk. 

This formation constitutes one of the most striking features in the 
geology of Sussex. It forms four principal divisions, distinguished from 
each other by their chemical characters, and mineralogical productions. 

The uppermost consists of chalk, with numerous parallel beds and 
layers of flint. 

The next is the lower chalk, containing but very few flints, and in 
most localities being wholly destitute of them. 

The third is the grey chalk marl, composed of chalk, and a considerable 
proportion of argillaceous earth. 

The lowermost is the blue chalk marl, or gait, that intervenes between 
the grey marl and the green sand, and in some parts of its course, passes 
into a compact limestone. 

The flinty chalk forms the summit, and the chalk without flints the 
central mass of the South Downs ; the base of this range being composed 
of the grey marl, which is denuded in the deep vaUies of the chalk, and in 
many places unites the insulated portions of that formation. The blue 
chalk marl rises from beneath the grey marl, and forms a narrow fillet of 
stiff" land, on the northern edge of the Downs. 

The relative situation of these deposits is shewn in the section an- 
nexed to the map ; and in the plan of the stratification of the south- 
eastern part of Sussex, tab. in. fig. 1. 

According to the plan adopted in this work, we shall commence our 
investigation with the lowermost deposit, the blue chalk marl. 



80 BLUE CHALK MARL. 



II. 5. BLUE CHALK MARL. 



Syn. — Micaceous brick earth. Smith's Strata, p. IS. 

Gait of Cambridgeshire. Geological Transactions, Vol. 5. p. 114. 

Folkestone marl. Phillips' Outli^ies. 

Malm rock. Hawkins' Memoir. History of Sussex, Vol. 2. p. 114. 

This deposit consists of a stiff marl of a greyish blue, brown, or ferru- 
ginous colour. It contains nodular masses of indurated marl, and thin 
layers of a reddish brown schistose limestone. In western Sussex the 
beds afford good building stone. 

The blue marl reposes upon the green sand, its basse ting edge inter- 
vening between the outcrop of the latter, and the northern escarpment of 
the chalk hills. The denuded surface of this bed forms a soil remarkable 
for its tenacity, and which, in many parts of Sussex and Surrey, is di- 
stinguished by the provincial term, " black land :" it is thus described by 
Mr. Young: " At the northern extremity of the Downs, and usually ex- 
tending the same length, is a slip of very rich and stiff arable land, but of 
very inconsiderable breadth ; it runs for some distance into the vale before 
it meets the clay. The soil of this narrow sHp is an excessively stiff cal- 
careous loam, on a clay bottom ; it adheres so much to the share, and is so 
very difficult to plough, that it is not an unusual sight to observe ten or 
a dozen stout oxen, and sometimes more, at work upon it. It is a soil 
that must rank amongst the finest in this, or any other country, being pure 
clay and calcareous earth*." It generally occupies low situations, and 

* Ymings Agricultural Survey of Sussex. 



BLUE CHALK MARL. 81 

where uncultivated is covered by rushes and other plants, that affect a 
moist and clayey soil. 

This deposit seldom exceeds 100 feet in thickness. It may be traced 
with but Httle difficulty, from near Laughton Place, six miles N. E. from 
Lewes, through Kingmer, Harasey, Offham, Plumpton, near Ditchling, 
Clayton, New Timber, &c. to Seeding. West of the Adur, its place is 
occvipied by a compact argillaceous limestone, provincially called Malm 
Rock ; and which, from the observations of Mr. Hawkins, there can be no 
doubt is a contemporaneous formation. This malm rock continues along 
the foot of the Downs, near Sullington, Storrington, Amberley, Bignor, 
&c. to Petersfield in Hampshire. 

On the south-eastern margin of the county, the blue marl disappears, 
and the grey marl reposes immediately upon the green sand ; this cir- 
cumstance is clearly shewn by the section of the cliffs near Eastbourne. 

The identity of this bed with the blue marl of Folkestone*, the gait 
of Cambridgeshire, and the malm of Surrey f, cannot for a moment be 
doubted; not only is there a perfect agreement in their physical characters, 
but also in their geological position, and organic remains. The marl of 
Folkestone is said, by ]\Ir. Phillips, to contain 30 per cent, of carbonate of 
lime ; and that of Eingmer, upon being submitted to the action of acids, 
indicated a like proportion. In the absence of natural sections, an exa- 
mination of the wells sunk in different parts of its course, are the only 
means we possess of obtaining a knowledge of the structure, and organic 
remains of this deposit. Availing myself of this source of information, I 

* The blue marl of Folkestone has been ably described by Mr. W. Phillips. Folkestone 
is built upon the green sand, and the cliffs on the east of the town are from 80 to 90 feet high, 
the upper part of which, for a considerable distance from theu' termination at Copt Point, 
consists of the blue marl. Crystallized sulphate of lime occurs in this bed, and nimierous re- 
mains of shells with their pearly lustre still preserved. There can be no doubt that this deposit 
is altogether analogous to that, underlying the chalk at Mailing in Kent, in Cambridgeshire 
and Oxfordshire, and which, in the latter counties, is provincially termed Gait. {Geological 
Transactio7is, Vol. 5, page 37.) _ 

f At the foot of the chalk hills near Godstone and Bletchingley, the blue marl rises from 
beneath the grey marl ; and I have collected from these localities precisely the same species of 
ammonites, belemnites, nuculte, &c. as those which occur at Ringmer and Laughton. 



82 BLUE CHALK MARL. 

have succeeded in collecting a most interesting series of fossils, many of 
which are peculiar to this bed, and are engraved in the plates annexed to 
this volume. 

It may be proper in this place to remark, that some eminent geologists 
appear to have confounded the blue chalk marl with the Weald clay; but 
the former invariably occurs above the green sand, and the latter below it. 
These beds are also remarkably distinguished from each other by their 
organic remains ; the blue chalk marl abounding in belemnites and am- 
monites, while the clay (as previously remarked) is destitute of fossils, and 
its limestone contains shells of the genus vivipara only. 

The following sections have been exposed by the sinking of wells in 
the vicinity of Lewes, and will serve to illustrate the characters and re- 
lations of this deposit. 

WELLS SUNK IX THE BLUE CHALK MARL. 

Laughton Place. Blue marl, 60 feet. The marl thrown out in deepen- 
ing this well, contained Kostellaria ParJcinsoni, aucula pectinat, N. similis, 
Ammonites splendens, A. lautus Belemnites Listen, &c. ; the last-mentioned 
fossil occurs in profusion in every locality of this bed ; and at Laughton, 
is exposed on the surface of the ploughed lands. 

Cottage in Moor Lane, parish of Eingmer. Blue marl, 50 feet. The 
lower beds were intermixed with a considerable proportion of green sand, 
and contained similar fossils to the preceding. 

Eingmer Green. The wells vary from SO to 90 feet in the marl, but 
good water never occurs until the bed is sunk through, and the green sand 
appears. In almost every part of tliis parish the marl encloses hamites, 
ammonites, belemnites, innocerami, niicida. Sac, three species oi Crustacea, 
an elegant species of turbinolia, and crystals of sulphate of lime. 

Norlington Green, in the parish of Eingmer. Blue marl, 50 feet. The 
marl was not sunk through, and consequently no water appeared. There 
is no stratum in the south-eastern part of Sussex, that contains such an 
abundance and variety of organic remains, as the marl in this locality. 
From the depth of 15 to 50 feet the shells occur in prodigious quan- 



BLUE CHALK MARL. 83 

titles, the greater part having their nacreous covering preserved in the 
most beautiful manner. In addition to those previously mentioned, I 
have collected several species of Crustacea, scales and vertebrae of fishes, 
teeth of the squalus mustelus, &c. ; crystallized sulphate of lime, or selenites, 
was also very abundant. 

In this well, at the depth of 20 feet, a layer of red marl, a few inches 
thick, was discovered, and another occurred 10 feet lower; this marl is 
sufficiently soft for marking on paper, and much resembles the red chalk 
used by artists, but is less pure and of a darker colour ; meandering 
hues filled with a whitish earth, their outline bearing some resemblance 
to the linear leaves of graminivorous plants, were distributed through the 
mass. I have observed layers of red marl with precisely similar ap- 
pearances, in the blue marl (or malm as it is there termed) of Bletchingley, 
in Surrey. 

Cottage near the residence of the late Wm. Green, Esq. in the parish 
of Ringmer. This well gave the following section : 

1. Yellow ochraceous loam, - - _ _ 5 feet. 

2. Blue marl, containing ammonites, inocerami, hamites, &e. 

and crystallized sulphate of lime, - - - - 15 feet. 

3. Dark blue marl, inchning to black, - - - - IQ feet. 
Small crystals of sulphate of hme were disseminated through 

the upper part of this bed ; and in the lower, nodular masses of 
indurated marl, containing an intermixture of green sand, with 
small grains of quartz. These masses are permeated by veins of 
splendid pyrites, and their external surface is studded with groups 
of cubo-octaedral crystals of the same substance. 

4. Green chlorite sand, _ _ _ _ _ _ 4 feet. 



Total thickness, 34 feet. 



At this depth a spring of excellent water suddenly appeared, and rose 
to the height of 10 feet. 

Cottage of Mr. Warren Lee, near Cooksbridge. 

M 2 



84 BLUE CHALK MARL. 

Blue marl, containing hamites, ammonites, nuculae, &c. - 95 feet. 
Marl, with a great proportion of chlorite sand without organic 
remains, ________ _ 45 feet. 



140 feet. 



Chiltington, on the estate of John Marten Cripps, Esq. M. A. 

Blue marl, containing nuculae, inocerami, ammonites, &c. 90 feet. 
Near New Timber (communicated by Richard Weeks, jun. Esq. F. L. S. 
of Hurstperpoint). 

1. Grey chalk marl, gradually passing into the next bed, - 20 feet. 

2. Blue chalk marl, enclosing immense numbers of ammonites, 
inocerami, nuculae, &c, --_--__ 70 feet. 

90 feet. 



It is unnecessary to multiply examples ; the sections above described 
exhibit every material variation observable in the characters of this 
deposit, in the south_eastern part of Sussex ; we shall now pass to the in- 
vestigation of the limestone beds that occur in the western division. 

Malm Rock or Western Sussex. 
The Malm Rock has been already mentioned, as occupying the same 
geological position as the blue marl. It is a compact argillaceous lime- 
stone, of a blueish grey colour, the lower beds being hard and durable, and 
affording a good material for building*. " The grey chalk passes in- 
sensibly into the malm rock, which forms a basement to the chalk hills of 
more than half a mile in breadth, and constitutes the substratum of a 
good corn soil. It may be traced with but little interruption from Sul- 
lington, near Storrington, to Petersfield." 

* My friend J. Hawkins, Esq. favoured me with a series of specimens, shewing the gra- 
dual transition of the grey marl into the malm rock. 



BLUE CHALK MARL. 85 

" A belt of blue clay appears on the north, the geological relation of 
which to the preceding has not been ascertained. It invariably accom- 
panies the malm rock in the direction here pointed out, and is succeeded 
by a narrow and parallel deposit of ferruginous sand*, shghtly indurated, 
the surface of which, if we may draw any inference from some insulated 
beds of gravel that occur on the highest points, must once have pre- 
sented an uniform extent of table landf." 

Organic Eemains. 

The fossils of the blue chalk marl, like those of other argillaceous 
strata, are remarkable for their beauty, the pearly covering of the shells 
being in most instances preserved. 

1. Vegetables. Wood is stated by Mr. Phillips to occur at Folkestone; 
but I have not observed any decided remains of vegetables in the blue 
marl of this part of Sussex. 

In the malm rock near Amberley, the Kev. J. Hanley has recently dis- 
covered the remains of a large tree, in wliich the ligneous structure of the 
original is very distinctly exhibited:]:. 

2. Turbinolia Konigi, tab. xix. fig. 22 and 24. 

Inversely conical, aperture circular, divided by numerous perpendicular 
lamellae, radiating from the axis to the circumference ; axis simple ; margin 
crenulated ; external surface longitudinally striated ; striae from 25 to 30, 
distinct, prominent ; base convex. 

This elegant little coral is from 0-4 to 0*5 inch in diameter, and about 
0-3 inch high ; the lamellae are numerous, generally exceeding 50 ; the 
striae on the external surface are distinct, proceeding from the base to the 
margin, where they unite with the lamellae alternately. 

This fossil occurs in every locality of the blue marl near Lewes, and 
appears to be one of its most characteristic productions. It has also been 

* This bed belongs to the green sand, and has been already described in the account of 
the strata at Parham Park. 

t Extract of a letter from J. Hawkins, Esq. Bignor Park. 
j On the authority of J. Hawkins, Esq. F. R. S. 



86 BLUE CHALK MARL. 

found at Godstone in Surrey, Mailing in Kent, and in Cambridgeshire. I 
have named it in honour of Charles Konig, Esq. of the British Museum? 
whose attainments in mineralogical science, can only be equalled by his 
zealous exertions for the prosperity of the national institution to which he 
is attached. 

Fig. 22, the upper surface ; fig. 24, the base. 

S. Turbinoha. A small species, inversely conical, compressed, aper- 
ture oval ; the lamellae numerous, distinct ; axis void ; the external surface 
covered with minute longitudinal striae, which unite with the lamellae at 
the margin. 

A few imperfect specimens only have been discovered. 

4. Echino spatangus ; this specimen resembles the echinite from De- 
vizes, figured by Mr. Smith, as pecuUar to the brick earth. (Smith's 
strata, Brick earth, fig. 3.) 

5. Fragments of a ventricose univalve, its genuine characters not 
distinguishable, 

6. Cirrus plicatus. (Min. Conch. Vol. 2, tab. 141. fig. 3.) 

A conical univalve, transversely striated; having the umbilicus pli- 
cated. Occurs occasionally at Kingmer. 

7. Rostellaria carinata. Tab. xix. fig. 10, 11, 12. 14. 

Turreted, spirally striated; whorls, eight or nine; ornamented with 
a row of tubercles ; body of the lower volution strongly carinated above 
the middle, and terminating in a spinous process on the outer lip. 

The casts of this shell are composed of indurated marl of a glossy 
black colour, and but rarely occur in a perfect state. In some specimens 
portions of the shell are still visible, and these shew that the original was 
covered with minute transverse striae; the tubercles on the shell are more 
elongated than in the casts, assuming the form of ribs. 

This species occurs at Laughton, Ringmer, Norlington, &c. 

Tab. xix. fig. 10, casts of the spire attached to a block of marl. 

Fig. 11. A fragment of the summit of the spire covered with the 
shell ; this elegant specimen exhibits the spiral striae, and the elongated 
tubercular projections. 



BLUE CHALK MARL. 87 

Fig. 12. A cast in argillaceous ironstone ; the front of the lower whorl 
is seen in this specimen, but the outer Up is wanting. 

Fig. 14. exposes the lower wreath with its carinated ridge, and 
spinous process. 

8. Ampullaria canaliculata. Tab. xix. fig. IS. 

Ventricose, whorls, three or four ; transversely and obHquely striated ; 
the striae decussating each other ; spire short, turns of the spire separated 
by a deep channel. 

9. Natica? Tab. xix. fig. 31, 32. 

These shells are from NorUngton, but are too imperfect to admit of 
accurate determination. 

10. Dentalium striatum. Tab. xix. fig. 4. {Min. Conch, tab. Ixx. 4.) 
Slightly arched, longitudinally striated; striae ten or eleven, aperture 
circular. 

Is of frequent occurrence at Folkestone, but is very rare in Sussex. 

11. Dentalium. Tab. xix. fig. 28. 

This specimen is longitudinally striated, and much compressed ; it is in 
too mutilated a state to allow of specific distinction. 

12. Dentalium ellipticum. Tab. xix. fig. 21, 25. (Min. Conch, tab. Ixx. 
6,7.) 

Nearly straight, shghtly compressed, aperture circular, external edge 
elliptical. 

The substance of the shell being thinner laterally, than on the an- 
terior and posterior margins, the external outline of the tube is of an 
elliptical form, although the aperture is perfectly circular. The annular 
markings occasioned by the lines of increase are very numerous, and 
render the surface uneven. The shell is changed into a white pulve- 
rulent carbonate of lime ; casts of the interior, having a black polished 
surface, are not uncommon. Mr. Sowerby remarks, " that they are beau- 
tiful oblong cones, which remain after the shell is decomposed, and have 
often puzzled collectors, from the difficulty of ascertaining their origin." 

Tab. xix. fig. 21. A specimen in which the shell is preserved. 

Fig. 25. A cast of indurated marl. 



88 BLUE CHALK MARL. 

LS. Nautilus inequalis. Tab. xxi. fig. 14, 15. {Min. Conch, tab. xL 
2, S.) Involute, spheroidal, urabilicate, aperture obovate ; septa entire, 
slightly concave, the inner septa deeper than the outer ; siphuncle placed 
near the inner margin. 

The specific name of this elegant shell is taken from the remarkable 
structure of its septa, wliich diminish in depth as they approach the aper- 
ture ; while, in every other species, they increase in size with the age 
of the animal. 

Tab. xxi. fig. 14. Front view of a cast from Norhngton. 

— fig. 15. Lateral view of the same specimen. This cast is com- 
posed of indurated marl, impregnated with iron ; remains of the shell 
changed into carbonate of hme, form the curved hues which mark the 
division of the chambers. 

14. Belemnites Listeri. Tab. xix. fig. 17, 18, 23. 

minimus ; Lister. Hist. Anim. AnglicE, p. 228, fig. 32. 

Subfusiform, cylindrical, with one shght longitudinal sulcus; apex 
pointed ; siphunculus central, extending through the alveolus to the apex 
of the spathose part. 

The form of this beautiful little belemnite varies considerably ; 
some of the specimens are fusiform, others gently taper towards the 
apex ; some are perfectly cylindrical, and others contract suddenly. 
Their constituent substance is a spathose crystallized carbonate of lime, 
of a radiated structure, varying from a dark brown to a light amber 
colour ; many of the specimens are nearly opaque, but the greater part 
are pellucid. The largest example in my collection is 02 inch in 
diameter, and 1 -3 inch in length. Upon the application of a slight force 
in the direction of the sulcus, they separate longitudinally, and expose 
sections of the chambered structure of the shell, with the siphunculus ex- 
tending through the spathose substance to tlie apex. These fossils occur 
in profusion in every locahty of the blue marl in Svissex ; and also in 
Surrey, Kent, and Cambridgeshire. The same species is found at Stut- 
gard *. 

* Geological Transactions, vol. v. p. 58. 



BLUE CHALK MARL. 89 

The specimens delineated are from Kingmer. 

Ammonites. 

The ammonites of this deposit, are equal in elegance and beauty to 
any hitherto known. When first collected, they retain in general a 
considerable portion of the original shell, with its nacreous covering 
heightened by the changes it has undergone in the mineral kingdom. 
They are very iridescent, and in many instances derive a golden lustre 
from an impregnation with sulphuret of iron, that renders their appearance 
remarkably splendid *. Their cavities are filled with pyrites, indurated 
marl, and argillaceous ironstone, and from the excellent state in which 
the septa are preserved, their foliaceous structure is shown in numerous 
examples. 

In the Dictmmaire d'Histoire Naturelle, mention is made of a bed of 
clay, in the vicinity of Moscow, where ammonites occur under similar cir- 
cumstances, and apparently in the same state of preservation -j-. 
15. Ammonites splendeiis. Tab. xxi. figs. 13, 17. 

Involute, depressed, carene flat, with carinated margins ; volutions 
three or four, deeply inserted, flat, transversely radiated ; radii depressed, 
curved towards the aperture ; a row of distant elongated tubercles on the 
inner margin ; aperture sagittate ; dissepiments fohaceous ; siphunculus 
internal. 

The external volutions rapidly increase in breadth, the inner ones 
being three-fourths concealed. Two or three radii arise from each tu- 



* The pyrites upon which the beauty of these fossils principally depends, undergoes de- 
coniposition upon exposure to the air, even for a short period ; a circumstance that occasions 
the destruction of nine-tenths of the specimens, after they have Iain in the cabinet of the col- 
lector but a fevr weeks. I have employed various means for their preservation, but without 
success ; varnishes, gum water, albumen, &c. destroy their lustre, and give them an impleasant 
appearance. 

f " J'en ai vu d'immenses quantites des ammonites dans les couches d'argile qui forment le 
I'ivage de la Moscoua, pres de Moscou, a cinq ou six pieds seulement au-dessous de la surface 
du sol. Elles sont toutes d'une grandeur mediocre et n'excedent pas cinq a six pouces de 
dianietre ; elles sont de Tespece qui est articulee et decoree d'arborisations. Rien n'est si beau 
que ces cornes d'ammon dans I'instant ou on les retire de leur gite ; elles sont revetues d'une 
couche pyriteuse couleur d'or et gorge de pigeon ; mais des qu'elles ont pris I'air, elles s'ef- 
fleurissent et tombent en miettes. Elles sont melees des beaucoup de belemnites, qui sont 
egalement d'une volume mediocre. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. p. 332. tome vi. 



90 BLUE CHALK MARL. 

bercle, and proceed with an elegant curve from the inner to the outer 
margin, where they terminate in angular projections, and form the cre- 
nulated margin of the keel. The septa are sinuate, and very fohaceous. 
The siphunculus is placed near the inner margin. The aperture is nearly 
equal in length to half the diameter of the shell, and is deeply indented 
by the inner whorls. The remains of this truly splendid ammonite are 
common at Ringmer and Laughton, the specimens varying from half an 
inch to two inches in diameter. Small specimens are sometimes found 
with the carene rounded, and the wreaths nearly destitute of radii, in 
which state they might easily be mistaken for a distinct species. 

Tab. xxi. fig. 13. A portion of the outer volution covered with the shell. 

Fig. 17. A cast in pyritous marl, exhibiting the sinuous 

septa ; smaU crystals of sulphate of lime are contained in cavities on the 
opposite side of this specimen, and pseudomorphous iron pyrites is 
disseminated throughout the mass. 

16. Ammonites auritus. Min. Conch, tab. 134, vol. ii. 

" Compressed, with obscure radiating undulations, tuberculated at their 
origin ; inner whorls exposed ; back deeply channelled, bordered by large, 
alternating, compressed tubercles." 

Fragments of this species occur at Ringmer ; but none have been 
discovered sufficiently perfect for representation. 

17. Ammonites jo/o?iMs. Tab. xxi. fig. 3. 

Involute, depressed, volutions deeply inserted, obscurely marked with 
curved striee ; carene flat, with crenulated borders ; aperture sagittate ; dis- 
sepiments sinuate. 

The surface of the volutions is nearly smooth, the striae being in- 
distinct, and in some specimens imperceptible (as in the figure). The 
inner wreaths are three-fourths concealed ; the situation of the siphunculus 
is unknown. 

This species is nearly allied to A. splendens, but differs from it, in 
being destitute of tubercles on the inner margin of the volutions, and in 
the absence of the radiated markings, with which the surface of the 
former species is adorned. 



BLUE CHALK MARL. 91 

The specimen represented (tab. xxi. fig. 3) is from Eingmer ; the shell 
is nearly entire, and most beautifully iridescent. 

18. Ammonites lautus. Tab. xxi. fig. 11. {Geolog. Trans, vol. v. p. 58.) 
Involute, depressed, volutions inserted, transversely radiated, radii strongly 
curved, arising in pairs from a row of oblique ridges on the inner margin, 
and terminating with intermediate rays on the outer edge : carene deeply 
channelled, bordered by alternating compressed tubercles ; dissepiments 
very foHaceous. 

The volutions are three or four in number, and two-thirds concealed. 
The rays arise in pairs from the ridges of the inner edge, and being joined 
by one or two intermediate ones, proceed with an elegant sweep to the 
outer margin, where they terminate in obtuse flattened tubercles, ge- 
nerally three or four to each tubercle. The carene is deeply channelled, 
the edges serrato-tuberculate, the tubercles being disposed alternately. 
The aperture is obscurely sagittate, and equal in length to half the dia- 
meter of the shell. The situation of the siphunuclus is unknown. 

This species resembles A. auritus (of Sowerby), but is distinguished by 
its prominent curved rays, by the ridges on the inner volution being less 
tubercular, and the inner volutions two-thirds concealed. It occurs at 
Laughton, Ringmer, and NorUngton. 

The figure is from a specimen in which the shell is entire. 

19. Ammonites biplicatus. Tab. xxii. fig. 6. 

Depressed, slightly umbiUcate ; volutions inserted, transversely radiated ; 
rays prominent, curved, bifurcated, arising from a row of oblong projections 
on the inner edge of the volutions, and terminating in tubercles on the 
outer margin ; carene flat, bordered by alternating, compressed tubercles. 

The volutions are tliree or four, the tubercles on the inner margin 
distinct, each giving origin to a pair of rays that terminate in a tuber- 
cular projection on the edge of the keel. The inner volutions are two- 
thirds concealed, the inner row of tubercles alone being visible. The carene 
is nearly flat between the tuberculated margins by which it is bordered. 

The aperture is obtusely sagittate, and its length rather less than half 
the diameter of the shell. 

N 2 



92 BLUE CHALK MARL. 

This species is thicker than A. lautus, and differs from it in the flat- 
ness of the keel, and in having but two rays to each tubercle ; it may be 
distinguished from A. auritus, by the insertion of the wreaths. 

Tab. xxii. fig. 6. A cast of indurated marl, partially covered with the 
remains of the shell. 

20. Ammonites tuherculatus. 

Involute, umbihcate, umbihcus expanded ; volutions rounded, inner 
whorls nearly two-tliirds exposed ; inner margin oblique, smooth, a row of 
strong tubercles in the centre of each volution, united by obhqvie trans- 
verse ridges to a corresponding row on the outer margin ; carene broad, 
bordered by opposite diverging tubercles ; aperture obovate. 

A strongly marked shell, composed of three or four volutions, orna- 
mented with remarkably prominent oblong tubercles, which, in some in- 
stances, are 0-4 inch high ; these are placed obliquely, and united by 
ridges that arise in pairs from the inner row. The inner volutions are 
partly inserted, the outer row of tubercles being concealed. The middle 
of the carene has a deep narrow sulcus or groove, and is bordered by the 
marginal set of tubercles. The umbiUcus is in the form of a broad in- 
verted cone. 

This species differs from the last, in the situation and size of its tubercles, 
and in their being united by single ridges, which are not curved ; in the 
volutions being more exposed, the carene sulcated, and the marginal tu- 
bercles opposed to each other, instead of alternating ; this circumstance 
also separates it from A. auritus. The septa are very foliaceous. It 
occurs at Eingmer "*. 

Hamites. 

Fragments of the straight part of the shells of this genus, are very 
common in every locality of the blue marl ; some of them possess a pearly 

* Mr. Parkinson describes three other species of ammonites from the blue marl of 
Folkestone, viz. A. serratus, A. pansus, and A. ornatus. Fragments occur in this neighbour- 
hood which, in all probability, belong to some of these ; but tpey are too imperfect to allow of 
their characters being distinguished with certainty. 



BLUE CHALK MARL. 93 

lustre, equal in beauty to the ammonites, and others show the foliaceous 
sutures of the dissepiments ; in this state they are the Baculites of some 
authors. The hooked part of the shell is very rare, but I have had the 
good fortune to discover a few specimens, that exhibit the form of the 
original in a more perfect manner, than in any examples previously noticed. 

21. Hamites affewwa^M*. Tab. xix. figs. 29, SO. 

Cylindrical, suddenly attenuated immediately beyond the curve; 
annular undulations numerous, obtuse. 

" The larger hmb is suddenly contracted near the curvature ; 
and the lesser one is consequently very slender in proportion." The 
undulations are obscure at the back*. Mr. Sowerby, in the specific 
description, states that it is slightly compressed ; but this circumstance is 
evidently the result of accident, the true form of the original being per- 
fectly cylindrical. This species occurs at Laughton, Ringmer, and Nor- 
lington, and has also been discovered in Kent and Surrey. 

Figs. 29 and SO are delineations of two remarkably interesting spe- 
cimens, the smaller limbs in both instances being nearly perfect, and 
exhibiting an excellent type of the structure of the shells of this curious 
genus. They were found at the depth of thirty feet, in the well attached 
to the cottage of Mr. Warren Lee, near Cooksbridge, and are partly im- 
bedded in the blue marl. The lesser limbs are flattened by compression, 
and the interstices between the annular costse are partially filled with the 
surrounding matrix. The shelly covering is beautifully iridescent. 

22. Hamites maximus. Min. Conch, tab. Ixii. fig. 1. 

" Slightly depressed ? undulations even, rounded, disappearing at the 
back, curvature gradual f." 

Fragments of this species have been found at Eingmer, Norlington, &c. 

23. Hamites intermedius. Tab. xxiii. fig. 12. {Min. Conch, tab. Ixii. 
2, 3.) 

Slightly depressed, costated, costae annular, oblique, obtuse ; curvature 
rounding. 

* Min. Conch, vol. i. p. 137. f I^(>'- vol. i. P- 138. 



94 BLUE CHALK MARL. 

Numerous fragments of this species occur at Eingmer, Norlington, and 
Laugh ton. 

The specimen dehneated, tab. xxiii. fig. 12, is probably a variety, since 
the costffi are larger and less numerous than usual ; the foliaceous septa 
are seen in the upper part of this specimen. 

24. Nucula pec^m«ia. Tab. xix. figs. 5, 6. 9. (Min. Conch, tab. 192, 
6,7.) 

Transversely elHptical, elongated, convex, longitudinally striated ; 
striae diverging from the beaks to the margin, decussated by fine trans- 
verse Hues ; posterior side truncated ; lunette depressed, cordiform ; margin 
■serrated. . 

The surface of this 'elegant shell is marked with longitudinal strife, 
crossed by transverse Hnes, and separated by 'fine sulci ; the latter are but 
obscurely shewn in perfect specimens, but are very conspicuous in those that 
are worn. In the adult shell the lines of growth are numerous and distinct. 
The constituent substance of these fossils is a light fawn-coloured 
carbonate of lime ; their cavities being filled with argillaceous ironstone, 
wliich forms bold casts when the shell is decomposed. The lunette at 
the truncated extremity is large, and characteristic of the species. The 
situation of the teeth of the hinge, and the muscular impressions, are 
shewn in the casts. 

This shell occurs in almost every locality of the blue marl, to which it 
is considered to be pecuUar. 

Tab. xix. fig. 5. A cast exhibiting the impression of the hinge, the 
serrated margin, and the eminences formed by the deep muscular im- 
pressions. 

Figs. 6 and 9, are different views of a perfect shell. 

25. Nucula ovata. Tab. xix. figs. 26 and 27. 

Transversely ovate, rather depressed, obscurely striated transversely; 
lunette slightly impressed, cordate, elongated ; margin entire. 

Tliis species of nucula is of a transverse oval form, and its surface is 
nearly smooth ; the striee being very minute. The lunette is cordiform, 
very shallow, and elongated. 



BLUE CHALK MARL. 95 

Tab. xix. fig. 26. A specimen covered with the shell, the anterior 
side broken off. 

fig. 27. A cast of indurated marl, from Laughton Place. 

26. Inoceramus concentrkus. Tab. xix. fig. 19. {Geolog. Trans, vol. 
V. tab. 1. fig. 4.) 

Subcordiform, longitudinally, concentrically sulcated; beaks converging, 
recurved ; lower valve gibbous, produced ; margin entire. 

This shell was first described by Mr. Parkinson, in the Geological 
Transactions : it had however been long known as a production of the 
blue marl, but the imperfect state in which the specimens usually 
occurred, prevented its characters from being previously ascertained. 
It is a small species, of the curious genus formed by Mr. Sowerby, for the 
reception of the large fibrous bivalve of the chalk. The specimens seldom 
exceed 1 -2 inch in length. The shell is nearly cordiform, and marked by 
gentle concentric grooves, the eminences between them being rounded. 
The lower valve is gibbous, and produced at the beak nearly one-fifth of 
its longest diameter ; the upper valve is smaller and more expanded. The 
beaks are approximate, and shghtly recurved. 

It occurs in every known locality of the blue marl. 

Tab. xix. fig. 19, is a remarkably perfect specimen, still retaining a 
considerable portion of the shell. 

fig. 15, represents the produced part of the beaks detaclied 

from the body of the shell ; examples of this kind are not unfrequent. 

27. Inoceramus sulcatus. Tab. xix. fig. 16. (Geolog. Trans, vol. v. 
pi. 1. fig. 5.) 

Subcordiform longitudinally ; with deep, radiating, oblique, longitu- 
dinal sulci ; beaks recurved, lower valve produced, margin undulated. 

In the position of the beaks, and general form of the valves, this 
species corresponds with the former ; from which, however, it is remarkably 
distinguished by its longitudinal furrows. These commence at the beak, 
and radiate with an oblique curve towards the margin, enlarging as they 
proceed. The ridges that separate the sulci are rounded, and are from 
seven to nine on each valve. Mr. Parkinson observes, " that on the 



96 BLUE CHALK MARL. 

surface of the casts, are seen small and close transverse rugae." The 
specuuens seldom exceed 1-5 inch in length, and are found in every locality 
of the blue marl. 

The figure is from an argillaceous cast, in which the pearly covering 
of the shell is preserved. 

28. Inoceramus . Tab. xix. fig. 20. 

Other species of this genus, occur at Ringmer and Norhngton, but in 
too mutilated a state to admit of description. The beautiful specimen 
deHneated,fig. 20, tab. xix. is remarkable for possessing the fibrous structure 
observable in the Inocerami of the chalk ; and for retaining its crenulated 
hinge ; this shell is probably a variety of I. concentricus. 

29 and 30. Tab. xix. figs. 7 and 8, represent two argillaceous casts of 
bivalves from Norlington, the genera of which cannot be correctly ascer- 
tained. The former is a front view of a cordiform bivalve, perhaps related 
to the Isocardije ; the latter probably belongs to the genus Area : they are 
both solitary examples. 

Crustacea. 

The remains of this order of animals, are so exceedingly rare in the 
blue marl, that with the exception of a few fragments, the dehneations in 
tab. xxix. comprise every specimen that has occurred in Sussex. 

To the kindness and Uberality of William Elford Leach, M. D. of the 
British Museum, who did me the favour to compare them with the recent 
species, to which they are most nearly related, I am indebted for the 
following identification of their genera. 

31. Tab. xxix. figs. 7, 8. 14. "A species of a new genus of the family 
Leucosiados *, nearly related to the genus Arcania." Dr. Leach. 

In these specimens the shell or crust of the thorax alone remains. It 
is of a suborbicular form, rather inflated, obscurely trilobate, with twelve 
or thirteen aculeated tubercles ; the margin is dentated. 

* The recent Leucosiadce have two or four small quadriarticulate antennae inserted between 
the eyes. The tail is naked ; they have eight legs, all furnished with claws ; and two chelate 
hand claws. Rees' Cycloped, Art. Cancer. 



BLUE CHALK MARL. 97 

From Norlington Green. 

Fig. 8, the upper, and fig. 7, the under surface of the same specimen. 
Fig. 14 is a younger example of this species. 

32. Tab. XXIX. figs. 9, 10. « A species of a genus of the family 
CorystidcB^, allied to a new Indian genus in the cabinet of Dr. Leach." 

The shell is oblong, ovate, depressed ; the surface covered with minute 
granulse, the margin bidentated near the front. No vestige of the legs? 
antennae, or claws, remain. 

From Ringmer. 

Fig. 9, the under, and fig. 10, the upper surface of the same individual. 

33. Tab. XXIX. figs. 11, 12. " A species of the genus Etyus, of the 
family Cancerida." Dr. Leach. 

Transversely obovate, obscurely trilobate; the surface covered with 
irregular papiUae. 
From Ringmer. 
Fig. 11, the under, and fig. 12, the upper surface of the same example. 

34. Tab. XXIX. figs. IS, 15, 16. 

" These belong to a genus of the family Corystida, intimately related 
to Corystes." Dr. Leach. 

This species is longitudinally obovate, convex, with a tuberculated 
dorsal ridge, having a row of three tubercles on each side. The shell is 
truncated posteriorly, and the margin laterally tridentated. The abdomen 
is composed of six or seven arcuate segments, and there are three or four 
legs on each side. 

Fig. IS. An imperfect specimen of the thorax. 

Figs. 15, 16. Different views of the same fossil. In the former, the 
abdomen is seen folded beneath the thorax, and there are rudiments of 
legs, on each side. The latter shews the upper surface with the tuber- 

* The Corystidw have four antennae ; the external pair approximate, setaceous, ciliated, 
and very long. The eyes remote and pedunculated. The shell is aval, and longer than wide ; 
the tail folded under the body when the animal is in a state of repose. They have ten legs ; the 
anterior pair chelate, the others terminating in an acute elongated nail or claw. Vide Lamarck, 
Atiimaua: satis Vertebres, tome V. 233. 



98 BLUE CHALK MARL. 

culated dorsal ridge ; the commencement of the abdomen appears at the 
base. 

35. " Fragments of the abdomen of two kinds of Astacidcs" Dr. 
Leach. 

These are too imperfect to require any observation. 

Eemains of Fishes. 
These occur so rarely, that the following are the only examples in my 
possession. 

36. Scales of some unknown fish. 

37. A small vertebra. 

38. A tricuspid tooth ; resembling those of Squalus mustelus. 

Organic Remains of the Malm Rock of Western Sussex. 

I am unable to give any satisfactory account of the fossils of this bed ; 
and none are enumerated in Mr. Hawkins' catalogue of the organic re- 
mains of that division of the county. 

My friend, Mr. Chassereau of Brighton, discovered the culm or stem of 
some arundinaceous plant in the limestone, near the Roman villa, at Big- 
nor ; and also the impression of a coriaceous nut, perhaps of a species of 
areca. 

In the same locaUty, white linear markings, resembling those of the 
red marl at Norhngton, are very numerous between the laminae of the 
malm rock ; are these the remains of algae ? of fuci ? or of corallines ? 

Near Amberley Castle, Mr. Chassereau observed ammonites and ino- 
cerami ; and Mr. Hawkins has lately informed me, that some fine crabs 
have been found in the grey Umestone of that parish. The fossil tree, 
discovered by Mr. Hanley, has already been noticed. 



GREY CHALK MARL. 99 

XI. 
§ II. 6. GREY CHALK MARL. 



This deposit constitutes the foundation of the chalk hills, its outcrop 
forming a fillet, or zone, round their base, and connecting the detached 
parts of the range with each other. 

The texture of the marl is commonly soft and friable, but indurated 
blocks occur, which possess the hardness of limestone. It is of a hght 
grey colour, inclining to brown, and frequently possesses a ferruginous 
tinge derived from oxide of iron. It principally consists of carbonate of 
lime and alumine, with an intermixture of silica, a very small proportion 
of iron, and perhaps of oxide of manganese. 

Where denuded, the surface of this deposit composes a fertile tract of 
arable land, including some of the best farms in the county. 

In the range of low cliffs near Eastbourne, the grey marl is seen rising 
from beneath the chalk, and reposing on the grey sand, with which it is 
intermingled at the line of junction. Its separation from the super- 
incumbent bed of chalk without flints, is well defined, and may be traced 
with but little difficulty. From this spot it extends with scarcely any in- 
terruption, to Shoreham river, its outcrop being interposed between the 
foot of the Downs, and the basseting edge of the blue marl. 

In western Sussex it occupies the same relative position, the lower 
chalk passing insensibly into the grey marl, and the latter into the malm 
rock. 

In its course through this tract of country, it forms a few hillocks or 
mounds of low elevation, which are remarkable only for the abundance 

o2 



100 GREY CHALK MARL. 

and variety of their fossil remains. I shall proceed to notice a few of 
the more interesting localities. 

A low bank at Middleham, in the parish of Eingmer, near the seat of 
the Kev. J. Constable, contains hamites, turi'ilites, ?iaiitilites, ammonites, 
and inocerami. The largest turrilite hitherto discovered was collected 
near this spot, and is figured in Min. Conchology, tab. Ixxiv. 

Stoneham, near Lewes ; from a marl bank in a field adjoining the turn- 
pike-gate, I have collected the same kinds of fossils as at Middleham ; also 
rostellaricB, auricula, scaphites, &c. 

Hamsey Marl Pits. The hillock, of which these pits present a vertical 
section, is insulated by the river Ouse. The quarries are situated on the 
north side of the church, and are about 25 feet high. The strata are 
sUghtly inclined, and vary from a few inches, to a foot or more in thick- 
ness ; the indurated layers, are separated by intervening seams of a soft 
loose marl, of a dark colour. The face of the rock is traversed by innumer- 
able crevices, which, in some instances, are parallel with the stratification, 
and in others assume a vertical, or transverse direction. 

The lowermost strata are of a blueish grey colour, indicating a transi- 
tion to the blue marl, into which the grey marl passes, at the depth of 
a few yards. These quarries contain sulphuret of iron, and spicular 
crystals of carbonate of lime ; the former often composes the constituent 
substance of the fossils, the latter occurs in groups, lining the fissures 
and cavities in the marl. The organic remains found in these pits are 
very numerous, and present considerable interest. They consist of several 
species of ammonites, nautili, tun'iUtes, scaphites, hamites, the teeth and 
vertebrae of sharks ; the supposed fir cones of Cherry Hinton, &c. 

Offham Pit. This excavation Hes on the road-side, between Off'ham 
and Cooksbridge ; it produces ammonites, nautili, turrilites, scaphites, &c. 

Clayton, near Hurstperpoint. A marl pit at this place, has afforded 
to the researches of Mr. Weekes, turrilites, hamites, ammonites, scaphites, 
&c. 

In other localities of the marl, the fossils are less abundant than in 



GREY CHALK MARL. 101 

those above enumerated, and the turrilites, hamites, and scaphites, but very 
rarely occur. 

On the surface, a narrow belt of this deposit appears to encircle Lewes 
Levels, separating the latter from the edge of the chalk hiUs ; this want 
of continuity, however, does not extend beneath the surface: the marl 
is invariably found upon sinking through the alluvial clay, of which the 
Levels are composed. Protrusions of the marl through the clay occur in 
some situations, and these form islands when the levels are inundated, a 
circumstance that, previously to the improved state of the navigation of 
the Ouse, was of very frequent occurrence. The principal elevations of 
this kind are the two extended ridges called the Rhies, which have been 
already described; these, in all probabiUty, owe their form to the action of 
eddies, or opposing currents. 

Minerals. 
The mineralogical productions of the grey marl are few, and offer but 
little variety; they consist of various modifications of sulphuret of iron, 
and crystallized carbonate of Hme. 

1. Crystallized carbonate of lime. 

This mineral is frequently semi-diaphanous, varying in colour from a 
lightish grey to a gallstone yellow. It occurs in inconsiderable veins, and 
occasionally in groups of crystals, hning the cavities of the marl; the usual 
form of the crystal is that of an acute rhomboid ; of this kind some in- 
teresting specimens have lately been discovered at Hamsey. 

2. Sulphuret of iron, or iron pyrites. 

This substance, from the decomposition of its surface, is generally of a 
yellowish rusty brown colour externally. It occurs in a variety of irre- 
gular fantastic shapes, and oftentimes bears the impression of organic 
bodies, forming casts of terehratul(£, pectenites, madreporites, and the inner 
volutions of scaphites. SmaU spherical masses with an elongated stem, 
their surface beset with obscure pyramidal crystals, and exposing a bril- 
liant radiated structure internally, are not uncommon. One specimen in 
my possession contains within a cavity, small crystals of sulphate of lime. 



102 GREY CHALK MARL, 

Crystals of pyrites terminating in the quadrangular pyramid of an oc- 
tohedron, and disposed in irregular groups, are often imbedded in the casts 
of ammonites, and other fossU remains ; and the marl pits at Hamsey, 
contain masses of this mineral bearing the form of a species of Eschara, 
somewhat resembling E.foliacea. 

3. Oxide of iron, in the state of a reddish brown powder, is frequent in 
cavities of the marl, and has probably been produced by the decomposition 
of iron pyrites ; the greater part of the marl fossils have acquired a fer- 
ruginous colour from this mineral. 

4. Clay slate. The occurrence of this substance in the marl is clearly 
accidental, having been derived from some regular bed of argillaceous slate 
of anterior formation to the chalk marl. The only examples hitherto dis- 
covered, were imbedded in the marl at Southerham Corner ; the largest 
is about two inches square, and nearly half an inch thick: the edges are 
sharp, and the specimen appears to have suffered but httle from attrition. 



Organic Remains. 

The grey chalk marl in its course through Sussex, is well characterized 
by its organic remains, which differ both in their nature, and in the mode 
of their preservation, from those either of the superincumbent bed of lower 
chalk, or of the blue marl upon which it reposes. 

Numerous species of ammonites, nautili, and inocerami, are the most 
common productions of the pits near Lewes, which also contain turri- 
lites, scaphites, hamites, &c. These remains of testacea very rarely exhibit 
any vestige of their original sheUy covering, but consist of casts of indu- 
rated argillaceous limestone, of an ochraceous or a ferruginous colour, 
more or less distorted by compression. 

1. Wood. The existence of fossil wood in the chalk formation has 
been much questioned by some geologists, but the fact is indisputable, as 
numerous examples in my collection satisfactorily prove. It is of a dark 
brown colour inclining to black, and when first collected, very distinctly 



GREY CHALK MARL. 103 

exhibits its ligneous structure. It is exceedingly friable, and falls into a 
carbonaceous powder upon exposure to the air. 

The specimens found at Harasey, seldom exceed a few inches either in 
length or breadth ; they are of a compressed cylindrical form, and appear 
to be the remains of branches, or stems of small trees. 

Locahty. Hamsey. 

2. Aments or cones of unknown vegetables ? ? Tab. IX. figs. 4, 5. 
7,8. 11. 

Woodward's Catalogue, Part % p. £2. 6. 72. " Three cones, seeming 
to be of the larix." 

Org. Rem. Vol. 1. PI. 6. figs. 16, 17. 

These are the supposed " fossil juli of the larch," for which the chalk 
pits of Cherry Hinton have been so long celebrated. Since the time of 
Woodward, these bodies have excited considerable attention, and yet their 
nature is still involved in obscurity ; in fact, their appearance is so equi- 
vocal, that some naturalists have been induced to consider them as the 
remains o^ animals, rather than of vegetables. 

Dr. Parsons thought they bore a greater resemblance to the roots of a 
plant, than to the parts of fructification. 

A. B. Lambert, Esq. V.P,L. S., to whom I shewed a very perfect 
specimen, was immediately struck with its affinity to the cone of a species 
of pinus. 

Mr. Parkinson supposes, " that the appearance of these fossils cer- 
tainly supports the idea of their having been either aments or cones of 
some tree not now known, at least to the European botanist ; whilst, on 
the other hand, the situation in which they occur, renders this supposition 
highly problematical. Instead of being associated with other fossil ve- 
getables, or in matrices which have originated in the decomposition of 
vegetable matter, they have only been found in chalk, which has pro- 
ceeded chiefly from aqueous deposition ; and in part frojn the decomposi- 
tion of animal, but certainly not of vegetable matter*." 

* Organic Remains, Vol. 1. p. 447. 



104 GREY CHALK MARL. 

Professor Hailstone informs us, that two perfect specimens in the 
Woodwardian collection, place their vegetable origin beyond aU doubt, 
and in corroboration of this opinion, mentions, that in the quarry at Cherry 
Hinton, he had discovered the impression of a branch of some vegetable of 
the fir tribe, with the hnear leaves surrounding it*. 

On the other hand, Mr. Konig of the British Museum, who did me the 
favour to examine several Hamsey specimens, remarks, that " these bodies, 
although possessing a distant resemblance to the juU of the larch, in all 
probability do not belong to the vegetable kingdom ; for when exposed to 
the action of muriatic acid, they emit the pecuhar smell, which is so 
strikingly manifested, in dissolving the madreporitic remains of fetid 
hmestone ; the putrid exhalation being almost intolerable." 

As these fossils occur in an excellent state of preservation in the marl 
pits at Hamsey, I had indulged the hope of being able to discover a spe- 
cimen, that might illustrate their origin, and point out their real nature. 
But although by the kind assistance of my brother, more than fifty of 
these bodies have been submitted to my examination, I can add but little 
to what is already known concerning them. 

The remains in question are of a reddish brown colour, from 0-5 inch to 
two inches long, of a cyHndrical form, and gently tapering towards the apex, 
which is obtuse. They are more or less compressed, and have a scaly, cor- 
rugated surface. Their constituent substance is precisely of the same nature 
as that of the vertebree, and other bones, found in the chalk formation ; some 
examples have scales of fishes attached to them. In structure they differ 
most essentially from any strobilus or cone, for instead of an imbricated sur- 
face, formed by scales containing seed, and proceeding from one common 
axis, as in the juli of the larch, their scaly appearance is produced by the 
undulating margin of the substance of which they are composed; the 
latter being irregularly coiled in a spiral manner, round an oval cavity or 
receptacle. This appearance is very obvious in tab. ix. fig. 4, in which the 
marl is seen projecting through the interstices of the volutions ; at the 

* Geological Transactions, Vol. 3. p. 250. 



GREY CHALK MARL. 105 

base of fig. 5, the termination of the last ceil is distinctly exhibited. 
Fig. 7, is the longitudinal section of a fragment with the cavity or recep- 
tacle fiUed with marl : in some specimens this is wanting, the fossil being 
solid throughout. Fig. 8 is one of the most perfect examples that has been 
found in Sussex. The base is thicker, and of a darker colour, than the 
body of the fossil, and has much the appearance of a calyx. In another 
specimen, a depression in the centre of the base resembles the attachment 
of a stem. Fig." 11 is remarkably large, but has suflPered considerably 
from compression. 

Locality. Hamsey. 

S. Linear markings, the impressions of leaves ? from Hamsey. 

These resemble the chalk specimens delineated in tab. ix. figs. 2, 12, 
and have been supposed to be the foliage of a species of larch, of which 
the aments or cones, above described, were the fruit. This opinion is how- 
ever problematical. 



ZOOPHYTES. 

The zoophytes of the chalk marl are neither numerous, nor important. 
They consist for the most part, of fragments of unknown genera, in which 
the characters of the original are too imperfectly developed, to allow of 
accurate determination : — a few of the more perfect specimens are here 
enumerated. 

4. Small turbinated bodies, having a pedicle, the surface covered with 
circular pores or cells, irregularly disposed. These bear some analogy to 
the compound porpital madreporite, but their openings do not appear to 
possess a stellular structure. Their constituent substance is an earthy 
oxide of iron. 

Localities. Hamsey marl-pits, Stoneham, &c. 

5. Alcyonium ? pyrifo7'mis. 

A pyriform body, composed of argillaceous hmestone, about two inches 
long, the surface presenting a spongeous appearance: — resembUng in form 



106 GREY CHALK MARL. 

the alcyonitic flints figu»ed by Mr. Parkinson, Org. Remains, vol. ii. 
tab. ix. figs. 4, 6, 12. 

This fossil may be referred to the genus alcyonium, with less hesita- 
tion than many of the mineralized zoophytes, to which that name is 
usually apphed. 

Localities. Hamsey, South Bourne, near Beachy Head. 

6. A cyUndrical ramose zoophyte, about 0*4 inch in diameter, branches 
short, distinct, decussatedly opposite * ; terminations obtuse, with a central 
depression. 

The only specimen hitherto discovered possesses the structure here 
described, but more perfect examples are necessary to determine its cha- 
racters. It approaches in some respects to Alcyonium mammillosum, and 
A. ocellatum of Ellis f. 

Locahties. A marl bank near Mailing Gate. 

7. Millepora. ? Tab. xv. fig. 10. 

A ramose, subcyhndrical zoophyte ; branches distinct, opposite ; ter- 
minations truncated, bilobed, with rounded entire margins, the centres 
oblong and depressed ; cells irregularly rhomboidal, arranged in parallel 
rows. 

The cells are but imperfectly shown, and it is scarcely possible to de- 
termine their original form with any degree of accuracy. 

Locahty. Marl bank at Stoneham ; near the Rev. J. Constable's, 
Middleham. 

8. Millepora Gilberti. 

Fohaceous, flexuous, terminating in projections with oblong openings? 
each having an spinous obtuse process : surface covered with minute 
circular pores, irregularly disposed. 

A very elegant milleporite, composed of crystallized carbonate of lime ; 
not unfrequent in the locahties hereafter mentioned. The short spinous 

* i. e. an-anged crosswise, in four rows. 
■f Ellis' Zoophytes, one volume, 4to. 1786, tab. i. figs. 4- and .5. 



GREY CHALK MARL. 107 

projection, which proceeds from the margin of the terminations, appears to 
constitute its specific character. 

I have named this species in honour of Davies Gilbert, Esq. M. P. 
V.P.E.S., &c. of Eastbourne, a gentleman universally respected for his 
public talents, and beloved for the suavity of his manners, and the excel- 
lence of his private character. 

Localities. In the cliff near Southerham, and Beachy Head. 

9. A flexuous zoophyte, occurring in masses of an oval form, from two 
to five inches in length. 

These fossils bear some affinity to the preceding, but those in my pos- 
session do not exhibit any traces of pores, or cells. They have been 
supposed to belong to the genus Spongia, but more illustrative examples 
are required to establish the conjecture. Their constituent substance is 
calcareous spar. 

Localities. In the beds of marl that form a junction with the grey 
sand, at Southbourne. 

10. Portions of a fohaceous zoophyte, allied to the genus Flustra, the 
surface covered with small, ovate, symmetrical openings, disposed in 
meshes. 

Localities. Stoneham, Middleham. 

ECHINITES. 

The echinites of the grey marl have their characters but imperfectly 
defined, and are extricated from the surrounding matrix with great dif- 
ficulty. Their crustaceous coverings are invariably converted into a 
brittle crystallized carbonate of lime, and their cavities filled with marl ; 
they are generally distorted by compression. 

11. Cidaris. Tab. xvii. fig. 1. 

Circular, depressed, with ten porous ambulacra, and as many areas. 
The surface is covered with twenty rows of small, elegant, perforated 
papillae, set on tubercular projections, the margins of which are cre- 
nulated. 

This fossil appears to be a variety of Echinocidaris saaatilis. 

p 2 



108 GREY CHALK MARL. 

Localities. Hamsey, OfFham. 

12. Echinospatagus cordiformis (of Breyn.) 

An oblong, cordiforra echinite, exceedingly common in the chalk, but 
of rare occurrence in the marl. 

LocaHties. Hamsey, Middleham, Eastbourne. 

13. Echinospatagus radiatus f Organic Remains, vol. iii. tab. iii. figs. 4 
and 5. 

An ovate galeated echinite, very closel alhed to the species re- 
ferred to. 

Localities. Hamsey, Middleham. 

14. Echinital spines. 

Slender muricated spines, the cucuinerince of Parkinson, are occa- 
sionally found at Hamsey ; and I have one specimen of a palisadoe spine 
from the same place, which possesses a spathose structure. 

TESTACE^. 

Univalves. 

15. Voluta ambigua, tab. xviii. fig. 8. 

Although the specimen here figured is merely a cast of the venter, 
or lower volution of the shell, its characters are sufficiently obvious to 
identify it with V. ambigua of the London clay. It is attached to a por- 
tion of Ammonites vnrians. 

Locality. Middleham. 

16. Buccinum, tab. xviii. fig. IS. 

The cast of the last wreath of a ventricose univalve, belonging to this 
genus, is the only example that has come under my notice. 
Locality. Hamsey. 

17. Kostellaria Farkinsoni, tab. xviii. figs. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 10. 
Subfusiform, wreaths seven or eight, convex, with longitudinal ribs, 

and nu.merous transverse striae ; outer lip dilated, armed with one styloid 
process, beneath which is a broad truncated expansion. This species 
occurs in the green sand of Devonshire, and is figured in the third volume 
of " Organic Remains" plate 5, fig. 11. As it has not received a specific 



GREY CHALK MARL. 109 

appellation, I have named it after my excellent friend James Parkinson, 
Esq. M.G.S. &c. of Hoxton Square, the learned author of the " Organic 
Remains of a former World." 

The specimens figured, although differing from each other in certain 
particulars, are evidently casts of the same species ; the differences ob- 
servable arising partly from compression, and from the markings of the 
original shell being more strongly impressed in some examples, than in 
others. 

In figures 1 and 5, which are different views of the same specimen, 
the wreaths are nearly smooth, with the exception of a few imperfect 
costse. 

Figures 2 and 4, are nearly flat from compression, and the ribs 
almost effaced, but the surface is covered with transverse strise. The 
collection of the Geological Society contains a large specimen of this kind 

Fig. 6. A cast of five wreaths, including the venter ; but the outer 
lip and base of the columella are not preserved. In this example the 
upper volutions are smooth ; the two lowermost exhibit the ribs and strice- 

Fig. 10. Represents a cast of the dorsum, or back of the shell; but the 
base of the largest wreath is unfortunately destroyed. In this specimen 
the ribs and striae, with the styloid process of the outer hp, are well 
defined. 

Localities. Hamsey, Middleham, Southbourne, Eanscombe. 

] 8. Trochus ? Tab. xviii. fig. 7. 

The outhne of this delicate cast resembles that of Trochus agglutinans 
of Brander. 

Locality. Hamsey. 

19. Trochus ? Tab. xviii. fig. 9. 

Discoidal, base slightly convex, the margin acutely angular, aperture — ? 

The base of the shell delineated in the figure, is the only portion I 
have seen ; the angular margin is a remarkable character by which this 
species may be readily identified*. 

* In a specimen of Ti-ochus agglutinans, from Grignon, recently presented me by M. 
Brongiart, the outer margin of the last whorl very closely resembles that of the present 
fossil. 



1 10 GREY CHALK MARL. 

Locality. Hamsey. 
20. Trochus linearis, tab. xviii. fig. 17. 

Conical, wreaths slightly convex, transversely striated, with a prominent 
line along the centre and base of each volution ; base flat ; umbiHcus 
obscured by the last volution ; aperture transversely depressed. 

In figure 17, the linear markings, by which this species is distinguished, 
are but obscurely shown ; but in a specimen subsequently discovered, and 
which contains a portion of the original shell, these characters are strongly 
marked. 

Localities. Hamsey, Middleham. 

21. Trochus, tab. xviii. fig. 16. 

The cast of a species of trochus of an oval form; probably of T. linearis, 
distorted by compression. 

Locality. Hamsey, Middleham. 

22. Auricvila incrassata, tab. xix. figs. 2, 3. 34. 

Ovate, ventricose, transversely sulcated ; sulci longitudinally striated ; 
spire short ; columella triphcated ; outer lip thick, with a broad trans- 
versely striated border. 

The three folds on the columella, the striated sulci, and the broad 
band on the margin of the external Hp, are the distinguishing marks of 
this beautiful shell. It is a small species, consisting of about three volu- 
tions, and seldom exceeds half an inch in length, by OS inch in width. 
The spire is short, the outer lip thick ; the broad striated band gives 
a peculiar feature to the back of the shell. The striae which cross the 
delicate grooves or svdci, are so minute, as scarcely to be visible to the 
naked eye. When viewed with a lens they appear elevated and sharp, 
dividing the furrows into minute rectangular cells. This species occurs 
silicified in the Blackdown whetstone pits of Devonshire, and is described 
by Mr. Parkinson. ]Mr. Sowerby mentions that " it resembles A. ri?igens 
of Lamarck, but the want of striae within the outer hp, and the presence 
of longitudinal striae upon the surface, distinguish the British shell." 

Fig. 2. is an elegant specimen, in which the shell is replaced by a thin 
pellicle of reddish brown sulphuret of iron, upon a cast of indurated marl. 



GREY CHALK MARL. Ill 

It shews the plicated folds of the columella, and the broad band of the 
outer Up. 

Fig. 3. A smooth cast, in which the spire is more produced than usual. 

Fig. 34. A large specimen, exhibiting the back of the shell. 

Tab. xviii. fig. 3. is a distorted cast, that bears a closer affinity to 
Auricula simulata of Sowerby, {Min. Conch, tab. 163, figs. 5. 8.) than to 
the present species. 

Locahties. Hamsey, Middleham, Stoneham, Offham. 

23. Ampullaria? Tab. xviii. fig. 11. 

The cast of a subglobose, ventricose, univalve, probably belonging to 
the genus Ampullaria : — the depressions of the spire, and the obUque form 
of the cast, originate from compression. 

Locality. Hamsey. 

24. Vermicularia umbonata. Tab. xviii. fig. 24. 

Discoidal, spire depressed, concave beneath, umbonated above ; the 
outer volution produced, and marked with distant, annular ridges. 

This species is commonly about 0-7 inch in diameter, and consists of 
two or three volutions. It is slightly concave, or umbihcated, on its in- 
ferior surface, the inner whorls of the upper sides being concealed by 
an umbo. The produced part frequently exceeds in length the longest 
diameter of the shell, and is marked with sharp annular ridges ; where 
these occvu', the substance of the shell is much thickened, the cavity of 
the tube being diminished nearly one-third. The aperture is simple, and 
round. 

Fig. 24. This example shows the depressed spire with its central 
obtuse knob, and a considerable portion of the produced part of the 
external volution. In every specimen of this fossil the shell, hardened 
by an impregnation of calcareous spar, still remains. 

Locality. Hamsey. 

25. Vermicularia Sowerhii. Tab. xviii. figs. 14, t5. 

Conical, spiral, smooth, umbiHcate, inner wreaths anchylosed, slightly 
inserted ; aperture indented by the preceding volution ; outer whorl not 
produced ? 



112 GREY CHALK MARL. 

This species differs from V. umhonata, in having the spire elevated 
and the whorls inserted; the outer volution is not produced in any 
specimens yet discovered. The line of separation between the wreaths, 
is obscured by an extension of the substance of the shell, by which the 
volutions are anchylosed, or cemented together. 

The specific name is in honour of James Sowerby, Esq. F.L.S. &c. 
whose indefatigable exertions have very materially contributed to the 
elucidation of the Natural History of the British Islands. 

Locality. Hamsey marl-pits. 

26. Serpula. 

A small group of serpulae have been discovered at Hamsey, by Mrs. 
INIantell. I'he shell is smooth, and very tortuous, bearing some analogy 
to S. glomerata ; but is probably a distinct species. 

27. Nautilus elegans. Tab. xx. fig. 1. tab. xxi. figs. 1. 4. 8. 
Subglobose, umbilicate, transversely sulcated; sulci numerous, linear, 

curved, reflexed ; volutions one-third inserted ; septa concavo-convex, 
entire ; siphunculus central ; aperture obtusely sagittate. 

The thickness of this nautilus is equal to twice its width. The sulci 
are transverse, and very numerous, dividing the surface into broad, flat 
costae ; these form an elegant curve on the back of the shell, and 
proceeding laterally, are reflected towards the umbilicus. The septa are 
gently undulated, and have their convex surface placed in an opposite 
direction to that of the sulci, which they decussate. The siphunculus is 
large and nearly central, and the umbihcus very small. In a young state 
the sulci are wide, and separated by sharp transverse ribs, the whole sur- 
face being marked by numerous longitudinal striee. 

Casts of this species are common in the grey marl of Sussex, and 
Wiltshire, but no vestiges of the shell itself have been observed. The 
pecimens are frequently oblique from compression, and seldom exhibit 
the curved sulci in perfection ; they are from one to twelve inches in 
diameter. 

Tab. XX. fig. 1. is a remarkably fine cast of an adult shell, in which 
the sulci, with the broad and flat costae, the situation of the siphunculus, and 



GREY CHALK MARL. 113 

the form of the septa or dissepiments, are well preserved. It was disr 
covered in a marl bank at Middleham, in the winter of 1814. 

The following are casts of the young shell. 

Tab. xxi. fig. 1. Nearly smooth, the spire oblique, and much com- 
pressed. 

fig. 4. In this example a few linear sulci, and the markings 

of the septa, are the only indications of the species. 

fig. 8. This very elegant and perfect cast is from Middleham. 

It is deeply channelled by the broad transverse sulci, and is an excellent 
example of the characters of the young shell. 

The small smooth Nautih so frequently met with in various localities 
of the marl, are imperfect specimens of N. elegans in a young state. In a 
few instances the septa are composed of sulphuret of iron, and the cham- 
bers lined with crystals of carbonate of Hme. 

Localities. Hamsey, Stoneham, OfFham, Middleham, Kanscombe, 
Firle, &c. 

28. Ammonites Mantelli (of Sowerby.) Tab. xxix. fig. 9. Tab. xxii. 

fig- 1- 

Discoidal, subumbilicate : volutions subrotund, costate, one-third in- 
serted ; costae tubercular, transverse, alternately annular, with from two to 
eight rows of tubercles ; ambit flattish, with two rows of marginal tubercles ; 
septa very sinuous ; siphunculus external. 

The number and disposition of the ribs and tubercles of this species 
are so various, that although it is one of the most abundant productions 
of the grey marl, its specific characters are not easily defined. 

The general form of the shell is discoidal, the volutions (which when 
perfect are nearly cylindrical,) being flattened by compression, as in the 
specimens figured by Mr. Sowerby. The inner wreaths, in those which 
are compressed, are nearly two-thirds concealed, but in more perfect 
examples are less deeply inserted. The costae are round, and extend 
alternately across the whorls, the intermediate ones embracing about two- 
thirds of the volutions. The tubercles constitute the following varieties. 

Var. costata : with two rows of tubercles, tab. xxi, fig. 9. Two tuber- 

Q 



11* GREY CHALK MARL. 

cles are placed on every rib, and form a row on each margin of the ambit, 
or back, of the shelL 

Var. tuberculo-costata : with six rows of tubercles. This variety, in 
addition to the marginal tubercles, has four rows, which are placed on the 
longer costae only ; each side of the shell having one set on the margin of 
the umbiHcus, and another at a short distance above it. 

Var. tuberculata : with eight rows of tubercles. The two additional 
sets which distinguish this variety, are placed one on each side, midway 
between the margin of the ambit, and the second row of tubercles from 
the umbiUcus. These intermediate tubercles occur on every rib, each of 
the larger costae being ornamented with eight, while the shorter ones have 
but four. From the numerous tubercular projections on this variety, the 
outer volution is somewhat pentagonal. 

The septa of A. Mantelli are numerous, and very foliaceous. The 
form of the aperture varies in different specimens, but its width is in 
general equal to about two-fifths of the diameter of the shell. The 
siphunculus is small, and extends along the centre of the ambit. 

This species frequently attains a large size, some specimens exceeding 
one foot and a half in diameter ; but in these the tubercles are almost 
obliterated. 

Tab. xxi. fig. 9. A beautiful cast, from Middleham, of the first variety. 

Tab. xxii. fig. 1 . This specimen also belongs to Var. costata * ; it exhibits 
the foliaceous septa, and the situation of the siphunculus. It was col- 
lected by my friend, Thomas WooUgar, Esq. of Lewes. 

LocaHties. In almost every spot in Sussex, where an excavation has 
been made in the grey marl. 

29. Ammonites Susseociensis. Tab. xx. fig. 2. tab. xxi. fig. 10. 

Discoidal, subumbihcate : volutions subquadrangular, inserted, costated; 
costae transverse, numerous, with seven rows of tubercles, one of which 
extends along the centre of the ambit ; septa foliaceous ; siphun- 
culus ? 

* The plates of this work were completed before any illustrative specimens of the other 
varieties had been discovered. 



GREY CHALK MARL. 115 

I'his species is nearly allied to the preceding, but is distinguished by 
the ribs in almost every instance, reaching entirely across the volutions ; 
and by the central row of tubercles on the ambit. 

The sides are flattish, the external margin somewhat angular, the ribs 
prominent, in most instances entirely embracing the volutions, but in 
some varieties being alternately short, as in A. Mantelli. They are 
studded with seven sets of tubercles, arranged in the following manner ; 
viz. a row on the inner and outer margins, with two intermediate ones on 
each side ; and a dorsal row along the ambit. The aperture is nearly 
quadrangular ; and the septa foliaceous. The situation of the siphunculus 
is unknown. 

In the adult shell the ribs are prominent, and somewhat angular, the 
dorsum broad and flat, and the central row of tubercles almost obliterated. 

This beautiful species varies from a few inches to a foot in diameter, 
and was formerly abundant at Hamsey, but is now seldom found. 

Tab. XX. fig. 2, represents a specimen of the size and form in which 
this species most usually occurs. 

Tab. xxi. fig. 10. A perspective view of a small specimen. 

Localities. Hamsey, Offham, Middleham, Southerham, Rodmill, Plump- 
ton. 

SO. Ammonites varians. Tab. xxi. fig. 2. 5. 7. 

Discoidal, subumbilicate, volutions depressed, half inserted; trans- 
versely radiated ; radii bifurcate, undulated, studded with from four to six 
rows of tubercles ; septa very foUaceous ; carene acute, entire ; aperture 
sagittate ; siphunculus external ? 

This species of ammonite is one of the most proteiform of the whole 
genus, presenting great variety in the figure, disposition, and number of 
the tubercles and costas. It is, however, readily distinguished from its 
associates, by the acute entire keel, and the bifurcating tubercular radii. 

It is from 0-2 inch to nearly six inches in diameter, and is frequently 
compressed into an elliptical, and sometimes into a cordiform shape. The 
volutions seldom exceed four in number, and are rather more than half 
inserted. The umbilicus is shallow and expanded, its sides smooth, and 

a 2 



116 GREY CHALK MARL. 

crested with a row of small tubercles, from which the radii arise. The 
latter proceed obliquely over one-fourth of the volutions, where they form 
another set of tubercles, from whence they diverge into two branches, 
each terminating in a tubercle on the outer margin. The carene is 
smooth, and forms a prominent acute keel, having a row of opposite tu- 
bercles placed on each margin. 

In a suite of fifty specimens, in which every individual presented some 
peculiarity, three principal varieties were observable, each passing in- 
sensibly into the other. 

Va?\ subplana. Tab. xxi. fig. £. 

The volutions depressed, radii linear, inner row of tubercles obscure, 
external margin crenated, keel but shghtly elevated, aperture sagittate. 

Some specimens of this variety are nearly smooth, and the keel so 
much compressed, that without the aid of numerous examples, their re- 
lation to the tubercular variety could not have been ascertained. 

Var. intermedia. Tab. xxi. figs. 7, 8. 

In this variety the volutions are rather depressed, the radii broad and 
well defined, the tubercles small and distinct, the external margin tu- 
berculated, the keel prominent, and the aperture sagittate. 

I'his is the usual form of the species, and holds an intermediate rank, 
between the smooth and tubercular varieties. 

Var. tuhcrculata. Min. Conch. Tab. clxxvi. figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 6. 

Volutions subrotund ; radiations short, thick, nodular ; tubercles elon- 
gated, very prominent ; keel acute ; aperture roundish. 

A very beautiful variety, distinguished by its projecting tubercles, of 
which Mr. Sowerby's figure 1, affords an excellent example. The inner 
rows of tubercles are almost effaced, but the marginal and intermediate 
sets are strongly reheved, and in some examples become spinous. From 
the thickness of the volutions, the aperture is obovate. 

LocaHties ; very abundant at Hamsey, Middleham, Stoneham, &c. 

SI. Ammonites ductus. 

Dicoidal, subumbilicate, volutions depressed, half inserted, transversely 
jadiated; radii aniudar, distant, bifurcate, undulated; umbilicus expanded, 



GREY CHALK MARL. 117 

sides smooth, with a marginal row of oblique tubercles ; ambit convex, em- 
braced by the radii ; aperture ovato-sagittate. 

The volutions, although compressed, have a slight degree of convexity, 
and are ornamented by transverse radiations, that arise from a row of 
small tubercles on the inner margin. Each radius divides into two branches, 
which pass with a gentle sweep across the ambit, and unite with the cor- 
responding undulations of the opposite side ; small obhque tubercles are 
placed on each radius at the point of bifurcation. The volutions are three 
in number, the inner ones being three-fourths concealed. The dorsum, 
or ambit, is gently undulated by the radii. 

But one specimen has been discovered, the dimensions of which are 
as follows : longest diameter 3-8 inches ; width of the outer volution, two- 
fifths of the diameter: transverse diameter of the aperture 1-1 inch. 

It is scarcely necessary to remark, that although this species approaches 
to A. varians, in having bifurcating radiations, and a row of tubercles on 
the inner margin, yet it is widely separated from it by the rounded form 
of the back, and other obvious differences. 

Locality. Middleham. 

32. Ammonites yo/ccf^M*. Tab. xxi. fig. 6. 12. 

Depressed, subumbihcate, volutions deeply inserted, transversely 
radiated; radii plicated, falciform, extending down the sides of the 
umbilicus ; umbilicus small, with crenulated edges ; dorsum flat, narrow, 
with a longitudinal sulcus ; margin pUcated ; aperture sagittate, siphun- 
culus ? 

This rare and elegant species is almost flat, the longest diameter ex- 
ceeding its greatest thickness nearly four-fifths. The volutions are slightly 
enlarged in the centre, but are contracted at the ambit into a narrow flat 
keel, with a sulcus down the middle, and dehcate plicated edges. The 
radii are very slender at their origin in the umbilicus, but gradually in- 
crease in breadth, and passing obliquely to the centre of the volutions, 
make a sudden curve towards the margin, where they terminate in 
obtuse folds. The form of the septa, and the situation of the siphunculus, 
are unknown. 



118 GREY CHALK MARL. 

The shape of the radii is so remarkable, that the species may be readily 
identified. 

Tab, xxi. fig. 6, the only perfect cast hitherto discovered : from Middle- 
ham. 

fig. 12. A fragment from Stoneham, exhibiting the flat 

sulcated ambit. 

Locahties. Middleham, Stoneham. 

33. Ammonites curvatus. Tab. xxi. fig. 18. 

Depressed, subumbiUcate, volutions deeply inserted, transversely ra- 
diated ; radii falciform, bifurcate at the commencement, terminating in 
broad, tubercular curved costs ; carene with a longitudinal sulcus, between 
two marginal rows of tubercles ; aperture obtusely sagittate. 

This ammonite is nearly allied to the preceding, but is evidently a 
distinct species. In A. falcatus the curvatures are more numerous than 
the oblique radii ; but in the present species, the proportions are reversed, 
t^m or three radii uniting to form one curved rib. The terminations of 
the ribs in the latter are tubercular, and separated from each other by a 
sulcus ; in the former they are gently curved, and appear as if folded or 
plaited over each other. 

The umbilicus is rather deeper than in A. falcatus, and has a marginal 
row of oblique tubercular projections, from each of which two or three 
radii proceed to the centre of the volutions ; here they unite, and form a 
broad curved rib, that terminates in an elongated tubercle in the margin of 
the ambit. Another tubercle is placed on the middle of the curved part. 
The keel is grooved, and has two rows of prominent, distinct, opposite tu- 
bercles, formed by the termination of the ribs. 

LocaHty. Hamsey. The specimen figured was discovered by my brother, 
and is unique. 

34. Ammonites complanatus. 

Flat, volutions wholly inserted, the inner half marked with numerous, 
indistinct, transverse undulating striee, the outer portion plicated ; umbi- 
licus very small, almost concealed ; carene slightly convex, its margins 



GREY CHALK MARL. 119 

crenated by the angular terminations of the plicee; aperture slightly 
sagittate ; siphunculus ? 

The longest diameter is about 8 inches, greatest thickness 1*8 inch, 
width of the outer volution 5 inches. 

The volutions are thickest near the middle, and gradually contract 
into a narrow keel, which at the aperture, does not exceed 0-4 inch in 
width, and has an elevation or ridge down the centre. The pUcee are 
small, and extend from the outer margin over one-third of the wreath, 
but the intermediate ones do not reach beyond half that distance : their 
terminations are angular, and form a crenated border on each side the 
keel. 

This species may be distinguished by its flatness, the great width of 
the outer volution, the small conical umbilicus, the narrow keel, and the 
angular plicae. 

The septa are numerous, and very foliaceous. 

LocaUty. Hamsey. 

35. Scaphites striatus. Tab. xxii. figs. 3, 4, 9, 11, IS, 14, 15, 16. 

Volutions transversely striated; striae numerous, obhque, annular, bi- 
furcate; dorsum tumid; aperture produced, transversely ovate, marginate ; 
siphunculus internal? 

This species is commonly about an inch in length, the greatest thick- 
ness is 0-4 inch, width 0-8 inch. The inner whorls are umbiHcate, deeply 
inserted, and wholly concealed by the outer volutions. The dorsum is 
suddenly enlarged, and the reflected turn terminates before it reaches the 
centre. The aperture is entire, of an irregular ovate form ; the margin 
jDrominent, the upper part produced, extending a httle over the spire. 
The whole shell is striated; the striee arise singly from the inner margin, 
and dividing into two or three, pass over the dorsum, and unite with the 
corresponding ones of the opposite side. The inner half of the outer vo- 
lution is somewhat depressed, and from thence the stria extend obliquely 
in a radiating manner, and bifurcate at the edge of the depression ; to- 
wards the aperture of the shell, the striae are larger and more distinct. 
The septa are but slightly concave, and their edges have three principal 



120 GREY CHALK MARL. 

indentations, with several minute sinuosities. The situation of the 
siphunculus is unknown, but appears to have been on the internal margin. 

The specimens consist of indurated marlaceous casts, occasionally pos- 
sessing portions of the shell. The inner volutions are often filled with 
svilphuret of iron, and sometimes with calcareous spar. In almost every 
instance, the spire is more or less oblique, and otherwise distorted by com- 
pression : the variations of shape observable in the specimens delineated, 
have evidently been produced by this cause. 

Tab. xxii. fig. 3, a dorsal, and fig. 4, a lateral view of a Scaphite from 
Hamsey, flattened by compression. 

Fig. 9, exhibits the obliquity of the spire : a straight specimen, in my 
possession, proves that this appearance is the effect of accident. 

Fig. 11, exhibits the usual characters of the species; the aperture is 
l)roken off. 

Fig. IS, a specimen from Ranscombe, remarkably distorted. 

Figs. 14, 15, different views of a pyritous cast of the inner volution : 
the dark spot in the centre of fig. 14 shews the supposed situation of 
the siphunculus. 

Fig. 16, is a longitudinal section; the inner chamber is filled with dark 
brown sulphuret of iron. 

LocaUties. Hamsey, Eodmill, Brighton. 
36. Scaphites costatus. Tab. xxii. figs. 8, 12. 

Volutions convex, laterally compressed, transversely striated, inner 
whorls concealed, inserted; strias furcate, numerous, embracing the ambit: 
sides of the outer volutions smooth, with eight or ten distant, oblique, no- 
dular projections ; dorsum broad, convex. 

This is a less delicate shell than the former; its length is 1 inch, width 
0*8 inch ; thickness of the back 0-6 inch. It is distinguished from S. 
striatus by the nodular projections on the sides of the external volutions. 
These proceed from the centre, and diverge into numerous striae, which 
encircle the ambit. The back is broad, and the projecting terminations 
of the striae give its edges an undulated appearance. The aperture is 
oblong, and fronts the spiral part. 



GREY CHALK MARL. 121 

Localities. Hamsey : very rare. 

37. Hamites armatus. Tab. xxiii. figs. 3, 4. Tab. xvi. fig. 5. 
Depressed, ornamented with oblique annular costae, and four rows of 

tubercles, the marginal ones spinous ; siphunculus external ? Kmbs straight, 
parallel. 

The characters of this beautiful Hamite were first developed by a gi- 
gantic specimen found in a marl-pit at Koach, near Benson, in Oxfordshire, 
by Professor Buckland, and figured in Min. Conch. ; previously to this 
discovery, fig. 4 was the finest example extant. The casts of the shell 
only remain, and the spinous processes are in consequence but rarely pre- 
served. The form of the original was in aU probability cylindrical, but 
the fossil specimens are in some degree flattened and distorted. The 
limbs are straight, the hook or bend being very sudden. There are ge- 
nerally one or two costae between each annular row of tubercles, and the 
latter embrace two or three ribs. The spines are only known to proceed 
from the two dorsal rows of tubercles ; but it seems probable, that the 
other tubercles are also the rudiments of spinous processes, since all 
of them are imperfect, and appear as if broken oiF. The septa are very 
foliaceous. 

Tab. xvi. fig. 5, is a fine fragment from Hamsey; traces of the foMa- 
ceous septa are visible at the fractured part. 

Tab. xxiii. fig. 3. View of one of the septa, or chambers, shewing its 
foliaceous structure. 

fig. 4. This fine specimen has already been noticed ; it is 

so much distorted by compression, that only two rows of tubercles are 
seen in this view : it was discovered at Hamsey by my brother. 

Locahties. Hamsey, Middleham : rare. 

38. Jlomite^ plicatilis. Tab. xxiii. figs. 1, 2. 

Subcylindrical, with numerous, oblique, annular ridges, and four rows 
of spines : limbs curved. 

The curvature of the hmbs distinguishes this species from the one 
above described, with which however, it closely corresponds in every other 
particular. 

Tab. xxiii. fig. 1, is the only specimen yet discovered, in which the 

R 



122 GREY CHALK MARL. 

spines remain ; they are composed of a thin peUicle of reddish brown sul- 
phuret of iron, that has replaced the original shell. This example is part 
of the lesser limb, broken off near the curvature ; it is inverted in the en- 
graving. 

fig. 2, part of the larger Hmb, shewing traces of the folia- 

ceous septa. 

Localities. Hamsey, Middleham : very rare. 

S9. Hamites alternatus. Tab. xxiii. figs. 10, 11. 

Subcyhndrical, with oblique annular costse, and two rows of tubercles ; 
tubercles marginal, placed on each alternate costa ; curvature gradual. 

I have seen but one fragment of this species, which, except in size, 
agrees with H. spinulosiis of Sowerby, the tubercles being in all probability 
the bases of spines ; it is however impossible to determine their identity 
without more perfect examples. 

The specimen is elhptical from compression ; the ribs are very distinct 
on the sides and back, but almost obliterated on the inner margin. The 
tubercles are placed on each alternate rib, a circumstance that separates 
this species from the other spiniferous hamites, previously described. 

Locality. Middleham. 

40. Hamites elUpticus. Tab. xxiii. fig. 9. 

Depressed, surrounded by even, undulating ridges, each ornamented 
with two small tubercles placed on the outer margin ; curvature elliptical. 

This hamite appears to be identified by its even undulating ridges, 
each furnished with two tubercles, and the elliptical form of its curvature. 
It must however be acknowledged, that there is considerable difficulty in 
distinguishing the essential characters of a fossil, from the variations that 
are produced by age or accident, particularly when only a single specimen 
is known. 

Locality. Middleham. 

41. Hamites attenuatus? Tab. xxiii. figs. 8. 13. 

This species has already been described as occurring in the Blue Marl. 
(Vide Blue Marl Fossils, No. 21.) The specimens here figured are 
nearly cylindrical, and covered with oblique annular striae ; it is however 
doubtful whether they belong to the species referred to. 



GREY CHALK MARL. 123 

Tab. xxiii. fig. 5, is the fragment of a very large hamite, nearly allied 
to the preceding ; it was collected at Hamsey by Mrs. Mantell. 

Localities. Hamsey, Middlehara, Stoneham. 

42. Hamites baculoides, Tab. xxiii. figs. 6, 7. 

Cylindrical, elongated, marked with obscure, oblique, distant undula- 
tions on the outer margin ; curvature ? septa distant. 

Fragments from one to six inches in length, and about 04 inch in 
diameter, marked with obhque undulations, and occasionally exhibiting 
foHaceous septa, are very abundant in every locality of the grey marl near 
Lewes : those figured are the most perfect that have yet been discovered. 

This species may be easily recognized by its extraordinary length, by 
the smoothness of its surface, and the great obliquity of the few undu- 
lations with which it is ornamented. The form of the curvature is un- 
known ; for although several hundred specimens have been examined, the 
short fragment delineated in fig. 6, tab. xxiii. is the only known instance 
of a deviation from a straight line. These remains are associated with 
fragments of a large size, almost cylindrical, and perfectly smooth : are 
these portions of the larger hmbs of the same species ? By an inadvertence, 
the specimens are represented in the plate, with the largest extremity 
downwards. 

Localities. In every marl-pit in the south-eastern part of Sussex. 

42. Turrilites* costatus. Tab. xxiii. fig. 15, Tab. xxiv. figs. 1, 4, 5. 

Volutions reversed, convex, ornamented with transverse ribs, beneath 
which are two rows of tubercles. 

The upper half of each wreath is ornamented with about twenty 
smooth, rounded costae, beneath which is a row of elliptical tubercles, and 
a set of smaller ones on the inferior margin ; the latter are partly obscured 
by the next whorl. In almost every example the costae, and tubercles, 
pass into each other. 

The specimens that occur in Sussex, very rarely exceed three or four 
volutions, and are always in some degree compressed ; they are from one 

* Turrilites. A spiral, turreted, multilocular univalve ; volutions contiguous and apparent ; 
septa foliaceous, pierced near the upper margin by a siphunculus, aperture round; columella 
smooth. 

R 2 



124 GREY CHALK MARL. 

to seven inches in circumference, and from three to five inches long; the 
lowermost volution is but rarely preserved, and no traces of the shell 
remain. 

Tab. xxiii. fig. 15, represents a specimen with part of the lowermost 
volution. 

Tab. xxiv. figs. 1, 4, 5, exhibit the usual varieties of this species : in 
figures 4 and 5, the union of the ribs with the tubercles is distinctly 
shewn. 

LocaHties. Hamsey, Clayton. 

43. 'Turr'Aites undulatus. Tab. xxiv. fig. 8, Tab. xxiii. figs. 14. 16. 
Volutions reversed, ornamented with prominent transverse costas. 
This species was first noticed and described by the author. It is 

characterized by its prominent transverse costee, which are undulated in 
some examples, and extend directly across the whorls in others. In 
many specimens the ribs are oblique, and somewhat tubercular, a circum- 
stance that has led some naturahsts to question the correctness of con- 
sidering the present species as distinct from T. costatus. In the casts of 
the adult shell, the characters of the two species are however distinctly 
marked, and leave no doubt of the propriety of their separation. 

The Turrilites undulatus attains a larger size than the preceding, some- 
times exceeding three inches in diameter. 

Tab. xxiv. fig. 8, represents a very perfect example. It consists of 
eight volutions, including the lowermost, and exhibits the rounded base 
of the columella. On the opposite side, the siphunculus, fiUed with 
sulphuret of iron, is beautifully shewn. To my brother, Mr. Joshua 
Mantell, whose kindness I have had repeated occasions to acknowledge, 
I am indebted for the possession of this interesting specimen. 

Locality. Hamsey. 

44. Turrilites tuberculatus. Tab. xxiv. figs. 2, 3, 6, 7. 

Volutions reversed, beset with a longitudinal row of nodular projec- 
tions, beneath which are three rows of tubercles; inferior surface of the 
wreaths radiated. 

This species is the largest of the genus. De Montfort mentions 
a specimen found at Rouen, which measured nearly a foot and a half in 



GREY CHALK MARL. 125 

length ; and one found by the author, at Middleham, is of much larger 
dimensions. 

A row of from fifteen to sixteen obtuse rounded tubercles, are disposed 
round each volution, at about one-third from the superior margin, and 
beneath these are placed three sets of smaller tubercles. The inferior 
surface of the whorls is marked with radiating costae, that terminate in 
the lowermost row of tubercles. The siphunculus is placed midway 
between the larger projections, and the upper edge of the wreaths, which 
is impressed by the ribs of the preceding volution. The base of the aper- 
ture is contracted, and the tubercles on the body of the last whorl are 
elongated, forming irregular tubercular costee, which are reflected towards 
the aperture. 

Tlie fossil discovered by De Montfort " appears to have been in such 
a state of perfection, as to allow of its form being made out completely. 
It is regularly formed into a spire, the whorls of which are projecting and 
articulated, the foUaceous sutures produced by the edge of the septa being 
apparent. The opening of the shell is nearly round ; the columella flat 
without any folds ; and the septa perforated nearly in the centre, by a 
syphon*." 

The magnificent British specimen of this species, previously alluded to, 
was found in a bank of marl, near the mansion of the Kev. J. Constable, 
at Middleham, in the parish of Ringmer. It is a cast of indurated marl 
of an ochraceous colour, retaining in one part a thin iridescent pellicle of 
the pearly coat of the shell. Six volutions remain, the largest of which is 
five inches and a half in diameter. Upon a moderate calculation, the 
original, when perfect, must have exceeded two feet in length. The 
siphunculus is exhibited on the three upper volutions f. 

Tab. xxiv. fig. 7. A remarkably fine cast from Middleham. 

The siphunculus, shewn in the three upper volutions, does not exist 
in the specimen, but is introduced here that the subject may be more 
fully illustrated. 

* Organic Remains, Vol. iii. page 147. 
-f- This specimen is figured in Sowerby's Mineral Conchology, tab. Ixxiv. 



126 GREY CHALK MARL. 

Tab. xxiv. fig. 6. Perspective view of a cast placed in an inverted po- 
sition, to shew the radiated costae on the base of the volutions. 

Locahties. Middleham, Stoneham. 

It is worthy of remark, that this is the only species found in these 
localities, while at Hamsey and OflPham, where the T. cosfatus, and T. 
iindulatus, are met with, the present species does not occur. 

BIVALVES. 

The bivalves of the grey chalk marl so rarely exhibit any traces of 
the hinge, that their generic characters are but seldom distinguishable. 
The following are determined with as much accuracy as the imperfect 
state of the specimens would admit. 

45. Area. Casts of a small species, about 1*2 inch wide, and 0-7 inch 
long, have been discovered at Middleham ; the surface is marked with fine, 
concentric, transverse striae. 

46. Venericardia ? Min. Conch. Tab. 259. 

This is a small species, with diverging longitudinal striae, and is 
figured by Mr. Sowerby. 

Locahties. Middleham, Stoneham. 

47. Astarte. A minute species, covered with transverse striae. 
Locality. Middleham. 

48. Avicula. A thin delicate species, allied to Avicula mediae Min. 
Conch. Tab. 2. 

LocaHty. Hamsey. 

49. Venus .? Ringmeriensis, Tab. xxv. fig. 5. 

Suborbicular, with numerous transverse concentric striae, beaks in- 
curved, approximate ; margin entire. 

The fine cast here represented, contains no vestige of the shell, and 
the structure of the hinge is in consequence unknown ; as a temporary 
distinction I have referred it to the genus Venus. 

Locality. Middleham ; unique. 

50. Cardium ? decussatum, Tab. xxv. fig. 3. 



GREY CHALK MARL. 127 

Valves longitudinally costated ; costae radiating, decussated by con- 
centric, transverse striae, and sulci ; posterior side truncated, cordiform ; 
anterior side produced ; beaks incurved. 

This species, in its general form, approaches Cardium hibernicum 
(Min. Conch, tab. 82, figs. 1, 2.) but is distinguished by its numerous 
transverse sulci, the absence of the central protrusion, and by the posterior 
side being crossed by diverging striae. 

The length of this cast rather exceeds its width. The margin of the 
posterior side is raised, and a gentle depression is in consequence formed 
round the centre, which is somewhat elevated. The termination of the 
anterior side is unknown; the dotted outline in the figure indicates its 
probable form. The beaks are smaU and incurved. 

The longitudinal ribs pass in a radiating manner, from the beaks to 
the margin ; but are not visible on the posterior side. The sulci by which 
they are decussated, arise from the depression beneath the beaks, from 
whence they diverge across the posterior area, and becoming concentric, 
terminate on the edge of the anterior slope. The margin of the valves is 
entire. 

Tab. XXV. fig. 3. A cast from near Brighton. The shell itself is un- 
known. 

Localities. Brighton, Hamsey, Middleham, OfFham. 

51. Pecten Beaver L Tab. xxv. fig H. 

Depressed, suborbicular, with diverging longitudina costae; ears 
nearly equal to the width of the shell ; margin irregularly undu- 
lated. 

The costae are about twenty in number, and diverge from the centre 
of the hinge to the margin. The ears are almost equal to the transverse 
diameter of the shell. 

This species is from 2*5 inches to 3 inches in length, and is commonly 
in a good state of preservation. 

In almost every example the internal surface only^is exposed, the shell 
being attached to the marl by the outer side ; in a small portion which I 



128 GREY CHALK MARL. 

separated, the external surface was rugous, a circumstance that explains 
the cause of its adherence to the surrounding matrix. 

The specimen figured is from Hamsey ; it shews the inner surface. 

LocaHties. Southerham, Beachy-head, Hamsey, Kingmer. 

52. Pecten tripUcata. Tab. xxv. fig. 9. 

Subtriangular, longitudinally striated, with three deep, longitudinal 
furrows, which form angular pHcee on the front ; margin crenulated. 

Although but one valve of this elegant httle Pecten has been dis- 
covered, its characters are sufiiciently remarkable to warrant a specific 
appellation. The surface is furrowed by three deep sulci, that diverge 
from the hinge towards the margin, where they terminate in acute, 
angular pHc£e. The shell is covered with minute longitudinal striae, 
decussated by transverse hnes of growth. The margin is thick, and de- 
licately crenated. 

Locahty. Hamsey. The shell itself remains, and appears to have 
undergone but Httle change. 

53. Pecten quinqiiecostata ? Tab. xxv. fig. 10. 

In many particulars, this beautiful shell resembles the flat valve of P. 
quinquecostata * ; but it is much more elongated, and may probably belong 
to a distinct species. 

Locality. Hamsey. 

54. Pecten laminosa. Tab. xxvi. fig. 8. (22 ?) 

Suborbicular, much depressed, concentrically laminated, ears nearly 
equal. 

This shell so closely resembles P. orbicularis of Sowerby, {Min. Conch. 
tab. 186.) that at first I was induced to consider it as belonging to that 
species; a more careful examination has however detected differences 
which appear to be specific. 

The striae in P. orbicularis, are described as elevated and sharp ; but in 
the shell before us they are very slight, and are produced by the ter- 

* Vide Chalk Fossils, No. 64. 



GREY CHALK MARL. 129 

mination of concentric laminjE. The shell is very thin, and possesses a 
glossy appearance; the width and length are nearly equal. 

Tab. xxvi. fig. 8, a fine specimen, with the shell entire. 

fig. 22, is probably the under valve of this species. 

Locahties. Hamsey, Stoneham. 

55. Pecten Tab. xxvi. fig. 7. 

Although the valve here figured is perfect, yet as it only exhibits the 
inner surface, and resembles in form several other shells of the genus, the 
species cannot at present be ascertained. 

Locality. Hamsey. 

56. Plagiostoma? aspera. Tab. xxvi. fig. 18. 

Subdepressed, obovate, with numerous longitudinal, aculeated sulci. 

To the naked eye, this shell appears as if marked with smooth, longi- 
tudinal striae, but conveys a sensation of roughness to the touch. With 
the assistance of a lens, the striae are perceived to be sulci, dividing the 
surface into flat ribs, the edges of which are fringed with minute sharp 
points. It has a few irregular lines of growth : the structure of the hinge 
is not shewn in any of the specimens in my possession. 

This shell bears considerable resemblance to Lima spathula of Lamarck. 

Localities, Hamsey, Stoneham : rare. 

57. Plagiostoma . Tab. xix. fig. 1. 

The cast of a transversely ovate, depressed bivalve, apparently of this 
genus. It has fifteen prominent costae, which diverge from the beaks to 
the margin ; the latter is undulated. 

Locahties. Hamsey, Middleham. 

58. Plicatula *j9mo*a. Tab. xxvi. figs. 13. 16, 17. 

" Ovate, depressed, spinous ; spines adpressed, smallest on the deeper 
valve, margin entire*." 

The specific description is that given by Mr. Sowerby ; the Sussex 
specimens being imperfect, and differing in some partixiulars from those 
figured in the Min. Conchology. The latter are described as being 

* Min. Conch. Vol. iii. p. 79. 



130 GREY CHALK MARL. 

"obliquely ovate, with an angle at the beaks, the deeper valve having 
radiating undulations, with numerous minute aculei ; these are sometimes 
wanting. The other valve is for the most part externally concave, with- 
out undulations, but bearing sharp hollow spines with their points pressed 
close to the surface, and often hooked. The surface that received the 
semi-external cartilage, is sometimes very distinct, extending transversely 
upon the beaks, so as almost to form ears *," 

Tab. xxvi. figs. 13. 17, agree in many respects with the above descrip- 
tion : the shell is very thin, and the spines closely pressed to the surface. 

fig. 16, is more convex than the preceding, has but few 

spines, and possesses a lamellated structure. Some specimens of this kind 
are nearly orbicular, almost destitute of spines, and frequently exceed 
1 -5 inch in width and length ; these probably belong to another species. 

Localities. Hamsey, Stoneham ; mutilated specimens are very 
common. 

59. Terebratula suhrotimda. Min. Conch. Tab. xv. figs. 1, 2. 
Subrotund, somewhat depressed, smooth, valves equally convex, beaks 

short. 

This and the following species are abundant in the chalkf, but of rare 
occurrence in the marl ; they are so common, that a particular description 
is unnecessary. 

Localities. Hamsey, Eastbourne. 

60. Terebratula subundata. Min. Conch. Tab. xv. fig. 7. 
Subovate, somewhat depressed, smooth ; valves equally gibbous, margin 

depressed in front, with two lateral undulations. 
Localities. Hamsey, Eastbourne. 

61. Terebratula sulcata. 

Depressed, transversely ovate, with diverging longitudinal furrows', 
upper valve convex, lower valve depressed anteriorly ; front of the 
depressions straight, plicated, with an imdulation on each side ; beak small, 
margin serrated. 

* Min. Conch. Vol. iii. page 80. f Vide Chalk Fossils, No. 76. 



GREY CHALK MARL. 131 

The shell is about 0-5 inch long, and 0-6 wide. The sulci are strongly 
marked, about fifteen or sixteen on each valve, three or four occupying 
the straight front of the margin. The beak is slightly produced, and has 
a circular perforation. 

This species is common at Hamsey : the sulci are bolder and fewer in 
number on the straight part of the margin, than in the other Terebratulee 
of the chalk. 

Locahties. Hamsey, Stoneham. 

62. Terebratula Blartini. 

Subscrotiform, longitudinally striated, margin finely serrated; both 
valves slightly dejDressed in front, beaks very small. 

This is a very minute and deUcate species, scarcely OS inch either in 
length or width. Each valve is marked with upwards of thirty longi- 
tudinal striae, and both are equally convex. The margin is finely serrated 
by the terminations of the striae, and is nearly straight in front ; the sides 
are not waved, as in the last species. 

The specific name is in commemoration of the late William Martin, 
Esq. F.L.S. of Macclesfield, the scientific author of PetrificataDerbiensia, 
&c. whose premature death must be deeply lamented by every friend of 
science. 

Locahty. Hamsey. 

63. Terebratula striatula. Tab. xxv. figs. 7, 8, 12. 
Subscrotiform, contracted at the beaks, longitudinally striated, striae 

fine, diverging ; margin acute, undulated in front, depressed on each side 
the beak ; lower valve with a broad longitudinal sulcus. 

The length of this species is generally 0-9 inch ; the greatest width 
07 inch ; thickness 0*4 inch. 

The upper valve is convex in the middle, and gradually slopes towards 
the margin ; the lower valve has a sulcus along the middle. The beak is 
slightly produced, and beneath it the margin is inflected on both sides. 
The striae are fine, diverging from the beak to the margin ; the latter is 
acute, and has a gentle undulation in front, produced by the dorsal 
groove ; in the young shell this appearance is not observable. 

s 2 



132 GREY CHALK MARL. 

The specimens are marked with transverse lines of increase. 

The form of this shell resembles that of Conchyliolithus Anomites 
sacculus of Martin*, but that species is more convex, and is destitute of 
striae. 

Tab. XXV. figs. 7, 8. 12, exhibit a dorsal, front, and lateral view of the 
same specimen. 

Locality. Hamsey : very rare. 

64. Terebratula squamosa. 

Longitudinally ovate, valves equally convex, surface squamous, margin 
of the lower valve incumbent, beaks produced. 

Length 0*5 inch, width 0-4 inch; the greatest convexity of the united 
valves, 0-3 incli. Both valves are equally gibbous ; the margin of the 
lowermost is slightly incumbent, and surrounds the edge of the upper 
valve. The lines of increase are numerous, concentric, and squamous. 
The beak is a little produced, and has a circular aperture. 

The shells of the Terebratulee of the grey marl, are always in a good 
state of preservation ; in the present species even some vestige of the 
colour remains, the specimens being invariably of a bluish hue. 

Locality. Hamsey. 

G5. Inoceramus tenuis. 

Valves convex, marked with numerous fine concentric lines ; posterior 
side depressed, small, lunulate ? hinge side short, expanded ; beaks convex, 
incurved ; hinge oblique. 

The shell of this species is remarkably thin and fragile, and is marked 
with numerous concentric lines produced by the lamellated structure of 
the surface. The valves are regularly convex, and deepest in the middle. 

The posterior slope is smaU and lunulate ; the anterior, short and 
expanded. The hinge is rather oblique. 

A few indistinct transverse undulations are observable in some ex- 
amples. The specimens are usually about four inches long, and three 
inches wide : the depth of the united valves 2-8 inches. 

* Petrificata Derhiensia, tab. 46. figs. 1, 2. 



GREY CHALK MARL. 133 

Localities. Hamsey, OiFham. 

66. Inoceramus Cripsii. Tab. xxvii. fig. 11. 

Obovate, much depressed, with numerous concentric transverse ridges ; 
beaks acuminated ; posterior side small, depressed ; anterior side ex- 
panded ; hinge obUque ? 

The valves are of an obovate form, much depressed, and marked with 
strong concentric ridges, somewhat obhquely disposed. These characters 
distinguish the present species from the one above described. The beaks 
are acuminated. The shell increases in width, but diminishes in depth as 
it approaches the front. The posterior slope is small and depressed ; 
the anterior, expands to form the hinge furrow. 

Casts of this species are common, but the shell is seldom preserved. I 
have named it in honor of my esteemed friend John Martin Cripps, 
Esq. M.A., and it is with great pleasure that I thus publicly express 
my grateful acknowledgments for his kind exertions, in promoting the 
success of the present publication. 

Localities. Eingmer, Hamsey, Offham. 

Several other species of Inoceramus occur in the grey marl, but the 
specimens hitherto discovered, are in too mutilated a state to admit of 
accurate determination. 



Fossil Fishes. 

The Grey Marl has afforded a few examples of the remains of fishes, 
but these are exceedingly imperfect : fragments of bones, a few small ver- 
tebrae, irregular patches of scales, and an inconsiderable number of teeth, 
are the only specimens hitherto noticed. 

67. Eemains of a fish. Tab. xxxiv. fig. 10. 

This fossil was discovered at Hamsey; it shews vestiges of the tail, 
and of one fin, but no conjecture can be formed of the genus of the 
original. 



134 GREY CHALK MARL. 

68. Tooth of the Squalus mustelus. 

A tooth, apparently of this species of shark, is dehneated in Tab. xxxii. 
fig. 5. It is very rare. 
Locality. Hamsey. 

69. Tooth of the Squalus galeus. Tab. xxxii. fig. 12. 
This specimen resembles the teeth of the recent species. 
Locality. Hamsey, Eastbourne. 



Crustacea. 



Of the remains of Crustacea, a few portions only have been found : 
sufficient indeed to prove the existence of this order of animals in the 
grey chalk marl, but too imperfect to allow of a detailed description. 



LOWER CHALK. 135 

XII. 

^ II. 7. LOWER CHALK. 

XIIL 

§ II. 8. UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 



These deposits form by far the most considerable and important di- 
visions of the chalk formation, and constitute the most striking features 
of the geology of Sussex. As their investigation is highly interesting, we 
shall endeavour to elucidate the subject, by subjoining a brief notice of 
the course of the chalk through the south-eastern part of England, and 
on the Continent, 

We are informed by Mr. Townsend, « that the chalk hills are bounded 
by a Une which stretches from south-west to north-east, and that within 
these hmits they form three principal mountain ranges. The first, leaving 
Berks, runs north through Bucks, Bedfordshire, and Hertfordshire, into 
Cambridgeshire, by Dunstal^le, Hitching, Baldock, and Royston, to Gog- 
magog Hills, near Cambridge. The second, passing from Berkshire east- 
ward, stretches through Surrey, where it forms the Hog's back, that beau- 
tiful ridge which extends from Farnham to Guildford, and then appears 
at Boxhill. I'his branch forms the hilly country and the downs north of 
Reigate, Bletchingley, and Godstone. It enters Kent to the north of 
Westerham, and extends by Riverhead, to ^Vrotham, south of Hartford, 
Rochester, Lenham, and Canterbury, to I'olkestone and Dover. One di- 
vision of this ridge is continued to the north coast of Kent, by Fevers- 
ham, near Sheppey, Margate, and North Foreland to Ramsgate. 



136 LOWER CHALK. 

" The third range, leaving Wiltshire and Berkshire, enters Hants, and 
to the south passes round Petersfield, then, stretching to the east, forms 
a barrier against the sea along the coast from Chichester and the South 
Downs as far as Dover, and ranges from Maple-Durham, Houghton, 
Steyning, and Lewes, as far as Beachy Head*." 

Insular parts occur in the Isle of Thanet, and Isle of Wight -f-. 

In France the chalk prevails on the skirt of the western boundary of 
Mount Jura, extending nearly in a direction from S. E. to N.W., and 
covering a space of at least 210 miles long, and 50 broad. 

Chalk also occurs in Ireland, Saxony, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, and 
Poland:}:. 

The thickness of the chalk formation varies considerably in different 
parts of its course. Near Royston it attains an elevation above the sea 
of 481 feet; south of Dunstable, it is 994 feet; south of Shaftsbury, 941 
feet ; between Lewes, in Sussex, and Alton, in Hampshire, various parts 
of the range rise to the height of between 800 and 900 feet ; and be- 
tween Alton and Dover, between 700 and 800 feet §. In the Sussex range 
Ditchhng Beacon, which is the highest point, is 856 feet above the level 
of the sea. 

The mountain ranges formed by the chalk, are characterized by their 
smooth and unbroken outline, and are generally covered with a short 
verdant turf ||. 

The earher inhabitants of this island, either from choice or necessity, 
fixed their settlements on the elevated ridges and platforms of this form- 
ation ; and vestiges of their sepulchral mounts are still visible scattered 

* Townsend's Moses, Vol. i. page 142. 

•f Smith's Strata. For a more particular account of the range and extent of the chalk 
formation, vide Phillips Geological Outlines, edition 1822, page 77. 

J Dr. Berger, Geological Transactions, Vol. i. page 14. 

§ Phillips' Uutlines, 2d edition, 1816. 

II " In Champagne, in France, there are immense plains of chalk absolutely destitute of 
vegetation, except where patches of the Calcaire grassier occur as islands, or oases in the midst 
of these deserts. Many parts of this tract have perhaps not been visited for ages by any living 
being, no motive existing that could induce any one to wander there. This chalk is said to 
contain 11 per cent, of magnesia, to which the barrenness of the soil is supposed to be owing." 
Geological Transactions, Vol. ii. p. 175. 



LOWER CHALK. 137 

here and there, over the Downs. Stone-henge, and other druidical temples 
are situated upon it, being composed of immense blocks of the siliceous 
sandstone, that occurs in the form of boulders, on various parts of its 
surface. 

The description of the South Downs inserted in a former part of this 
work, will sufficiently explain the range, and extent, of the Upper and 
Lower Chalk, in the south-eastern part of Sussex ; varying in altitude from 
300 to upwards of 800 feet, this chain of hills extends from Beachy Head 
along the coast to Brighton, from whence it stretches through the centre 
of western Sussex, into Hampshire. On the north it presents a preci- 
pitous escarpment to the Weald, but its southern side descends with a 
gentle slope, and on the south-west is lost beneath the beds of the Isle of 
Wight basin ; while the south-eastern part forms a line of chalk cliflfs of 
considerable extent. 

The South Downs are intersected by four transverse vallies of con- 
siderable extent, through which the Arun, the Adur, the Ouse, and the 
Cuckmere, flow from the interior of the country into the British Channel ; 
the course of these rivers has abeady been described. 

The general dip or inclination of the strata of the Sussex range, is to 
the south-east; in a few instances, however, the influence of local causes 
has occasioned some exceptions. 

The summits of the hills are generally covered with a layer of loose 
flints, which lies immediately beneath the turf; and in some places, beds of 
sand and clay, with boulders of sihceous sandstone, and breccia, and other 
accumulations of diluvial detritus, obtain a similar situation. In numerous 
places on the sides and at the base of the Downs, quarries have been opened, 
and kilns erected, for converting the chalk into lime, of which immense quan- 
tities are annually consumed by the Sussex agriculturists. These partial 
sections in the interior, together with the line of coast from Brighton to 
Beachy Head, afford ample opportunities for the examination of the geolo- 
gical structure of this interesting chain. 

We now proceed to a more particular survey of the deposits included 
in the present section ; but before entering on their investigation, it may 



1S8 LOWER CHALK. 

be necessary to offer a few remarks, upon the substance of which they are 
principally composed. 

Chalk* is a mineral too well known to require description, and yet 
its characters are such as could not fail to excite attention, if less fre- 
quently presented to our notice. 

The Sussex chalk varies in colour from pure white to a bluish grey, 
and differs considerably in its coherence and composition. It has an 
earthy fracture, is meagre to the touch, and adheres to the tongue ; it is 
dull, opaque, soft, and light, its specific gravity being about 2-3. It is 
composed of lime and carbonic acid, and contains an inconsiderable pro- 
portion of silex and iron. 

The harder varieties of this substance were formerly in great request 
for building, and when protected from the influence of the atmosphere by 
a thin casing of limestone, or flint, proved very durable. The ruins of 
the priory of St. Pancras, near Lewes, wliich have stood nearly 800 years, 
afford a remarkable instance of this kind ; the interior of many of the 
walls are six feet thick, and are entirely formed of chalk, the outside 
having a facing of Caen-stone and squared flints. At present, chalk is 
seldom used in architecture, except in the construction of vaults, cellars, 
and other subterranean works. 

The Sussex chalk forms two principal divisions, viz, ; the lower or hard 
chalk, which is destitute of flints ; and the upper chalk, which contains 
numerous layers of siliceous nodules, and veins of flint 'i-. 

* Various conjectures have been offered respecting the probable origin of chalk, and the 
mode of its formation. Patrin* supposed that it was the production of three different causes. 

1. Animal earth, proceeding from the decomposition of organic bodies. 

2. Calcareous lava ejected by submarine volcanoes. 

3. Detritus of calcareous mountains. 

Delametherie imagined it to have been deposited by water in a state of great agitation f. 

In Ireland, the chalk acquires a degree of hardness equal to that of compact limestone. 
In its geological position, and in the nature of its fossils, it corresponds, however, with that of 
England, with which it is considered to be entirely identified. In many places it is covered by 
basalt. It contains echiniles, ta'ebratulcE, ammonites, and belemnites. — Geological Transactions, 
Vol. iii. pp. 169. 129. 

■\ In some parts of England the beds of chalk admit of a more minute division. Those 

• Diet. d'Histoire Naturelle, Tom. vi. p. 472. t Journal de Pliysique, Tom. bojc. p. 37. 



LOWER CHALK. l39 

XII. 

§ II. 7. LOWER CHALK. 



The absence of siliceous nodules, and the superior hardness of the 
chalk, distinguishes this deposit from that which lies above it. 

Its colour is of a light grey, enclosing masses of pure white. It forms 
the low elevations at the foot of the Downs, and as the situations it occupies 
are generally easy of access, a considerable number of quarries have been 
opened in different parts of its course. It is regularly stratified, the hues 
of separation being composed of a softer chalk, that in some places con- 
tains so great a proportion of argilla, as to assume the appearance of marl. 
The latter also occurs in transverse and vertical veins, in which the remains 
of fishes are more frequent than in the more solid strata. 

The general inclination of the beds is towards the south-east, at an 
angle of from 5° to 15°. Their total thickness has not been determined, 
but is probably not less than 200 feet. A well sunk on the side of the 
hill, near Glyndbourne, passed through 120 feet of the lower chalk only. 
The lowermost beds were of a deeper grey than the upper, but presented 
no other material variation. The cliffs that extend from near Beachy 

in the vicinity of Dover, described by Mr. Phillips {Geological Transactions, Vol. v. p. 18.), 
are separated by that gentleman into the following, viz. 

1 . Chalk with numerous flints, 350 feet thick ; which is subdivided into 

1. A bed with few organic remains. 

2. Chalk with interspersed flints, consisting chiefly of organic remains, in which nu- 
merous flints of peculiar forms are interspersed, and a few beds of flint. 

2. Chalk with a few flints ; this stratum is about 1 30 feet thick. 

3. Chalk without flints, 140 feet thick, consisting of 

1. A stratum containing very numerous and thin beds of organic i-emains, 90 feet 
thick. 

2. A bed 50 feet thick, with few organic remains. 

4. Grey chalk, estimated at 200 feet in thickness. 

T 2 



140 LOWER CHALK. 

Head to Southbourne, expose this bed at their base, and afford considerable 
facility for its investigation. 

Near Lewes, the lower chalk occurs in the quarries at the foot of 
Mailing Hill, Southerham, Glynd, Glyndbourne, Swanborough, Plumpton, 
&c. ; and in other parts of the county, along the northern edge of the 
Downs, reposing immediately on the grey chalk marl. 

The quarry at Southerham, (vide Tab. ii. fig. 3. and Tab. vii.) is re- 
markable for the incUnation and direction of its beds; it is situated on the 
east side of the road, on the south-western extremity of ChfF Hills. It 
is about SO feet high, and contains from eight to ten layers of chalk, the 
latter varying in thickness from one to eight feet, being separated from 
each other by intervening seams of friable chalk marl. These exhibit decided 
proofs of having suffered considerable displacement; they are incUned 
obliquely towards the north, at an angle of from 20° to 30^, their planes 
being depressed towards the west. Northward from this spot, at the 
distance of about 300 yards, the upper chalk is exposed in the pit of 
Messrs. Hillman, in South Street, and here the strata are horizontal. The 
hill in which both these quarries occur, presents a smooth unbroken 
outline, conveying no indication of the changes that have taken place be- 
neath its surface ; hence we may infer, that the displacement of the strata 
was antecedent to those revolutions, of which the present form of the 
country affords such unequivocal evidence. 

Minerals. 

1. Sulphuret of iron is the only metallic substance that occurs in the 
lower chalk ; and of this mineral some elegant crystals, of a reddish or 
yellowish brown colour, have been discovered, in the quarries at the foot 
of Mailing HiU. 

Tab. xvi. fig. 11, represents the usual form of the specimens. It con- 
sists of nine or ten quadrangular columns, formed of octohedrons piled 
upon each other ; these proceed from one common centre, and each ter- 
minates in a quadrangular pyramid*. 

* Similar specimens have been discovered by Mr. Wm. Phillips, in the lower chalk at 
Dover. Vide Geological Transactions, Vol. v. p. 37. 



LOWER CHALK. 141 

The lower chalk, near Beachy Head, contains small cylindrical masses 
of pyrites of a steel grey colour, that possess a very brilhant lustre ; their 
surface is generally invested with pyramidal crystals, having their solid 
angles replaced by quadrangular planes. 

2. Green sandstone. Small portions of this substance, evidently of the 
same nature as the chlorite sand, have been discovered in the chalk at 
Southerham. 

Organic Kemains. 
These correspond in most instances with the fossils of the upper 
division ; but as they are comparatively of rare occurrence, it will be more 
convenient to include them in the general description of the organic re- 
mains of the chalk. We shall therefore confine ourselves, in this place, 
to an enumeration of those which occur in the lower chalk of Sussex. 

1 . Wood ; very rare. 

2. Supposed juli of the larch. 

3. Ventriculites radiatus. The remains of this zoophyte are very 
rare in the lower chalk, and generally consist of the stirps only. 

4. Ventriculites alcyonoides : rare. 

5. Choanites subrotutidus. 

6. Apiocrinites ellipticus. 

7. Conulus albogalerus. 

8. Cirrus depressus. 

9. perspectivus. 

10.* granulatus. 

1 1 . Ammonites varians : very rare. 

12.* Woollgari. 

IS.* catinus. 

14.* 7'usticus. 

15.* Lewesiensis. 

16.* Belemnite. 

17. Plagiostoma ^/'o^mar^2. VV»|»>.aV] /fw^ t 



142 LOWER CHALK. 

18. Ostrea. 

19. Terebratula subrotunda. 

20. ' ovata. 

21. undata. 

22. Inoceramus mytilloides. 

2S.* Websteri. 

24.* — striatus. 

25. latus. 

26. Astacus Leachii. 

27. Squalus cornubicus (the teeth of). 

28. mustelus. 

29. — ■ zyg(sna. 

SO. BaHstes (fins or radii of). 

31. Diodon (molar teeth of). 

32. Zeus Lewesiensis. 

33. Muraena Levjesiensis. 
34.* Sahno Lewesiensis. 
35.* Amia ? Lewesiensis. 

Those marked thus * have not been discovered in any othet- deposit. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. I43 

XIII. 
II. 8. UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 



The Upper Chalk is characterized by its numerous parallel layers 
of flint. In this county it constitutes by far the most considerable portion 
of the chalk formation, extending to the summits of the highest hills, and 
in some instances reaching nearly to their base. 

The chalk of this deposit is generally of a purer white, and of a softer 
texture, than the inferior strata; but in other respects, presents no sensible 
diiFerence. It is regularly stratified, and partakes of the general inclina- 
tion of the other divisions of the series. It is separated by horizontal 
layers of siliceous nodules into beds that vary from a few inches, to 
several feet in thickness, and which, in some locahties, are traversed by 
obliquely vertical veins of tabular flint, that may be traced for many 
yards without interruption. These are sometimes disposed horizontally, 
and form a continuous layer of thin flint, of very considerable extent. 

The nodular masses of flint are very irregular in form, and variable in 
magnitude ; some of them scarcely exceeding the size of a bullet, while 
others are several feet in circumference. Although thickly distributed in 
horizontal beds or layers, they are never in contact with each other, but 
every nodule is completely surrounded by the chalk. Their external sur- 
face is composed of a white opaque crust, consisting of an intermixture 
of chalk and silex, probably formed by a combination of the outer surface 
of the nodule with its investing matrix, while the former was in a soft 
state. Internally they are of various shades of grey, inclining to black, and 
often contain cavities lined with chalcedony and crystallized quartz. 

When first extracted from the quarry, flint is brittle, has a conchoidal 
fracture, and feeble lustre ; thin fragments are translucent. Its specific 
gravity is 2-594. According to the analysis of Klaproth, it consists of 



144 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

Silex - 98- Oxide of iron - - 0-25 

Lime - 0-5 Water - - - 1- 

Alumine - 0-25 

It is infusible, but upon being submitted to a great heat becomes 
white, and opaque. By exposure to the atmosphere, it undergoes con- 
siderable change, and assumes a yellow or ferruginous colour, an appear- 
ance commonly exhibited by the flints of our ploughed lands. When 
in contact with ochraceous clay, or sand containing iron, it frequently 
attains a dark carnelian colour externally, the interior being of a lighter 
shade ; of tliis kind, numerous beds occur in the parish of Barcombe. 

Flints so commonly enclose the remains of sponges, alcyonia, and other 
zoophytes, that some geologists are of opinion that the nucleus of every 
nodule, was originally an organic body *. That this has been the case in 
most instances is very evident ; and in Sussex, there are comparatively but 
few flints, that do not possess traces of zoophytical organization. These 
nodules oftentimes exliibit not only the outline of the original zoophyte, 
but also its internal structure, preserved in the most delicate and beautiful 
manner that can be conceived. In some examples the zoophyte has 
undergone decomposition, and the space it occupied been partially filled 
with an infiltration of agate, chalcedony, and crystallized quartz. 

Although even in the present advanced state of chemical science, we 
are unacquainted with the process by which silex may be dissolved in water, 
yet that its solution was formerly effected by natural causes on a very ex- 
tensive scale, the sihceous nodules, whose history is the subject of these 
remarks, afford the most conclusive evidence. At the present moment, 
nature in her secret laboratories is still carrying on a modification of the 
same operations ; of which we have remarkable instances in the boiling 
springs of the Geyser, in Iceland -f, and of Carlsbad, in Bohemia :]:. Nor 

* " So far as my observation extends, zoophytes appear universally to have formed the 
nuclei of nodulated and coated flints." To'wnsend's Character of Moses. 

-f The depositions of siliceous tufa, or chalcedony, formed by the boiling springs of the 
Geyser, in Iceland, are well known; these waters contain 31 -SS, of silex per gallon. Vide 
Travels in Iceland, by Sir George Stewart Mackenzie, Bart. 4to. Edinbui'gh, p. 389- 

I According to the experiments of Klaproth, the spring at Carlsbad contains 25 grains of 
silex in 1000 cubic inches of water. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 145 

is a high temperature absolutely essential to the solution of silex in water 
since this earth occurs in a large proportion in the mineral waters of our 
own island *, and also enters into the composition of the epidermis of 
various plants of the cane tribe, and of the English reeds, and grasses. 
The epidermis of the Equisetum hyemale, or Dutch rush, consists almost 
entirely of silex f. 

There is scarcely a single fact in geological science, that has so much 
excited the attention of philosophers, or given rise to so many unsatis- 
factory conjectures, as the formation of the siliceous nodules of the chalk. 
Upon this interesting subject, which is still involved in much obscurity, 
I shall not presume to hazard an opinion, but content myself with offer- 
ing a condensed view of those theories, that have received the sanction of 
some of our most eminent geologists. 

The celebrated Werner, whose opinions are embraced by Professor 
Jameson, Mr. Parkinson, and others, oflfersthe following explanation of the 
phenomenon in question. He supposes, that " during the deposition of 
the chalk, air was evolved, which, in endeavouring to escape, formed irre- 
gular cavities that were afterwards filled up by infiltration with flint. The 
decomposition of the softer parts of the animals thus entombed, may 
be considered as a probable source of part of the gaseous matter that 
formed these cavities ; and the connexion of the animal remains with 
those nodules of flint, is easily explained by supposing the shells, crusts 
of echini, &c. to have projected into the hollows, or to have been ad- 
herent to their sides, at the period at which this infiltration took place. 
That the separation and disposition of the matter forming the nodules, 
have been the effect of crystallization, is rendered evident by the cavities 
left either in these nodules, or in the fossils, being generally Uned with 
quartz crystals :j:." 

Upon this subject Dr. Berger § remarks, that with regard ^' to the forma- 
tion of flints in chalk, if we adopt the theory of Werner, 1 should be as 

• The mineral waters of Bath contain twenty grains of silex in ten pints and a half. Nichol- 
son's Journal, Vol. iii. p. 403. 

•f Organic Remains, Vol. i. p. 328. 
+ Geological Transactio7is, Vol. i. p. 350, 
] Ibid. p. 96. 

U 



146 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

much disposed to attribute the void spaces in the chalk to a natural con- 
traction of its substance, as to the disengagement of air. We know that 
chalk divides, by drying, into compartments that are sometimes very re- 
gular, nearly in the same way as marl. According to this hypothesis, we 
may suppose either that the chalk and the flints are of contemporaneous 
formation, that the elements of flint were mixed with those of the chalk, 
and that they separated from each other by elective affinity, or that 
the siHceous matter has been afterwards introduced, and has filled up the 
cavities left in the chalk." 

Professor Buckland, whose opinions on geological subjects merit the 
highest consideration, objects altogether to the explanation offered by the 
Wernerian theory. " It does not," he remarks, " appear possible that 
the flints could have been formed by infiltration into pre-existing cavities, 
hke the regularly disseminated geodes of the trap rocks ; since this 
hypothesis, in the case of chalk, would imply the anomaly of their 
having once existed uniformly over many hundred square miles, as 
many strata of air bubbles as there are of flint, alternating with the chalk ; 
and of which air-holes not one was left empty, or partially filled ; whilst, 
on the other hand, many of the nodules could not have been formed in 
such air-holes, as they entirely derive their shape from some extraneous 
bodies affording a nucleus to the silex that has incrusted them*." He then 
offers the following ingenious theory, as the result of a diligent investiga- 
tion of the subject. " Assuming that the mass which is now separated 
into beds of chalk and flint, was, previously to its consolidation, a com- 
pound pulpy fluid, and that the organic bodies now enveloped in the 
strata were lodged in the matter of the rock, before the separation of its 
calcareous from its siliceous ingredients, he conceives that the bodies thus 
dispersed throughout the mass, would afford nuclei, to which the flint, in 
separating from the chalk, would, upon the principle of chemical affinity, 
have a tendency to attach itself The chalk and flint he considers to 
have proceeded through a contemporaneous process of consolidation, the 
separation of the siliceous from the calcareous ingredients, having been 
modified by attractions, which drew to certain centres the particles of 

* Geological Transactions, Vol. iv, p. 4S.2. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 147 

the siliceous nodules, as they were in the act of separation from the ori- 
ginal compound mass. The distances of the siliceous strata he imagines 
to have been regulated by the intervals of precipitation, of the matter 
from which they are derived ; each new mass, as it was discharged, forming 
a bed of pulpy fluid at the bottom of the then existing ocean, which being 
more recent than the bed produced by the last preceding precipitate, 
would rest upon it as a foundation similar in substance to itself, but of 
which the consolidation was sufficiently advanced, to prevent the ingre- 
dients of the last deposit, from penetrating or disturbing the productions 
of that which preceded it *." 

That the beds of chalk and flint were deposited periodically, cannot 
admit of the slightest doubt. Specimens are not unusual, in which an- 
gular fragments of black flint, that could not possibly have been originally 
formed in their present state, are imbedded in chalk. An example of 
this kind in my possession, contains several portions of flint which are 
as sharp and translucent as if recently broken, and entirely destitute 
of the external opaque crust invariably seen in the perfect nodules ; 
these are imbedded in, and separated from each other by the chalk. It 
is sufficiently obvious that the nodule from which these pieces were de- 
rived, must have been displaced and broken, subsequently to its original 
formation, and the fragments afterwards enveloped in another and more 
recent stratum of chalk f . 

* Vide Geological Transactioris, Vol. iv. p. 420. 

t As connected with the history of the formation of sihceous nodules, I cannot refrain from 
noticing in this place, the extraordinary circumstance of coins, and other antiquities, having 
been found enclosed in them. 

In Schneiders Topog. Mineral, mention is made of 126 silver coins, that were found en- 
closed in flints at Grinoc, in Denmark *. It is however much to be regretted, that no descrip- 
tion is given of the coins, nor any conjecture offered of their probable age ; since, if the account 
be correct, the determination of that circumstance would fix a certain date to one era, at least, 
of the formation of flint. 

Mr. Knight Spencer, in a letter published in Bakewell's Introduction to Geology f , relates the 
following interesting story, and which, from its authenticity, may be considered as decisive of 
the comparatively recent formation of flint, in certain situations. 

" In 1791, two hundred yards north of the ramparts of Hamburgh, in a sandy soil, M. Liesky 
of that city picked up a flint, and knocking it against another, broke it in two. In the centre 
of the fracture he observed an ancient brass pin, and on picking up the other half, he found 

* Phillips' Mineralogy, 2d edition, p. 12. 

■^Bakewell's Introduction to Geology, 8vo. 1813, p. 338. 

u 2 



148 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

But to return from this digression.— The line of coast from Brighton 
to Beachy Head, exposes an interesting vertical section of the upper chalk, 
exhibiting almost every variety of character hitherto remarked in the 
beds of that deposit. 

At Brighton, the cliffs are composed of an accumulation of diluvial 
substances, resting upon the sohd chalk, which there constitutes the sea- 
shore, and continues to Eottingdean. From thence to Newhaven, the 
cliffs are nearly perpendicular, and on the western side of the harbour 
rise into an irregular elevation called Castle hill, the upper part of which, 
is composed of numerous beds of the plastic clay formation : the lowermost 
fifty feet consisting of the flinty chalk. On the opposite side of the river, 
a low mound of chalk, capped with a bed of plastic clay and ferruginous 
breccia, appears at Chimting Castle. Proceeding eastward towards the 
Signal-house, near Seaford, the chalk rises to a considerable height, and 
forms a majestic hne of chffs from thence, to the embouchure of Cuck- 
mere river ; from this place they extend eastward, and terminate in the 
magnificent promontory of Beachy Head, which is nearly six hundred feet 
above the level of the sea *. Along this line of coast, Ammonites of a 
large size, Plagiostomae, Terebratulas, Echinites, and other productions 
of the chalk, may be obtained in considerable numbers. 

The sections in the interior of the country are entirely artificial ; of 
these, the following are the most interesting, that occur in the south- 
eastern part of the county. 

the corresponding mould of the pin so laid bare ; he presented them to Thomas Blacker, Esq. 
in whose possession they now are, and who has shewn them to the writer of this paper." 

In the Gentleman's Magazine for 17 — , mention is made of an ancient brass key (a figure 
of which is there engraved) having been found in a block of chalk at Guilford, in Surrey. 
My friend, J. B. Durrant, Esq. of Mailing-house, had the kindness, in compliance with my re- 
quest, to inquire into the correctness of the account, but it proved, as indeed might have been 
expected, too apochryphal to be worthy of credit. 

* The following circumstance is too singular to be omitted. One of those prodigious 
falls of the chalk cliffs, which make a residence near them frequently so dangerous, oc- 
curred at Beachy Head a few years since. The clergyman of East Dean was walking on 
the brink of the precipice, when he perceived the ground to be sinking from under him, 
and although he had the presence of mind instantly to rush from the impending danger, a 
deep chasm had formed at some distance from the edge of the cliff, over which he had escaped 
but a few moments, before the mass of chalk upon which he had been standing, to the extent of 
three hundred feet in length, and eighty in breadth, fell with a tremendous crash into the. sea. 
Geological Transactions, Vol. ii. p. 191. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 149 

Holywell quarry, near Eastbourne ; contains Echinites, Plagiostomas, 
Inocerami, Terebratulse, the remains of Fishes, &c. 

Alfriston chalk-pit; remarkable for crystallized carbonate of lime of 
considerable purity. 

Cliff Hills. The pits formed on the sides of this insulated portion 
of the chalk hills, produce a great variety of fossil shells, and zoophytes, 
the remains of fishes, and the vertebrae and bones of unknown animals. 
In some of these quarries, after a recent fall, the chalk presents a remark- 
able appearance ; the newly exposed surface is of a brown colour, and 
uniformly marked with fine vertical striae, giving to the mass a fibrous 
appearance. Small conical portions of the chalk sometimes partake of the 
same character, and I have specimens that closely resemble calcareous 
fossil wood. In every instance, however, this structure is confined to the 
surface, and does not affect the interior of the chalk. In all probability 
it has been produced by a subsidence of the strata, which caused them to 
slip over each other, before they were entirely consoUdated *. 

South-street pit, near Lewes, affords a fine section of the flinty chalk, 
exceeding two hundred feet in height. An irregular canal or dyke, 
varying from two to eight feet in diameter, traverses this quarry, in an 
oblique direction. It was noticed many years since at the northern 
extremity of the pit, and subsequent falls of chalk have from time to 
time exposed its course towards the centre, from whence it now appears to 
proceed easterly : a section of it is still perceptible at an elevation of a 
few feet. In some parts this cavity was almost empty, and in others 
nearly filled by sand, clay, and ochre of a light chocolate colour. This 
canal or dyke has probably been formed by a subterranean current of 
water, the substances it contains being evidently alluvial. South-street 
pit is also remarkable, as being the only known locality of the detached 
cctaedral sulphuret of iron. It contains the scales, teeth, &c. of fishes, 
and numerous shells and corals. 

Beddingham pit is situated on the side of the Downs, about a mile 
distant from the village. In ascending the hill, the grey marl, lower 

* An appearance somewhat similar occurs in the limestone beds of Derbyshire, and is 
there termed " slickensides." 



150 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

chalk, and flinty chalk, are passed over in succession. The pit is between 
twenty and thirty feet high, and consists of, 

1. Vegetable mould intermixed with chalk rubble, 1 foot. 

2. Chalk rubble, _.---- S feet. 

3. FHnty chalk, ------ 20 feet. 

The chalk is stratified in horizontal beds from two to four feet thick, 

and these are separated in some instances by layers of flints, and in others 
by chalk rubble ; flints are also irregularly disposed throughout the mass. 
This spot is peculiarly interesting, from the circumstance of the strata 
having been rent asunder since their original deposition. Vertical fissures 
are every where observable, and these are partially fiUed with broken chalk 
and flint, cemented together by crystallized carbonate of lime, of a hght 
amber colour. The sides of the fissures are incrusted with the same sub- 
stance, which has insinuated itself into the crevices of the surrounding 
chalk, and also occurs in irregular concretions in the cavities of the flints. 
The surface of these stalactitical depositions of calcareous spar, is fre- 
quently covered with delicate undulations, as if the water had been sud- 
denly congealed, while in a state of agitation. 

Piddinghoe. This pit lies on the road side, near the village of the 
same name ; it is remarkable for the purity and softness of the chalk, and 
for the numerous vertical and oblique veins of tabular flint, by which it 
is traversed. These veins are of a most extraordinary character ; for 
although the flint retains its original form and situation, yet upon 
examination, it is found to be cracked and shivered in every direction. 
The fractured flint falls to pieces upon being removed from the chalk, 
but in some instances it is held together by sulphuret of iron, forming a 
conglomerate of silex and pyrites, of a very singular appearance. The 
phenomenon here remarked, is not however confined to this quarry, 
but may be observed in several chalk-pits near Lewes and Brighton. 

Sir Henry Englefield was the first who directed the attention of 
geologists to this subject. In a paper read before the Linnean Society, 
he notices several beds of shattered flints, which occur in a chalk-pit at 
Carisbrook, in the Isle of Wight ; and after describing their appearance 
and situation, proceeds to offer some conjectures upon the probable cause 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 151 

of their destruction. This he supposed might have been occasioned by 
some sudden shock or convulsion, " which in an instant shivered the 
flints, though their resistance stopped the incipient motion ; for the flints 
though crushed are not displaced, vrhich must have been the case, had 
the beds slid sensibly *." 

Off'ham pit, is nearly two hundred feet high, and exhibits a good 
section of the Sussex chalk. It contains the large fibrous bivalve, the 
fragments of which are so frequently met with in every locality ; teeth 
and palates of fishes, and numerous zoophytes. It is the only locahty 
near Lewes, in which the Marstipites have been discovered. South of 
this place, in a bank on the road-side, the chalk is covered by a bed of 
ochraceous clay, and where in contact with the latter, the chalk and flints 
are marked with regular stripes of yeUow, bluish grey, and brown. This 
singular appearance extends into the substance of the chalk, but does not 
penetrate beyond the external crust of the flints : similar specimens some- 
times occur in the pit in South-street. 

Clayton pit. This locality produces Inocerami, Nautili, Plagiostomse, 
Terebratulae, Marsupites, &c. 

Falmer. An excavation made on the side of the road, leading from 
the village, towards the farm of Mr. Moon, is particularly interesting 
from the evident proofs it exhibits of the changes the strata have suffered, 
since their original deposition. The pit is about twenty feet high, and 
contains the following beds; beginning with the lowermost. 

1. Chalk with horizontal layers of large flints, - 6 feet. 

2. Chalk much broken, containing interspersed flints, 10 feet. 

3. Ochraceous clay and flint pebbles from 2 to 4 feet. 
From the upper part of the pit, several fissures of an irregular shape, 

and from three to six feet in diameter, extend through the broken chalk 
to the more solid beds beneath. Some of these cavities are of an inversely 
conical form, and others are nearly cyhndrical. They are fiUed with 
ochraceous clay, rolled flints, and rounded masses of a conglomerate, con- 

* Li7inean Transactions, Vol. vi, p. 108. 



152 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

sisting of pebbles and fragments of chalk, held together by a ferruginous 
cement. A portion of the pit in which sections of three of these wells 
occur, is represented Tab. iv. fig. 3. An appearance somewhat analogous 
is observable on the north side of the chalk-hiU on which the church of 
St. John, sub Castro, in Lewes, is situate *. The broken chalk in Falmer 
pit is in very small pieces, the angles of which are perfect ; a proof that 
although minutely divided, it has not suffered by attrition. The sides of 
the vaUies of the South Downs, are universally composed of chalk, of a 
character precisely similar ; an appearance, which in all probability, has 
resulted from the ruin of the chalk cliffs having accumulated in sloping 
taluses at their base. 

Brighton pits. There are several chalk-quarries in the vicinity of 
this celebrated watering-place, but of these, one only is particularly worthy 
of notice f. The pit alluded to is situated near the church, and affords an 
excellent example of that fractured state of the chalk, which has been pre- 
viously mentioned. It is thus described by Sir H. Englefield : " The 
upper part of this chalk is in separate masses, not perfectly rubble, but 
with aU their tender angles sharp, exactly as if just broken to pieces to 
put into the lime-kiln, and quite clean, nearly of a size, and almost with- 
out any chalk powder mixed with them." Some remarkable veins of 
shattered flints occur in this quarry iji. 

Preston. The quarry is extensive, and hes immediately behind the 
village ; it formerly produced numerous remains of fishes, palates, teeth, 
&c. but is now seldom worked. It is however deserving of attention, on 
account of several thin veins of pure flint that fill up vertical fissures in 
the chalk, and which, to use the language of Sir H. Englefield, " appear 
exactly as if the flint, not being quite hard when the fissures took place, 

* A circumstance somewhat similar is mentioned by M. M. Cuvier et Brongniart. These 
naturalists remark, that in the beds of the lower marine formation, and particularly in those of 
Liancourt, natural wells of considerable size are sometimes found, filled with ferruginous and 
sandy clay, and waterworn siliceous pebbles. Geolog. Trans. Vol. ii. p. 208. 

■\ This chalk is very pure ; a specimen of the specific gravity 2'34, analyzed by my brother, 
was composed of. Carbonic acid 43*4 

Lime - - 56"0 
Silica - - 0"6 
J Linnean Transactions, Vol. vi. p. 108. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 153 

had been squeezed out of the beds, and had run into the fissures as soft 
pitch would do : I do not mean that this was the case, but merely to de- 
scribe the appearance *." 

Steyning chalk-pits. These produce belemnites, plagiostomae, dian- 
choree, teeth, palates, &c. The sulphuret of iron found in these 
quarries is of a very singular form, being cylindrical, with a small projec- 
tion at both extremities ; a specimen is represented in tab. xvi. fig. 16. 



MINERALS. 



The minerals of the upper chalk are but few in number, and like the 
lower chalk, it contains but one metaUiferous ore. 

1. Crystallized quartz : this is of frequent occurrence in the cavities of 
siUceous nodules, shells, &c. The form of the crystals is that of a six- 
sided pyramid, their colours varying from a reddish brown to a light blue, 
amber, grey, and white. 

2. Chalcedony, is often found occupying the hollows of flints, and is 
either mammillated, botryoidal, or stalactitical. It sometimes forms the 
constituent substance of corallines, alcyonites, and other zoophytes, dis- 
playing in the most delicate manner the complicated structure of the 
originals. Its colour is of various shades of grey, azure, and pearl white, 
and in many examples it is beautifully translucent : specimens are not un- 
common, in which the surface of the mammillated chalcedony has received 
an investment of crystallized quartz. 

The stalactitical and botryoidal varieties, are confined to those nodules 
which retain a part of the original zoophyte. In some instances the flint 
passes insensibly into chalcedony; in others the line of separation is most 
distinctly marked; but in all, there is suflicient evidence that the chalce- 
dony and quartz were deposited by infiltration, and must have passed 
through the substance of the flint. 

* Linnean Transactions, Vol. vi. page 108. 



154 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

On this subject Professor Buckland remarks, that " although, in the 
present compact state of the matter of flint, it is not easy, though pos- 
sible, to force a fluid slowly through its pores, yet it is probable that be- 
fore its consolidation was complete, it was permeable to a fluid whose 
particles were finer than its own ; and that the particles of chalcedony, 
whilst yet in a fluid state, being finer than those of common flint, did thus 
pass through the outer crust to the inner station they now occupy; 
where they also allowed a passage through their own interstices to the 
still purer sihceous matter, which is often crystallized in the form of 
quartz in the centre of the chalcedony, and so entirely surrounded by it, 
that it could have no access to its present place, except through the sub- 
stance of the chalcedony, and the flint enclosing it *." 

3. Calcareous spar. This mineral is abundant in the fissures and 
hollows of the chalk, and forms the constituent substance of the shells and 
echinites. It is of various shades of amber colour, brown, and pearl 
white ; the variety into which the shells and echinites are converted, is 
opaque, and has an oblique fracture. The other modifications generally 
possess some degree of transparency; in some of the larger bivalves, of 
the genus Inoceramus, the structure is fibrous. 

The crystals of carbonate of lime are of various forms ; the most usual 
are the rhomboidal, cohimnar, and acicular. The first occurs abundantly 
in cavities in the chalk,' immediately beneath the turf, on Plumpton 
Plain; and it is worthy of notice, that the hollows it occupies, have mani- 
festly been formed subsequently to the consolidation of the chalk. In 
Western Sussex, branched cavities in the chalk, apparently occasioned by 
the decay of ramose zoophytes, are incrusted by this variety of calcareous 
spar-j-. 

Of the columnar crystals, some fine specimens were brought to view 
by the tremendous fall of the cliffs near Beachy Head, that happened a 
few years since. These occurred in large masses of a yellowish colour, 
and the crystals when detached were semi transparent ; Plumpton Plain, 

* Geological Transactions, Vol. iv. p. 419. 

\ From the correspondence of J. Hawkins, Esq. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 155 

Alfriston chalk- pit, and some other locaUties, have produced similar ex- 
amples. 

Obtuse rhomboidal crystals, of great beauty, have been found in a 
chalk-pit near Alfriston ; their colour is of a delicate pearl white, and in 
their general appearance they resemble the double refracting spar of 
Iceland, except in their inferior degree of transparency. The cavities of 
echinites are sometimes lined with rhomboidal crystals of carbonate of 
lime, disposed in hues parallel with the sections formed by the areae of 
the shell ; and the inner surfaces of the terebratulae, are frequently frosted 
over with drusy crystals of the same substance. 

4. Sulphuret of iron, or iron pyrites, in subglobular and irregular 
masses, is very common in the upper chalk. The external surface of the 
specimens is invested by crystals of a pyramidal, octaedral, or cubo- 
octaedral form; and their interior exhibits a radiated structure, possess- 
ing a brilliant metallic lustre. When broken and exposed to the action 
of air and moisture, they undergo decomposition with great rapidity ; 
and even in cabinets, frequently form an efflorescent sulphate of iron, 
and crumble into dust. This mineral occasionally incloses flints, shells, 
echinites, &c.* and frequently fills up the cavities of the latter. A 
specimen in my possession, exhibits on the upper side, a sharp cast of the 
interior of an echino-spatagus ; and its base is covered with an elegant 
group of quadrangular pyramids, evidently the terminations of octaedrons, 
with their inferior angles concealed. 

The lower beds of the flinty chalk in South-street, contain detached 
crystals of sulphuret of iron, remarkable for their neatness and ele- 
gant figure. They are usually regular octaedrons, having their planes 
studded with small quadrangular pyramids ; but some examples occur in 
which the sohd angles are replaced by quadrangular planes, forming a 
crystal with fourteen sides. A specimen of the former variety is repre- 
sented, tab, xvi. fig. 10. 

* A terebratula imbedded in the centre of a nodule of sulphuret of iron, is represented in 
British Mineralogy, tab. 171. It was found in chalk by Mr. Weekes, of Hurstperpoint. This 
gentleman has also a perfect pyritous cast of Pecten Beaveri, from Clayton Hill, 

X 2 



156 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

ORGANIC REMAINS OF THE UPPER, AND LOWER CHALK. 

The organic remains of the chalk are very numerous ; but notwith- 
standing the important additions which modern discoveries have made, 
the fossil productions of this important deposit are still but imperfectly 
known. 

The fossils of the French chalk have been described by M. M. 
Cuvier, and Brongniart *, and those of the Enghsh, by Mr. Parkinson f^ 
W. Phillips, and others. 

The contents of the Sussex beds, will be found to differ in many re- 
spects from those previously noticed, while many species of fossils, described 
by the authors above-mentioned, are unknown in this district. In their 
mode of preservation, however, a perfect correspondence exists in the pro- 
ductions of different localities They are for the most part remarkably entire, 
the delicate coverings of the Crustacea, the spines of the shells, &c. re- 
maining unbroken ; in short, their appearance, as Mr. Parkinson justly re- 
marks, " warrants the conclusion, that they have been enveloped and sur- 
rounded by the chalk, while Uving in their native beds ; and that this de- 
position was effected at the bottom of a tranquil sea." 

In every instance the shells, echinites, madreporites, and encrinites, 
are converted into calcareous spar, their cavities being filled with chalk, 
flint, or sulphuret of iron. 

The remains of the softer zoopyhtes occur in the form of chalky casts, 
tinged with a yellowish or reddish oxide of iron ; this appearance, which 
facilitates the separation of the fossils from the chalk, results from the de- 
composition of pyrites. The vertebrae and bones are soft and friable ; but 
the teeth and palates are finely preserved, and have the natural pohsh of 
the enamel, heightened by an impregnation with iron. The scales and fins 
of fishes, and the coverings of the Crustacea, are changed into a brown 
substance, which is exceedingly brittle, and fades upon exposure to the air, 

* Essai sur la Geographie Mineralogique des Enviro7is de Paris. Par M, M. G. Cuvier, e.t 
Alex. Brongniart, p. 11. 
■ 4[ Geological Transactions, Vol. i. p. 344!. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 157 



VEGETABLES. 

1. Wood. This occurs in the same state as that of the chalk marl, 
but is in larger masses, and the Mgneous structure more distinctly ex- 
hibited. It varies from a reddish brown, to a deep chocolate colour ; and 
the more compact specimens possess the appearance and texture of char- 
coal *. In some instances the knots or rudiments of branches are per- 
ceptible ; in others, perforations caused by the depredations of the teredo ; 
and in one example the tubular part of the shell still remains. Wood is 
sometimes found in the centre of flints. 

LocaHties. South-street; Off ham. 

2. Leaves. Tab. ix. figs. 1, 2, 12. 

Impressions of a lineari-lanceolate form, somewhat resembUng in tex- 
ture and colour the wood above described, are occasionally found in the 
upper chalk, near Lewes. These closely resemble the leafy culms, or 
stems of plants, and are undoubtedly the remains of unknown vegetables ; 
in some instances they are attached to portions of wood. 

The imperfect state in which these remains occur, renders it impossible 
to determine the nature of the original. From their being associated 
with the supposed juU of the larch, it has been conjectured that they are the 
leaves of a species of laria: or pinus, of which the bodies alluded to are the 
fruit ; but as the nature of the latter is very uncertain, the coincidence 
may be merely accidental. It must however be acknowledged, that these 
remains and impressions bear a closer resemblance to the fohage of a 
species of pin us, than to that of any other vegetable with which we are 
acquainted. 

Tab. ix. fig. 2, represents the usual appearance of the specimens. 

fig. 12, is in aU probability a flattened culm or stem, with the 

linear leaves surrounding it. 

* It seems probable that " the brown, or blackish brown substance, discovered in the Sufi'olk 
chalk, and which sometimes has the appearance of a sooty powder, and is occasionally fibrous f," 
is wood in a state of decomposition. 

t Phillips' Geology, e^t. 1822, p. 72. 



158 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

Tab. ix. fig. 1. This appears to be the remains of a winged seed, or 
capsvde ; the black stain near it, is produced by carbonized wood. 

Localities. Chalk-pits near Lewes and Brighton. 

3. Unknown fossil bodies, resembling " the supposed juH of the larch." 
Tab. ix. figs. 3. 6. 9. 10. 

These are of two kinds ; the first differs but httle from the bodies 
already described as occurring in the chalk marl at Hamsey (vide 
description of the chalk marl fossils) ; the other variety is more elongated, 
its surface nearly smooth, and it is solid throughout. The constituent 
substance of these fossils, is precisely of the same nature as the vertebree, 
and other bones' of cartilaginous fishes, that occur in the chalk ; this 
resemblance is so striking, that it is with considerable hesitation I have 
noticed them in this place, being fully of opinion, that they may here- 
after prove to be parts of fishes. 

Tab. ix. figs. 9, 10, are specimens of the imbricated variety, from 
Steyning chalk-pits. The latter (fig. 10) resembles figs. F. G. PL V. of 
Bur tin *, which are supposed by that author to be ''ft'uit, ou noyau de 
fruit inconnu." 

fig. 3, represents a large example of the smooth kind, from 

the upper chalk, near Lewes ; a more perfect specimen lately discovered, 
very much resembles in form the roe of a fish. 

Tab. ix. fig. 6. This specimen is of a very singular character, and is 
the only known instance in which the "supposed juli" have been dis- 
covered in connexion with other remains. The substance represented 
at the base of the drawing, possesses the character of bone, but is too 
much injured to admit of its original nature being ascertained. The 
mutilated remains of three of the " supposed juh" are imbedded in the 
chalk near it ; their relation to the substance in question cannot be 
doubted, but at present the subject is involved in obscurity, and no 
accurate opinion can be formed of their real nature and origin. 
Localities. Chalk-pits near Lewes, Brighton, and Steyning. 

* Orydographie de Bruocelles. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 159 

4. Fruit of an unknown vegetable ? 

A muciferous fruit has recently been found in the lower chalk, near 
Lewes. It is of a flattened oval form, about two inches long, and 1 -5 
inch wide ; the surface exhibits a ligneous structure, and the surrounding 
chalk is tinged with a bituminous stain. 

In the malm rock of Western Sussex, a few specimens of this kind, 
but of a small size, have been discovered near Bignor. 

These fossils closely correspond with Martin's figure of the external 
covering of Phytolithus nuceus*, and which, notwithstanding its diminutive 
size, that excellent writer was of opinion belonged to a species of Cocos 
or Areca. 

Zoophytes. 

Although the remains of this class of organized beings are very 
numerous in the chalk, they are referable but to few genera and species. 
For the most part they bear scarcely any resemblance to known existing 
species, and in numberless instances exhibit but shght indications of the 
form and structure of the original. The stony corals are transmuted 
into calcareous spar ; while the softer spongeous zoophytes are either 
enveloped in flint or chalcedony, or form chalky ferruginous casts and 
impressions. 

5. Madrepora centralis. Tab. xvi. figs. 2. 4. 

Stirps solitary, cyathiform, turbinated, or cylindrical ; with numerous 
perpendicular, radiating lamellcC, alternately extending to the centre, 
where they unite ; surface longitudinally striated: pedicle slightly ex- 
panded. 

This species belongs to the genus Caryophillia of Lamarck; its form is 
exceedingly various, being either turbinate, cyathiform, or cylindrical, &c. 

The specimens are usually from half an inch to two inches in length, 
and from O'S to 0*5 inch in diameter. The external surface is marked 
with delicate longitudinal elevations, corresponding in number with the 

* Petrificata Derbiensia, Plate xxi. fig. 6. 



160 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

lamellge ; the latter are perpendicular, alternately reaching to the centre 
of the axis, where they unite at about 0-2 inch below the margin. The 
intermediate lamellae are distinct, and do not extend more than half-way 
towards the axis. The smaller number of the lamellae, and the union of 
the larger ones, separate this species from Madrepora cyathus of EUis *, to 
which it is nearly allied. 

The cyathiform variety is represented, Tab, xvi. fig. 2. 

The inversely conical, or turbinated, by Tab. iv. fig. 16. vol. 3. 
Organic Kemains. 

In some specimens of the elongated or cylindrical variety, a mode of 
o-rowth is observable, which if not the effect of accident, might constitute 
a specific, or perhaps a generic character. An example of this kind is 
delineated in tab. xvi. fig. 4. The coral is attached by its pedicle to 
a fragment of chalk, and is of a regular cyathiform figure, to the ex- 
tent of about an inch. From the disk of this joint, it is produced 
into an elongated cyhndrical body, which is bent nearly at right angles 
with the base ; a pecuharity of shape that must have resulted either 
from the original conformation of the animal, or from its having been dis- 
placed, and subsequently extended in a perpendicular direction. 

The constituent matter of the specimens is crystallized carbonate of 
Hme, which in some examples is translucent, and exhibits the lamellated 
structure of the original, in a very distinct and beautiful manner. 

Localities. Brighton, and Lewes chalk-pits. 

6. An unknown species of compound Madreporite.^ 

Of the compound INIadreporites, or those which consist of an aggre- 
gation of stars, a species has been discovered, that difiers from any 
previously noticed by authors ; but the specimens in my possession, are 
not sufficiently entire to point out the form of the original. It belongs 
to those corals which Mr. Parkinson has designated by the term "por- 
pital," and occurs in fragments from one to two inches thick. It is 
composed of fine perpendicular lamellae, united by very numerous hori>- 

* Ellis' ZoopJiytes, tab. xxviii. fig. 7. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 161 

zontal dissepiments. The cells are distinct and obscurely hexagonal, and 
the partitions simple, as in Madrepora retepora of Ellis *; their cavities are 
filled with chalk. 

Alcyonium. 

To this genus the fossil remains of zoophytes of very dissimilar cha- 
racters have been referred by oryctologists. These bodies, whether convex 
or concave, soUd or porous, simple or ramose, possessing a pedicle, or 
destitute of processes of attachment, appear to have been indiscriminately 
named alcyonia, whenever their relation to other estabhshed genera was 
not very manifest. But if we restrict the term to the fossils that agree 
with the Linnean definition f, and assume the A. digitatum as the type of 
the genus, the number of those which are found in a fossil state will be 
comparatively small. And when it is considered, that even many recent 
species are with difficulty distinguished from the spongice and other 
analogous zoophytes, it will not appear surprising, if in numerous in- 
stances the generic characters of the fossils in question, cannot be accu- 
rately determined. In this place, we shall therefore describe as alcyonia, 
those specimens which either in form or structure, bear even a remote 
resemblance to the recent species of the genus. 

7. Turbinated alcyonite. Tab. xv. fig. 5. 

This fossil is of an inversely conical figure, the upper part being 
slio-htly convex, and having a shallow circular cavity in the centre. The 
external surface is marked with several reniform depressions, but is 
destitute of the porous structure observable in the recent alcyonia. The 
constituent substance is chalk. 

This specimen corresponds in many respects, with the "siliceous 
alcyonite," described by Mr. Parkinson, {Org. Rem. Vol. ii. Tab. ix. 
fig. 6.) 

* Ellis' Zoophytes, Tab. liv. fig. 3. . i t • r n 

t Alcyonium. Gen. Char. Body fleshy, gelatinous, or spongy ; with an external skin full 
of openings, possessed by oviparous tentaculated hydrae ; the stirps fixed. 



169, UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

Tab. XV. fig. 4, represents a vertical section of a similar specimen. 
Localities. Chalk-pits near Lewes. 

8. Flints deriving their form from alcyonia. Org. Ron. Vol. ii. 
Tab. U. 

These are frequently met with on the ploughed lands of the South 
Downs, and in all probabihty are the remains of alcyonia enveloped in 
flint. 

Kolled chalk flints of a depressed, subrotund, hemispherical, or oblong 
form, containing a body of a spongeous texture, are not unusual among 
the pebbles on the sea-shore ; they are similar to the specimens figured 
by Mr. Parkinson : the substance which they enclose is evidently of 
alcyonic origin. 

Locahties. The shore at Newhaven, and along the coast to Beachy 
Head. 

9. Bodies of a depressed, spheroidal, or subconical form, consisting of 
a plexus of fibres, ramifying in a spongeous mass ; their constituent sub- 
stance, a friable carbonate of lime. 

These frequently form the nuclei of sihceous nodules. 
Localities. In the upper chalk near Lewes and Brighton, and on 
the ploughed lands of the Downs. 

10. Pyriform bodies, the nature of which is vmknown. Tab. xvi. figs. 
17, 18. 

These fossils are of a pyriform shape, sUghtly furrowed longitudinally, 
and composed of flint, coated with a calcareous crust; when viewed 
through a lens, their surface exhibits a spongeous structure. 

They are sohd, and exhibit some indications of a pedicle oi* process of 
attachment. 

Localities. In the chalk near Brighton, first noticed by Col. Birch of 
Bath. 

11. Spongia ramosa. Tab. xv. fig. 11. 

The remains of tliis fossil are probably more abundant in the flints of 
the upper chalk, than those of any other zoophyte. The specimens ge- 
nerally consist of cylindrical fragments, from J2 to S inches in length, and 0*6 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 163 

or 0'8 inch in diameter; and very rarely possess any vestiges of branches. The 
present example was found in the centre of a large flint, from South street, 
and is the finest hitherto discovered. It is of a compressed cyUndrical 
form, nearly eight inches long, and exhibits the remains of seven branches ; 
yet it is evidently only a fragment of a large specimen. Its structure is 
spongeous, and it is destitute of an epidermis, or external covering. 

This spongite appears to have been of so delicate a texture, as not to 
allow of its preservation in the chalk ; and it is only when enveloped in 
siliceous nodules that any distinct traces of it remain. The constituent 
substance is partly siHceous, and partly calcareous, the centre being 
generally composed of flint, and the external spongeous mass, of a friable 
white or yellowish carbonate of Ume. In a few instances the surface is 
frosted over with drusy crystals of quartz. 

The specimens are for the most part either loose in the cavities of the 
flints, or but very slightly adherent; a circumstance that may have ori- 
ginated from the decay of the epidermis of the original, or from a con- 
traction of its substance. 

As this species of fossil sponge is very common, it seemed desirable to 
distinguish it by some appropriate name ; that of S. ramosa has therefore 
been assumed as a temporary distinction. 

Tab. XV. fig. 8, is the sihceous cast, or nucleus, of a fossil of this kind, 
the friable spongeous mass having been removed. Similar specimens are 
not unusual in the cavities of those nodules in which the original zoophyte 
has suffered decomposition, subsequently to its immersion in the flint. 

Localities. In every quarry in the upper chalk near Lewes, and 
Brighton. 

12. Branched silicified zoophytes, belonging to some unknown genus. 

It is scarcely possible either by description or delineation, to convey an 
accurate idea of these curious fossils. They generally occur in the centre 
of the largest flints, and are more or less ramose. Some specimens have 
from four to six branches, the terminations of which appear on the surface 
of the nodule, in the form of annular depressions. Upon fracture, these 
bodies are found to consist of innumerable diverging tubuli, proceeding 

y2 



164 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

from one common centre, or stem, and surrounded by a spongeous epi- 
dermis. Their constituent substance is siliceous, being frequently com- 
posed of agate or chalcedony, and having a loose covering of carbonate of 
lime. 

An analogous structure is observable in the " sand alcyonia " of 
Warminster Common, but the latter do not appear to possess the sponge- 
ous epidermal covering, so strikingly displayed in the former. The only 
recent zoophyte to which these fossils bear the slightest resemblance, is 
the " branched sponge from Cape Coast Castle, in Africa," figured by 
Ellis in the Philosophical T^-ansactions, Vol. 55, Tab. 11, fig. F ; but the 
dissimilarity between them is too great, to admit of the supposition that 
they belong to the same genus. 

Localities. Upper chalk, near Lewes and Brighton. 

13. The epidermis of a ramose zoophyte attached to a flint. 

The surface is covered with minute openings regularly disposed, and 
when viewed through a lens, the intermediate substance is observed to be 
finely punctated. 

This specimen belongs to a genus formed by Mr. Konig, for the recep- 
tion of those fossil zoophytes that possess symmetrical openings, either 
round, or disposed in meshes. 

Localities. Ploughed lands on the Downs. 

1 4. Spongus * Townsetuli. Tab. xv. fig. 9. 

Body cyathiform, containing a conical cavity ; substance spongeous ; 
stirps fixed by radical processes. 

These are the cup-like corals, or sponges, so accurately described by 
the late Eev. J. Townsend, of Pewsey-j- ; and by Mr. Parkinson:}:, in his 
celebrated work on the organic remains of a former world. The usual 
form of the specimens is that of fig. 9. Tab. xv. 

* " Spongus corpus multiforme, epidermide porosa tectum, protuberantiis interdum conicis, 
oculiferis. — It approaches the genus sjjongia, from which it differs in being invested with an 
epidermis, and in having had the power of contraction ; the epidermis as well as the oculi, are 
oi'ten destroyed in the process of mineralization." Extract of a letter from Chas. Konig, Esc^. 
of the British Museum, to the author. 

f Character of Moses, 2 vols. 4to. 1813. 

+ 0?-ganic Remains, Vol. ii. pp. 125, 126, 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 165 

The depth of the cup-hke cavity is in the proportion of one-third of 
its longest diameter, the latter being nearly equal to the length of the 
entire fossil, which varies from three to eight inches. The margin, or 
border of the cup, is about 0*3 inch in thickness, and exposes the edge of 
the enclosed zoophyte. The base is perforated by several foramina, 
through which the processes of attachment have passed ; and it is not un- 
usual for the openings to be partially filled with the remains of these ap- 
pendages. These are the only external indications of the original in the 
perfect siliceous specimens, the substance of the zoophyte being com- 
pletely enveloped in flint, except at the margin and base; but upon 
fracture, sections are obtained that distinctly display its form and structure. 
When preserved in chalk, the porous or spongeous texture is very ap- 
parent, and these examples are more or less deeply coloured with an 
ochraceous or ferruginous stain*. 

That the original was a zoophyte of a cyathiform shape is very clearly 
established; and in all probability, it bore considerable resemblance to S. 
infundibuliformis, or S. crateriformisf. 

Localities. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

1 5. Spongus labyrinthicus. Tab. xv. fig. 7. 

Body hemispherical, turbinated, or subcylindrical ; the superior surface 
marked with flexuous depressions ; base perforated. 

The figure sufficiently explains the usual form of these fossils. The 
base has an irregular foramen for the passage of the processes of attach- 
ment. The upper surface is almost flat, and is marked with flexuous anas- 

* Mr. Townsend remarks, " that many of these fossils are compressed, and others havp 
their margin folded back without being fractured ; on the otlier hand, there are numbers which 
have evidently been fractured and have sharp edges. The former are probably sponges of the 
infundibuliform species ; the latter, I am persuaded, are cup-corals. Such were the corals of 
M. Guettard, as appears by the Memoirs of the Academy of Paris for the year 1751." 

f There are several recent sponges that possess a cyathiform figure, viz. Spongia infundi- 
bulifm-mis, Wernerian Transactions, Vol. 1, p. 562. S. crateriformis, Pallas, Zooph. p. 386. .S'. 
scypha, Wernerian Trans. Vol. 2, p. 107. The shape of the last mentioned is that of an inverted 
cone, with a very short stalk, which is of a corky nature internally, but porous superficially, 
like the other parts ; the hollow spreads like the bowl of a wine glass, becoming smaller at the 
bottom. 



166 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

tomosing depressions, surrounded by a circular or elliptical indentation, 
that forms the outer margin. These markings are produced by the edge 
of the porous substance enveloped in the flint, which is evidently the re- 
mains of a zoophyte of the genus Spongus. 

The body is from one to three inches in length, apparently smooth, 
but giving that peculiar sensation of roughness to the touch, which is con- 
sidered by Mr. Parkinson, as characteristic of the fossil remains of the 
spongige and alcyonia. 

Some specimens are sohd, others hollow, or partially filled with a hght 
porous mass ; and in numerous instances the interior is lined with mamil- 
lated chalcedony of an azure colour. 

Localities. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

16. Cylindrical bodies enclosed in flints. 

These are the remains of unknown zoophytes, in which but few traces 
of organization are preserved. They are of a cylindrical form, from one to 
six or eight inches in length, and about half an inch in diameter. They 
consist of flint, and are invested with a thick covering of the same : the 
interval between the surrounding flint, and the enclosed fossil, being either 
hollow, or filled with a chalky porous substance, in all probability the de- 
composed remains of the epidermis of the original. In one specimen the 
cylinder is traversed by longitudinal tubes. 

Localities. Very abundant in the chalk, and on the ploughed lands 
near Lewes. 

17. A compressed zoophyte, having a finely reticulated surface. 

The remains and impressions of this fossil are invariably of a ferrugi- 
nous colour, and are of frequent occurrence in the chalk. The specimens 
are from 0-1 to 0-2 inch in thickness, and extend in the manner of the 
goj'gonia, oftentimes covering a space of six or eight inches square ; but 
no perfect example has hitherto been discovered. Both the external and 
internal surface is covered with minute pores, regularly disposed, which 
when viewed through a lens, prove to be the meshes or openings of a 
reticulated plexus of fibres ; the intermediate substance is composed of 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 167 

chalk, and exhibits no traces of organic structure. The impressions of 
this fossil form a surface covered with minute papillae, that have been 
moulded in the meshes or interstices of the reticulated integument. 

There is no recent genus to which this zoophyte can with propriety 
be referred; it approaches in some respects to the gorgonicF, and in 
others, to the flustrce, but possesses characters that separate it from 
both*. 

Localities. Upper and lower Chalk, near Lewes, and Brighton. 

Ventriculites. 

This genus has been instituted by the author, for the reception of a 
numerous and highly interesting division of fossil zoophytes, whose re- 
mains have usually been confounded with the spongiae, alcyonia, and other 
analogous genera. 

The first specimen submitted to my notice, was the elegant flint, de- 
hneated in tab. x. fig. 5 ; it was collected many years since by my esteemed 
friend, Thomas Woollgar, Esq. of Lewes, and was supposed to be a pe- 
trified mushroom, or some other species of agaric. A shght examination, 
however, convinced me that its form was derived from some unknown 
zoophyte ; and being very desirous of ascertaining the nature of the ori- 
ginal, I shewed the specimen in question, to the workmen employed in 
the chalk-quarries near Lewes, and by exciting their industry with 
suitable rewards, soon formed an extensive collection of these curious 
bodies. But the refractory nature of the silex in which they were en- 
veloped, prevented the acquirement of any satisfactory information ; the 
sections produced by fracture merely proving, that the enclosed zoophyte 
was of a cyathiform shape, and possessed processes of attachment at the 
base. 

Early in the ensuing year, a broad circular fossil, with a reticulated 
surface, was discovered in a block of chalk, on the road-side near Kingmer ; 

* It very closely resembles a fossil in the British Museum, marked " Flustra, from Ne'w 
Holland." 



168 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

but this appeared to diflfer so essentially both in form and structure, from 
the funnel-shaped flints above mentioned, that their relation was not sus- 
pected. Notwithstanding the investigation was continued with but little 
intermission, nearly two years elapsed before any additional light w^as 
thrown upon the subject ; when the fortunate discovery of the fossils re- 
presented in Tab. xi. (in which the inferior portion of the zoophyte is en- 
veloped in flint, and the upper part displayed on the surface of the chalk) 
proved most decidedly the identity of the chalk, and flint specimens. 

In the year 1814, I presented a brief description of these fossils 
(accompanied with explanatory drawings) to the Linnean Society, 
which was honoured with a place in the 11th volume of its Transac- 
tions. In that paper the name of alcyonium choiioides, (funnel-shaped 
alcyonium) was proposed as a temporary distinction, " tiU future dis- 
coveries shoidd point out more precisely its situation in the scale of ani- 
mated nature*." Numerous examples have subsequently been discovered, 
which not only confirm the opinions therein advanced concerning the 
probable structure of the original, but also demonstrate the existence of 
characters sufficiently remarkable to be assumed as generic distinctions. 
The propriety of forming the present genus, it is therefore presumed, will 
be readily admitted. 

18. Ventricuhtes radiatus-\. Tab. x. xi. xii, xiii. xiv. 

Gen. Char. Body inversely conical, concave, capable of contraction 
and expansion : original substance spongeous ? or gelatinous ? external 
surface reticulated ; internal surface covered with openings or perforated 
papillae; base imperforate, prolonged into a stirps, and attached to other 
bodies. 

Spec. Char. Infundibuliform ; external integument composed of cy- 
lindrical, anastomosing fibres, radiating from the centre to the circum- 
ference; inner surface covered with perforated papillae, formed by the 

* Linnean Transactions, Vol. XI. p. 401. 

•f- In my geological correspondence, I have been accustomed to distinguish this species by 
the specific name of choniformis, but as the funnel-like form is common to the whole genus, the 
term is manifestly improper ; that of radiatus is here substituted, the radiating manner in which 
the fibres of the external integument are disposed, appearing to be peculiar. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 169 

open extremities of short transverse tubuli ; stirps fixed by radical pro- 
cesses. 

So numerous are the accidental varieties of form assumed by the fossil 
remains of this species, that it is difficult to distinguish them correctly, 
without the assistance of an extensive suite of specimens. This circum- 
stance is partly attributable to the various states of expansion and contrac- 
tion, in which the originals were introduced into the mineral kingdom ; 
and partly to the mode in which their remains are occasionally preserved. 

The specimens enveloped in flint, are usually of a cyathiform, or turbi- 
nated shape (vide Tab. x.) ; while those imbedded in chalk, are more or 
less expanded in the form of a broad circular disk, as in Tab. xiv. The ex- 
ternal surface is composed of cylindrical fibres, that extend in a radiating 
manner from the centre or base, to the outer margin, and by frequently 
subdividing and anastomosing, constitute a reticidated integument capable 
of very considerable contraction and expansion. Vide Tab. xii. figs. 1, 2. 
Tab. xiii. figs. 2, 3, 4, 5. Tab. xiv. fig. 2. 

The fibres are solid*, and when viewed through a lens, exhibit a 
porous structure, bearing considerable resemblance to dried sponge. The 
meshes, or interstices between the fibres, are narrow and elongated in the 
specimens that are expanded, but very irregular in those which are cor- 
rugated by contraction. In some instances slender transverse filaments 
extend from one fibre to another, by which the entire plexus is more firmly 
connected together ; these are represented in the magnified sketch, fio-. 6, 
Tab. xiii. The surface of the interior, or funnel-shaped cavity, is studded 
with small perforated tubercles, or papillae, the open extremities of short, 
straight, cylindrical tubes, that arise between the fibres of the external 
integument, and passing in a transverse direction, terminate on the inner 
surface. Siliceous casts of these tubuli, are frequently observable in flints 

* A different opinion is entertained by Miss Benett, who assures me, that in several Wilt- 
shire specimens in her possession the fibres are hollow. I have not, however been able 
to d«tect such a structure in any of the numerous examples that have been submitted to my 
examination. 



170 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

deriving their form from ventriculites, (vide the edge of the flint re- 
presented in Tab. x. fig. 13.) 

The base forms an elongated stem or stirps, and terminates in diverging 
root-like processes, by wliich the original was fixed to other bodies ; these 
are shewn in the specimens represented Tab. xi. fig. 2, and Tab. xii. 
fig. 2. 

This zoophyte, when contracted into a cylindrical form, is from one to 
six inches in length ; when expanded, its diameter occasionally exceeds 
nine inches : the thickness of its substance is seldom more than 0-2 inch. 

Tab. X. represents various flints whose forms are derived from V. 
radiatus. 

Fig. 1 . This specimen is partially expanded, and its margin exposes 
casts of the tubuli, as previously mentioned ; the base is perforated by 
fifteen openings, through which the processes of attachment passed out. 
A plate of an echinus is attached to the inferior part of the stem. 

Figs. 2, 3, 4. Small turbinated flints, formed in the stirps or base of the 
funnel-like cavity ; (vide description of Fig. 2, Tab. xi). 

Fig. 5. This elegant flint was discovered by my friend Mr. Thomas 
Woollgar. The margin is marked with semilunar indentations, the im- 
pressions of the fibres of the external integument ; a similar appearance 
is observable on the edge of fig. 9. These markings are peculiar to the 
fossils of this genus, and attention to tliis circumstance will frequently 
enable the collector to distinguish the siliceous specimens of ventriculites, 
from those of Sjjotigus Townsendi. 

Fig. 6. This specimen is inverted in the engraving ; it is hollow, the 
zoophyte it formerly enclosed having been removed. The uj:)per part 
(the base of the original) has numerous openings formed by the transit of 
the radical processes. 

Fig. 7. A transverse section of a flint enclosing the stirps. 

Fig. 8. The thickness of the margin of this specimen, has evidently 
been produced by the contracted state of the original, at the period of its 
immersion in the flint. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 171 

Fig. 9. Eepresents a specimen viewed from beneath. 

The specimens above described exhibit no traces of organization, 
except at the margin and base, the outer surface of the original being 
obscured by the silex, in which it is imbedded. In some examples, how- 
ever, the enclosed zoophyte may be separated from the surrounding flint 
by a well-directed blow on the margin, and very dehcate casts and 
impressions may be thus obtained. 

The former exhibit the external integument changed into a white 
friable carbonate of lime ; the latter form conical cavities covered with 
numerous interrupted ridges, disposed in a radiated manner. 

The casts of the funnel-shaped cavity are solid cones ; their surface 
exhibiting numerous minute papillae, that have been moulded in the 
open extremities of the tubuli. A chalk specimen of this kind is figured 
by Lhwyd, No. 176* : but it is drawn in an inverted position. 

Tab. xi. The fossils here represented are remarkably interesting, since 
they tend to elucidate the formation of those above mentioned, and 
establish the identity of the chalk and flint specimens. 

In fig. 1, a conical flint fills up the lower half of the funnel-Uke cavity, 
and is surrounded by the impression of the external surface of the upper 
portion. 

In fig. 2, the stem is occupied by a small turbinated flint, that sends off 
several radical processes from its base. The dissimilarity in the size and 
shape of these flints is purely accidental, arising from a greater proportion 
of silex having been deposited in the one instance, than in the other. Hence 
we may infer, that if in either example the quantity of silex had been 
suflicient to have filled the entire cavity, the flints thus formed would, in 
every particular, have resembled those dehneated in the preceding tablet, 
figs. 1. 5. 9. 

Among the singular forms assumed by the sihceous specimens of 
ventriculites, none are apparently more difficult of explanation, than the 

* It is thus described, " Astroitae congener radvlaria cretacea. E puteis cretaceis juxta 
Aston Rowani in agro Oxoniensi." Lhixyd, Lith.Britt. 

Z 2 



172 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 



broad annular flints occasionally found on the ploughed lands of the 
Downs, and which bear considerable resemblance to a coit; their origin is 
however satisfactorily illustrated by the specimen, fig. 1. Tab. xii. In this 
example, the ventricuhte is inverted, and attached to the chalk by its 
inner surface, the outer integument forming a narrow zone round the 
annular flint, which in the perfect state of the fossil encircled the stem ; 
as is shewn in the annexed sketch. 




The appearance of this specimen seems to warrant the conclusion, 
that at the period of its mineralization, the silex was in a state of a thick 
viscid fluid, otherwise it is difficult to understand why it should not have 
extended to the margin of the zoophyte, instead of being consolidated in 
its present situation. The cyathiforra flint, fig. 1. Tab. x. might also be 
adduced in support of such an opinion, since the silex not only fills the 
cavity of the ventricuhte, but is elevated considerably above the margin, 
as if a pulpy or glutinous fluid had been gradually poured in, till the cup- 
hke cavity was overflowing. 

Tab. xii. fig. 2, exhibits the external surface of a ventricuhte, attached 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 173 

to a block of chalk ; the impressions of numerous radical processes are 
seen at the base. 

Tab. xiii. fig. 1 . The upper part of a ventriculite preserved in flint, 
the side of the cavity being somewhat collapsed. 

Figs. S, 3. 5 ; chalk specimens of the stem or inferior part ; the moni- 
liform appearance of the fibres is probably the result of contraction *. 

Fig. 4. A ventricuhte attached to a block of chalk. The lower part 
is enveloped in flint, but a fracture near the base exposes a portion of the 
enclosed zoophyte; the upper portion is preserved in chalk, and exhibits 
the reticulated structure of the external integument. 

Fig. 6. A magnified view of part of the external surface of fig. 2, 
shewing the lateral filaments or processes. 

Tab. xiv. represents two chalk specimens of Ventriculites radiatus, 
the animal in both instances being completely expanded. Fig. 1 exhibits 
the inner surface covered with perforated papillae ; fig. 2 the external 
surface with its reticulated integument. The radical processes are not 
seen in this example, having been unavoidably removed with the sur- 
rounding chalk. 

In concluding this description, it may be proper to offer a few remarks 
on the probable economy of the recent animal, and from the facts that 
have been presented to our notice, endeavour to illustrate the nature of 
the original. 

From a careful examination of a numerous and interesting suite of 
specimens in my possession, the structure of the recent ventriculite may 
be readily understood. The general form of the animal appears to have 
been that of a hollow inverted cone, having numerous ramose fibres 
proceeding from the base, by which it was attached to other bodies. Ex- 
ternally it was composed of a muscular reticulated integument, capable 
of expanding and contracting, according to the impressions it received ; and 

* The flint represented in Sowerbi/'s British Mineralogy, Tab. 215, fig. 3. is a siliceous 
specimen of the stivps of this species ; but it is drawn in an inverted position : the perforations 
in the upper part of the figure, are the apertures through which the radical processes passed. 



174 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

internally it possessed a surface covered with the apertures of numerous 
tubuli, in all probability the openings of absorbent vessels, by which its 
nutrition was effected. 

These inferences naturally present themselves, even upon a shght in- 
spection of the fossils above described. It has aheady been shewn that 
the specimens occur in every intermediate form, between that of a simple 
elongated cone, and a flat circular disk ; hence it is obvious, that the sub- 
stance of the original must have been soft and elastic, susceptible of 
spontaneous expansion and contraction, or it could not have accommodated 
itself to such a variety of shapes, without fracture or laceration. The 
fibres composing the external integument, are nearly straight in the 
expanded specimens, but are corrugated and moniliform in those which 
are contracted ; the thickness of the latter is also much greater than in 
the former examples ; — circumstances that strongly corroborate the 
opinion here advanced. 

The expanded state of the animal, might be favourable for the discovery 
of the substances destined for its nutriment, and which by its subsequent 
contraction, would been closed in its funnel-Hke cavity. Whatever may 
have been the nature of its aliment, it seems probable that it underwent 
a certain degree of digestion and assimilation before it was fitted for its 
support ; and that the nutritious particles were taken up by the openings 
so numerously distributed on the inner surface of the ventricular cavity. 

Whether the recent ventriculites were confined to one spot, or pos- 
sessed a certain degree of locomotion, and by detaching their radical 
processes, were able to change their situation by floating in the water, 
cannot with certainty be determined ; but it seems more probable, that, 
like the alcyonia, and actinicB, they were permanently fixed to the rock 
upon which they grew. 

The annexed outlines will perhaps serve to render the subject more 
intelligible than mere description. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 



175 




a. b. c. 

Fig. a. A ventriculite in an expanded state, shewing the inner 
surface. 

Fig. b. A specimen partially contracted, exhibiting the external in- 
tegument. 

Fig. c. A ventriculite more expanded, and exposing the internal 
cavity. 

From what has been remarked, I am therefore led to conclude that 
the ventriculites were more nearly related to the actinite*, than to the 

* The following interesting fact was communicated to me by George Cumberland, Esq. 
of Bristol, (a gentleman well known for his various communications on subjects connected 
with Geology) ; and as it offers a pleasing illustration of the manner in which the nutrition of 
the softer zoophytes is effected, it is here inserted. 

A few years since, in the summer season, Mr. Cumberland was on a visit at , and 

during a ramble on the sea-shore, his attention was arrested by a group of the Actinia 
mesembiyanthemum, ( Ellis' ZoopJiijtes, page 4,) attached to a rock, left bare by the recession of 
the tide. While examining these curious objects, a fisherman who stood near, observed that 
" they sea flowers were strange things, for they lived upon sprats, and fed only once a year ;" 
and upon Mr. C. expressing his surprise at the remark, his informant assured him that the fact 
was indisputable, and might be easily verified in the sprat season. Determined to investigate 
the si^ject, Mr. C. marked the spot to which the zoophytes were attached, and upon 
revisiting it in the autumn of the following year, the small disciform actinia: 'aocre no longer to he 
seen, hid their place 'was occupied hy several elongated cylindrical bodies, several inches in length, 
and without any perceptible aperture. He immediately detached one of them from the rock, and upon 



176 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

alcyonia ; and that each individual was a perfect animal*, capable of 
performing those motions which were necessary for its preservation and 
subsistence. 

LocaHties. Upper chalk, near Lewes and Brighton. 

19. Ventriculites alcyonoides. Org. Rem. Vol. ii. Tab. x. fig. 12. 
Smith's Strata, Tab. iii. fig. 1. 

Spec. char. Conical when contracted, disciform when dilated; meshes 
of the external surface nearly circular, fiUed with small radiated (?) pores or 
openings ; inner surface covered with papillae : stirps fixed by radical 
processes. 

This species is rare in Sussex, but common in a contracted state at 
Heytesbury, in Wiltsliire ; the expanded specimens are of less frequent 
occurrence. 

The external integument is finely reticulated, the meshes or openings 
being very numerous, and almost circular; a structure by which the 
present species may be easily distinguished from V. radiatus. 

In some siHceous specimens, the meshes are filled by little cells or 
pores, having a central opening, and surrounded by radiating lamellge, 
which are rendered evident, by a lens of moderate power; these in all 
probability, are the external orifices of tubuU that pass through the 
substance of the zoophyte, and terminate in the papillae of the inner 
surface. 

It is a small species, seldom exceeding two inches and a half in 
length. 

The impressions both of the outer and inner surface are conical, and 
studded with papillae ; but the former are concave ; the latter, solid and 
convex. The difference in the form of this ventriculite when in an 

slitting it open,Jbund that it contained the remains of a sprat, {Clupea sprattus) in a partially digested 
state; and that these unknovm bodies "were in fact the actinia:, enormously distended. Subsequent 
observations convinced him, that after a certain period the animal rejected the undigested 
remains of the fish, and subsequently contracted into its original shape ; remaining in a quies- 
cent or torpid state till the next season, when its annual repast was renewed. ^ 

May not the nutrition of the ventriculites have been effected in a similar manner ? 

* Mr. Miller thinks this opinion is erroneous, and that each ventriculite should be 
regarded as an aggregation of polypes. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 177 

expanded and contracted state, is very analogous to what has been 
noticed in the shape of the recent actinia mesembrt/anthemiim under 
similar circumstances, (vide note in page 175.) 

Smith's figure is an excellent representation of the usual appearance 
of the outer surface of the conical specimens. Mr. Parkinson's resembles 
a cast of the interior ; he describes it " as being composed of chalk, and 
having somewhat of a conical figure, the surface closely beset with small 
depressions pretty regularly disposed in a quincuncial order." 

Localities. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

20. Ventriculites qiiadrangularis. Tab. xv. fig. 6. 

Spec. Char. The animal capable of contracting itself into a quadran- 
gular form ; the meshes of the external integument circular, very minute ; 
inner surface ? Stirps •.? 

The specimen represented is the only one hitherto discovered; the 
quadrangular form into which it is coUapsed distinguishes it from every 
other species. 

Locality. Upper chalk, Off ham. 

21. VentricuUtes Benettia. Tab. xv. fig. 3. 

Spec. Char. Inversely conical; meshes of the external integument, 
oblong, irregular, rather distant ; inner surface covered with circular 
depressions ; margin of the cavity broad, smooth, and nearly flat ; base 
fixed by radical fibres. 

The form and appearance of this species are so well expressed in the 
engraving, that a brief description will suffice. It is distinguished by the 
large, irregular, oblong meshes, of the reticulated surface, and the broad 
smooth border of the ventricular cavity *. The lower part of the speci- 
men figured is sihceous, and a radical process is seen issuing from the 
base. 

I have named this beautiful species in honour of Miss Benett, of Nor- 
ton-house, near Warminster, Wilts ; a lady of great talent, and indefatigable 

* It must, however, be remarked, that the thickness of the parietes of this species^ renders it 
probable that its powers of contraction and expansion were very inconsiderable : in this re- 
spect, it resembles the choanites ; but the reticulated external integument, and the structure of 
the inner surface, seem to warrant its being retained in the present genus. 

A A 



178 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

research, to whom I am under infinite obligations, for many valuable com- 
munications on scientific subjects. 

Locahties. Upper chalk, near Lewes ; very rare. 

CHOANITES. 

Gen. Char. Form various, generally either funnel-shaped, spherical, 
globular, or subcylindrical, having a central opening in the superior part ; 
the original composed of a parenchymatous substance, capable of imbibi- 
tion and contraction ; the base fixed. 

The fossil zoophytes which this genus is intended to comprehend, are 
very numerous, and hold an intermediate place between the alcyonia, 
properly so called, and the ventriculites. They are distinguished from the 
former by the central cavity in their superior part, and from the latter, by 
being destitute of an external reticulated integument, &c. and possessing 
but a shght degree of contractile power. 

The alcyomum Jiciis of Linne {figure de suhstajice et d'eponge etd'alcion, 
of MarsiUi) may be considered as the type of the genus. " It is of the 
form of a fig, being attached to the rocks by branches proceeding from its 
smaller end ; the upper part is a little flattened, and has a cavity in the 
middle. Its colour resembles that of tobacco, and its parenchymatous 
substance cannot be compared to any tiling better than to nutgalls when 
well dried *." 

The fossil remains of this genus, (hitherto indiscriminately placed 
among the alcyonia) were first noticed by M. Guettard at Verest, 
and at Montrichard in Touraine, and form the subject of a paper 
published in ihe Meinoirs of the Academy of Sciences at Paris (ann. 1757). 
He observes, that they are of a globular form, having the base in many 
examples elongated into a pedicle. In the centre of the superior part is 
a circular opening, generally filled "with the substance in which the 
fossils are imbedded. This cavity is larger in its upper than in its lower 
part, and is continued almost to the pedicle, in some specimens appearing 

* Organic Remains, Vol. ii. p. 96. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 179 

to penetrate it. From the circumference of the opening, lines may be 
traced, that not only pass over the whole of the spherical part, where they 
form striae more or less distinct, but also penetrate the substance of 
the zoophyte. There is seldom more than one opening, but instances 
have occurred in which there were three *." The fossils represented in 
PI. ix. figs. 1, 3, 4, 6' 8. and PL xi. fig. 8, Org. Rem. Vol. ii. belong to 
this genus. 

22. Choanites suhrotundus. Tab. xv. fig. 2. 

Depressed, subrotund; central cavity small; external surface smooth. 

This species is generally termed " ficoid alcyonite" by collectors, 
from its supposed resemblance to a fig. The surface is smooth, and 
whoUy destitute of markings ; the cavity nearly circular. The depressed 
form of the specimens is probably owdng to compression. 

In the specimen figured, three of these bodies are attached to a block 
of chalk, of which substance they are composed. 

Localities. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

23. Choanites^f.ri^osws. Tab. xv. fig. L 

Cyathiform, margin of the central depression marked with flexuous 
indentations. The radical processes long, and fibrous ; base fixed by ra- 
dical processes. 

The specimen figured is enveloped in flint. 

Localities. Upper chalk, near Lewes : very rare. 

24. Choanites Konigii. Tab. xvi. figs. 19, 20, 21. 

Inversely conical, externally marked with irregular fibres, some of 
which penetrate the substance, and terminate in openings on the inner 
surface; central cavity cylindrical, deep, narrow; base fixed by radical 
processes. 

This species is for the most part enveloped in large irregular flints, 
which exhibit but slight traces externally, of the body they enclose. The 
superior part (fig. 19) presents a convex surface, with a cyhndrical body in 
the centre, from whence interrupted fibres, slightly reheved, ramify in a 
radiating manner towards the margin. At the base, numerous perfora- 

* Organic Remains, Vol. ii. p. 81. 

A A 2 



180 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

tions are observed, aflfording a passage for the radical processes. The 
vertical section (fig. 20) exposes the cylindrical cavity fiUed with silex; 
and the substance of the zoophyte traversed by numerous fibres, (or 
tubes ?) some of which appear to terminate on the outer, and others, on 
the inner surface : these are still more distinctly shewn in the horizontal 
section, fig. 2L 

Mr. Parkinson represents a very fine example (Org. Rem. Vol. ii. Tab. 
ix. fig. 1.) of the outer surface, in which the fibres are more regularly 
disposed than in the Sussex specimens. 

The species is named in honour of Charles Konig, Esq. of the British 
Museum. 

LocaUties. Common among the loose flints, beneath the turf, near 
Lewes Eace-course. It appears to have been abundant in the upper 
beds of the chalk, but seldom occurs in our quarries. 

25. Lunvdites ? Tab. xvi. fig. 22, 23, 24. 

The fossils here represented, are convex above, and concave beneath. 
The concavity is smooth, with the exception of a few circular markings 
which appear Hke lines of increase : the convex side is rough, and when 
viewed through a lens, exhibits a porous structure. The specimens are 
solid ; their constituent substance, a spathose carbonate of lime. 

These bodies, in their general appearance, resemble a species of lunu- 
lites from Bologna, which Mr. Konig, from the perforations on its surface, 
has named L. digitale; but they are destitute of the diverging radiated 
sulci on the concave part, and these appear to be an essential character of 
the genus *. 

Fig. 22. Perspective view of a specimen placed on its apex ; fig. 23, 
the base or concavity ; fig. 24, a lateral view. 

Localities. Upper chalk. South-street, Lewes. 

• Luniilites. Char. Gen. " Polypier pierreux, libre, orbiculaire, aplati, convexe d'un cot^, 
concave de I'autre. Surface convexe, ornee de stries rayonnantes et de pores entre les stries : 
des rides ou des sillons divergens a la surface concave." Animmix sans Vertebres, Tom. ii. p. 194. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 181 



ENCKIKITES AND PENTACRIKITES *. 

This name has long been applied to the petrified skeletons of those 
zoophytes that possess a pelvis or basin, composed of an immense number 
of crustaceous articulated plates, and ossiculas f , supported by a jointed 
flexible column. 

The pelvis, which originally contained the viscera of the animal, is 
surrounded by long jointed arms or tentaculae, and affixed to the ver- 
tebral column, by a pentagonal plate placed in the centre of the base. 

The column, in most species, is of an immense length, and consists of 
separate joints or vertebrae, regularly united, pierced in the centre, and 
liaving their articulating surfaces ornamented with radiating, stellular, 
or floriform markings. The inferior part of the column has a pedicle, 
or process of attachment, by which the animal was fixed to other 
substances :]:. 

In the recent state, the skeleton was in all probability clothed with 
a fleshy, or coriaceous integument ; the central perforation in the ver- 
tebral column, is supposed by Mr. Martin, to have been filled with a 
medullary substance, by which sensation was conveyed to the inferior ex- 
tremities of the animal § ; but according to ^Ir. Miller, it served as an 
alimentary canal ||. 

The detached vertebrae are known to collectors by the name of 
trochita ; and when several are united together, so as to form part of a 
column, the series is termed an entrochite. 

The remains of this family of zoophytes, so rarely occur in the chalk 

* In the enc7-inites, the bones of the vertebral cohimn are circular or elliptical ; in the penta- 
crinites they are angular or pentagonal. 

f Mr. Parkinson has shewn, that upon a moderate calculation, the lily encrinite must have 
been composed of nearly thirty thousand distinct bones. Org. Rem. Vol. ii. p. 181. 

X For a more particular account of the natural history of this extraordinary tribe of animals, 
consult the ;2d vol. of Parkinson's Organic Remains ; and Millers Natural History of the Cri- 
jwidea, or, Lily -shaped Animals ; 1 vol. 4to. 1821; a work that has been justly characterized by 
an eminent writer, as "a model of patient, sagacious, and successful research." 

§ Martin s Syst. Arrangement, p. 209. 

II Miller's Crinoidea, p. )1. 



182 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

forination, that portions of two or three species, are the only examples 
hitherto found in Sussex. Of these the most important is the bottle en- 
crinite of Parkinson, (Apiocrinites of Miller,) which we shall now proceed 
to examine. 

26. Apiocrinites ellipticus. Tab. xvi. figs. 3. 12. 
Miller's Crinoidea, p. 34. 

" A crinoidal animal, having a column composed of oval joints, 
articulating by a transversely grooved surface; the two upper joints of the 
column enlarged, sustaining the pelvis, costae, &c. The column provided 
with auxiliary side arms. Base formed by numerous irregular columnar 
joints, sending off fibres for adhesion to other bodies." (Millers Crinoidea, 
p. S3.) 

The different parts of this animal were first described by Mr. Parkin- 
son, under the various names of bottle, straight, and stag's horn encrinite ; 
and have since been accurately investigated by Mr. Miller, who considers 
them as belonging but to one species, which he has placed in his first 
division of the Crinoidea; in the same genus with the celebrated Pear 
encrinite of Bradford. 

The column of this species consists of smooth ossiculae, somewhat 
enlarging in the middle; their articulating surfaces being elliptical, finely 
granulated, and having two narrow transverse ridges, in the centre of 
which is the small perforation containing the alimentary canal. 

The pelvis or body, is of a tumid utricular form, and is divided into 
separate ossiculae of various shapes, to which the names of ribs, clavicles, 
and scapulae, &c. have been applied by the authors above quoted. 

The specimens in my possession, were discovered too late to admit of 
insertion in the engravings. 

The entrochites delineated in Tab. xvi. do not exhibit the transverse 
ridges generally observed on the areae of the columnar joints, but in other 
respects they perfectly correspond with those of the present species. 

Fig. 3, consists of sixteen vertebras, some of which are partially dis- 
united; the articulating surfaces are smooth and even, the central perfora- 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 183 

tion very small. From the diminutive size, and elongated form of this 
specimen, it may probably be a portion of the side-arms, or lateral ap- 
pendages. 

Fig. 1 2, is composed of eight ossiculae ; and is evidently part of the 
vertebral column of the present species. 

27. Part of the vertebral column of a pentacrinite. 

This specimen is formed of eleven thin pentagonal vertebrae, with 
markings on their articulating surfaces, precisely similar to those re- 
presented in Tab. xiii. fig. 64, Org. Rem. Vol, ii. 

28. A single vertebra, of a quadrangular form, the angles rounded, the 
surface ornamented with figures resembhng a floret of four rays. 

The entrochite. No. 1 170, of Lhwyd, is composed of ossicular, perfectly 
resembhng the specimen here described. Trochitae of four rays are 
very rare ; Mr. Parkinson mentions that he had seen but one (fig. 59, 
Tab. xiii. Vol. ii. Org. Rem.) and that is very dissimilar to the fossil in 
question. 

MARSUPITES. 

This genus is formed for the reception of a fossil that has hitherto 
been placed among the encrinites, from which however, it differs most 
essentially, in being destitute of a vertebral column, and processes of 
attachment ; hence it is obvious, that the recent animal, instead of being 
fixed to one spot, was capable of locomotion, and floated ad libitum, hke 
the Medusae and some other zoophytes. 

Mr. Parkinson, whose publication on the Organic Remains of a former 
World, forms an important era in oryctological science, was the first 
author that accurately noticed these interesting remains. In his 2d vol. an 
admirable description is given of the pelvis of the animal, under the name 
of tortoise encrinite ; and very recently, the structure of the original 
has been ably illustrated by the ingenious author of The Natural History 
of the Crinoidea, who has adopted the name by which I have been ac- 
customed to distinguish it. 

The following definition is the result of an attentive examination 



184 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

of more than a hundred specimens ; but as the recent animal is un- 
known, and the fossils never occur in a perfect state, it is very probable 
that some of those characters which are here assumed as permanent 
distinctions, may hereafter prove to be only accidental varieties of form. 

29. Marsupites Milleri. Tab. xvi. figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15. 

Gen. Char. Body orbicular, contained in a pelvis composed ofcrus- 
taceous plates, having five articulated arms or tentaculae proceeding from 
the margin : the opening of the pelvis covered by articulated ossiculse, in 
the centre of which the mouth is placed. 

Spec. Char. Pelvis composed of sixteen convex, radiated, angular 
plates ; the arms dichotomous, united to the margin by a corresponding 
number of intermediate semilunar bones : the ossiculae covering the aper- 
ture of the pelvis disposed in a proboscideal form. 

The fossil remains of this zoophyte have liitherto been found only in the 
uriper chalk of Sussex, and Wiltshire, and hke most other crustaceous 
bodies enclosed in that deposit, are transmuted into a spathose calcareous 

spar. 

But one species is known ; the following description will therefore 
illustrate both the generic and specific characters : 

This fossil is generally of a suborbicular form, more or less distorted, 
with the lower extremity closed and obtuse, and the upper, truncated 
and open, being filled with chalk or flint. It is composed of 'numerous 
thin ano-ular plates, that are not united as in the echinites, but are simply 
held in apposition to each other, by the chalk in which they are imbedded. 
The name of " cluster stones" given them by the workmen, not inaptly 
expresses their general appearance. 

The pelvis, or cavity in which the viscera of the animal were contained, 
is very capacious, and is composed of sixteen angular, convex plates, 
arranged in the following manner, viz. 

1 . A pentagonal plate {abdominal) placed in the centre of the base. 

2. Five pentagonal (costal) plates, attached to the sides of the centre. 

3. Five hexagonal {intercostal) plates, placed between the superior 
angles formed by the union of the costal. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 185 

4. Five pentagonal {scapular) plates, filling up the angles in the 
superior margin of those last described, each having a semilunar de- 
pression on their marginal edge : these form the margin of the pelvis 
properly so called. 

These sixteen plates are succeeded by 

5. rive semilunar ossiculae {clavicles), attached to the articulating de- 
pressions of the scapular plates. 

6. Five cuneiform ossiculae {cuneiform or humeral hones,) attached to 
the clavicles. These are the first bones of the arm, and their superior edge 
is divided into two articulations, from which the tentaculae are sent off. 

7. Numerous reniform ossiculee, by which the aperture of the pelvis is 
closed. 

The plates of the pelvis are convex, sometimes umbonated in the 
centre, and ornamented with radiated ridges on the external surface. 
Their markings vary in different examples, and even in the same indi- 
vidual ; specimens occurring in which some of the plates are nearly smooth' 
and others richly ornamented. 

Fig. IS. Tab. xvi. represents a plate, with prominent ridges extend- 
ing from the centre to the angles, the intermediate surface being covered 
with numerous diverging striae. In fig. 14, the centre is slightly um- 
bonated, and the markings are coarser and less regular than in the former 
variety ; the ridges are obtuse, and the diverging striae few and irregular. 

The plates in fig. 15 are perfectly smooth, with the exception of a few 
folds near the margin. 

In every instance, however, the edges of the plates are more or less 
crenulated, and when united form a suture in the same manner as the 
scales of the tortoise, but they readily separate when the chalk is removed. 
The central or abdominal plate is larger, and more depressed, than the 
surrounding costals; the latter are readily distinguished by their j^en^a- 
gonal, and the intercostals by their hexagonal form. ' The scapula are ge- 
nerally less ornamented than the rest of the series, and are easily identified 
by the semilunar cavity in their upper edge ; this articulating surface is 



186 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

traversed by a longitudinal ridge, with a minute depression in the centre, 
and is adapted for the reception of the clavicles. 

The clavicles are small, and of a semilunar form externally ; the upper 
edge is thick, nearly straight, and unites with the humerus ; the lowermost 
is rounded, and corresponds with the semilunar cavity of the scapula ; be- 
tween these two svu-faces, on the inside, is a triangular space, the use of 
which is not at present known. 

The cuneifo?'m or humeral bones, may be considered as the first of the 
arms ; they have four articulations, and are attached to the clavicles by 
the two lowermost. Their upper margin forms two oblique surfaces, each 
divided by a longitudinal ridge, in the same manner as the first joint of the 
finger in the Bradford encrinite {apiocrinites rotundus). From this struc- 
ture it may be inferred, that the arms were dichotomous, but whether 
they were subdivided, and terminated in elongated tentaculae, as in the 
crinoidea, cannot be ascertained, since none of the specimens contain any 
vestiges of the ossiculae of these appendages. On the inner surface of the 
humerus, a smooth space is observable, appearing hke a continuation of the 
triangular interval, on the corresponding part of the clavicle : is this the 
articulating surface for the attachment of the pectoral bones ? 

The reniform ossiculcE, or pectoral bones, are united to each other by 
their upper and under surfaces, both of which are divided by a ridge into 
two depressions. In the only specimen, (Tab. xvi. fig. 6.) in which these 
bones remain, the respective parts have suffered so much displacement, 
that their mode of arrangement is no longer distinguishable; there is, 
however, reason to conclude, that in the recent animal they were attached 
to an epidermis extending over the cavity of the pelvis in the form of a 
proboscis, the mouth being placed in the centre. 

From this examination of the skeleton of the marsupite, it is evident 
that the recent animal was nearly related to the crinoidea ; but the ab- 
sence of the vertebral column separates it most decidedly from that tribe. 

It may however, as Mr. Miller observes, be considered as forming a 
link between the crinoidea articulata and the stelhridce. 

The folds, radiating ridges, and stria3 on the plates, and the lateral 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 187 

adhesion of plate to plate by simple sutures, plainly indicate that the 
whole were invested by a muscular integument; the markings on the 
plates being the eiFects of its action*. 

From the rudiments of the arms, it is also equally obvious, that the 
recent animal was furnished with tentaculae, to enable it to seiz^e and 
detain its prey, in the same manner as the encrinites, &c. Its position 
when floating in the water, was in all probabihty with the mouth down- 
wards, like the Medusa pulmo, M. campanulata, and other species of that 
family. 

The specific name is in commemoration of the valuable researches of 
my friend J. S. Miller, Esq. A.L.S. of Bristol; a tribute of respect, to 
which his able investigation of the Natural History of the Crinoidea, justly 
entitles him. 

Tab. xvi. fig. 6. represents the only specimen in which the reniform, 
or pectoral ossiculae remain; but the plates have suffered so much dis- 
placement from compression, that their relative situation is not very ob- 
vious, without careful examination. It does not however appear pro- 
bable, that the proboscideal form in which the pectoral bones are dis- 
posed, is the effect of accident, since a similar structure prevails in the 
actinocrinites-f, and several other zoophytes. A clavicle united with one 
of the humeral bones, is seen attached to the scapula, near the middle of 
the figure. 

fig. 7. The semilunar depression on the upper margin of a 

scapula. 

fig. 8. Outline of the clavicle. 

fig. 9. A clavicle and humerus united. 

figs. 13, 14. Detached costal plates ; the one finely striated, the 

other with obtuse ridges. 

fig. 15. The entire pelvis, consisting of the abdominal, costal, 

intercostal, and scapular plates. Specimens of this kind, more or less dis- 
torted, are the only parts of the animal generally found; the clavicles, 

* Miller's Natural History of the Crinoidea, p. 137. 

f Vide Nat. Hist. Crinoid. Actinocrinites, 30 dactylus, PI. 2. 

B B 2 



188 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

humeral bones, &c., are among the rarest productions of the chalk forma- 
tion. 

Localities. Offham, Preston, Clayton*, and Brighton chalk-pits; the 
last mentioned locality was first discovered by Geo. Cumberland, Esq. of 
Bristol, to whose liberality I am indebted for the information. 

AsTERiA, OR Star-Fish. 

But few remains of these animals have been discovered in Sussex, 
although they are not uncommon in the Kentish chalk. 

30. The specimens in my possession consist of a few detached ossiculae 
oi pentagonaster semilunatus, {Org. Rem. Vol. iii. Tab. i. fig. 1,); and 
fragments of a species that appears to be distinct from any previously 
known. 

Fossil Echini. 

Of this order of raoUusca, numerous species occur both in a recent and 
fossil state. They are marine animals, having a body more or less round, 
covered with a crustaceous shell, and furnished with moveable spines ; the 
mouth being placed beneath. The crust or covering is composed of an 
immense number of plates, varying in form in different families, and in 
some species amounting to nearly a thousand in one individual. It has 
numerous perforations, through which the tentaculee of the enclosed 
animal are protruded. These pores form bands (ambulacra) that divide 
the shell into segments (arece), the latter being more or less covered 
with tubercles, to which the spines are attached by strong ligaments. 
Upon the death of the animal these ligaments undergo decomposition, 
and the spines almost constantly fall off, a circumstance that explains the 
cause of their being so seldom found in connexion with the shell, in a 
fossil state. The mouth is armed with five or six triangular teeth. 

These animals feed upon crabs and the lesser kinds of shell-fish, which 

* A specimen was discovered near Clayton, many years since, by Richard Weekes, Esq. 
of Hurstperpoint. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 189 

they seize and convey to their mouth by means of the tentacula, the 
spines being the instruments of motion*. 

Various systematical arrangements of the echini have been formed by 
naturalists f ; that of Leske, adopted by Mr. Parkinson, is followed in the 
subjoined description of the Sussex specimens. 

CiDARis (the turban). This family comprises those echini which are of 
an hemispherical, globular, or oval form, with avenues of pores diverging 
equally on aU sides from the vent to the mouth ; vent vertical, mouth 
central. 

31. Cidaris saxatilis. Org. Rem. Vol. iii. PI. 3, fig. 1. 
Hemispherical, depressed, with ten porous ambulacra, and two rows of 

small nearly equal tubercles, or papUlEe, on each area . 

This is a smaU species, seldom more than 07 inch in diameter. 
Locahties. Bridgwick, and South-street chalk-pits, near Lewes. 

32. Cidaris papillata. Org. Rem. Vol. iii, PI. 1, fig. 9. 

Eound, rather depressed, divided by undulating biporous ambulacra 
into five areee, each having two rows of tubercles disposed alternately, and 
surmounted by perforated papillae, encircled by a distinct groove at their 
base; the intermediate surface finely granulated. 

This beautiful fossil is well known to collectors ; it is rather rare in 
Sussex. It occurs occasionally in the upper chalk, and impressions of its 
plates and spines are sometimes observable on the flints and pebbles on 
the sea shore. 

The spines of this species are slender, and delicately muricated; one of 
them is represented in Tab. xvii. fig. 13. 

Localities. Upper chalk, near Lewes and Brighton. 

S3. Cidaris Konigii. Org. Rem. Vol. iii. Tab. i. fig. 10. 

Circular, much depressed, divided by porous ambulacra into five large 
and five small areae. The lesser divisions ornamented with two rows of 

* Rees' Cycloptsdia. Art. Echinus. 

•f- Mr. Konig has constructed an excellent arrangement of the fine suite of echini in the 
British Museum ; and I much regret, that unavoidable circumstances have prevented me from 
adopting it on the present occasion. 



190 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

tubercles, surmounted by imperforate papillae, generally fifteen in each 
row ; these are larger and more distant on the circumference or ambit of 
the shell, than on the vertex and base. The larger areee have two sets of 
papillary tubercles, extending from the vertex to the base ; and also two 
short rows that arise at the vertex, but do not reach below the circum- 
ference of the shell; hence there are thirty rows of tubercles on the 
vertex, and but twenty on the base. This remarkable character is seen m 
every specimen that has been submitted to my notice, and distinguishes 
the present species from Cidaris mamillata, with which it corresponds in 
every other respect. The ambulacra are quadriporous on the vertex, but 
become biporous on the circumference and base. 

I have named this elegant species in honour of Chas. Konig, Esq., of 
the British Museum. 

LocaUties. Upper chalk, near Brighton and Lewes ; casts occur in 
the flints of the South Downs. 

34. Cidaris co?'ollar{s. Tab. xvii. fig. 2. 

This name is applied by Mr. Parkinson to a siliceous nucleus, moulded 
in the cavity of a species of Cidaris variola. (Echino-cidaris of Konig). 
Specimens are not unfrequent among the flints on the ploughed lands of 
the South Downs. 

CoNULUs. (Echino-pileum of Konig). Conical, or oval, with porous 
ambulacra radiating from the summit to the base ; mouth central, vent 
situate in some part of the base or margin. 

35. Conulus albogalerus. Tab. xvii. figs. 8. 20. 

Obscurely pentagonal, divided by ten biporous ambulacra, into five 
large, and five very small areas ; surface covered with minute granulae. The 
vent placed on the margin ; vertex with five perforations. 

This species is very common in the Kentish chalk-pits, but is seldom 
found in Sussex. 

Fig. 8, a lateral view'; fig. 20, the base of the same specimen. 

Localities. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

36. Conulus albogalerus, var. acuta. (Konig). Tab. xvii. figs. 16. 19. 
In this variety the apex is acute, in other respects it differs but little 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 191 

from the preceding. The specimen figured is a siliceous cast, of which 
fig. 16 is a profile, and fig. 19, a sketch of the base. 

LocaHties. Upper chalk, and ploughed lands near Lewes. 

37. Conulus vulgaris. Org. Rem. Vol. iii. PI. 2, fig. 3. 

The siliceous nucleus figured by Mr. Parkinson under this name is 
from Sussex, but it appears to have been too imperfect to admit of its 
characters being accurately defined. 

LocaUty. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

38. Conulus subrotundus. Tab. xvii. figs. 15. 18. 

Subglobose, divided by biporous ambulacra into five wide and five nar- 
row area ; mouth small ; vent placed in the margin. 

This species is somewhat globular ; the summit rounded, and rather 
depressed; the base flat; the mouth circular; the vent eUiptical, and 
placed in the margin. The surface is studded with granule. 

Figs. 15, 18, are different views of a siUceous cast collected near 
Mount Caburn, by my friend Thos. Woollgar, Esq. ; the shell itself has 
but lately been discovered. 

Localities. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

EcHiNocoRYs (the helmet). Body vaulted, or helmet-shaped ; base 
nearly flat ; mouth and vent beneath, and opposite. 

39. Echinocorys scutatus. Org. Mem. Vol. iii. PI. 2, fig. 4. 
Galeated, with a prominent ridge extending from the vertex to the 

vent ; surface granulated, divided into five small, and five large are£e, by 
biporous ambulacra ; base oval, with the vent placed near the margin of 
its longest diameter ; mouth transversely reniform, situate at the broadest 
extremity, with a ridge passing from it to the base. 

This species is found in great numbers in the vicinity of Lewes, and 
Brighton, and siliceous casts deprived of their calcai'eous covering, are 
very common among the flints of the Downs. 

The cavity of the shell is generally filled with chalk, or flint, but in a 
few instances is partly hoUow, and its inner surface hned with transparent 
crystals of carbonate of hme ; these in all probability have been formed by 
an infiltration of calcareous spar through the substance of the shell, sub- 



192 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

sequently to the mineralization of the latter. One specimen in my col- 
lection is particularly interesting ; the shell, as usual, is converted into 
spathose calcareous spar, and about one-fourth of its cavity is occupied by 
pure black flint, the surface of which, together with the sides of the shell, 
are incrusted with rhombic crystals of carbonate of Hme*. 

Locahties. Upper chalk, throughout Sussex. 

Spatangus. Body cordiform, or ovate ; vent lateral. 

40. Spatangus cor anguinum. Org. Rem. Vol. iii, PL S, figs. 11, 12. 
Cordiform, narrow extremity truncated, surface granulated; back 

convex, with five grooved quadriporous ambulacra, the two shorter ones 
extending obHquely towards the truncated extremity, and having a ridge 
between them, which passes to the vent ; the two longer ones incHned 
towards the broader end ; the fifth extending direct to the mouth, and 
forming a deep groove along the back. Mouth transversely reniform, its 
lower margin but slightly produced ; vent placed in the upper pait of the 
truncated extremity. 

This species is too well known to require farther observation. 

Localities. Abundant in the upper chalk throughout Sussex. 

41. Spatangus rostratus. Tab. xvii. figs. 10. 17. 

Cordiform, dorsal ridge rostrated ; anterior part of the shell depressed. 

This species resembles the preceding, but the ridge which extends 
from the vertex to the vent is strongly produced, while the opposite side 
of the shell is considerably depressed ; these characters are so constant, 
that I have ventured to assume them as specific distinctions. 

Localities. Chalk-pits, near Brighton. 

42. Spatangus jo/am<6r. Tab. xvii. figs. 9. 21. 

Ovate, vertex rather depressed ; surface nearly smooth, with eight ( ?) 
biporous ambulacra, diverging in pairs on each side the back and front ; 
dorsal groove superficial, smooth, extending to the mouth ; base slightly 
convex ; mouth transversely reniform ; vent placed in the upper part of 
the side. 

* Scilla (Tab. xix. fig. 3,) gives the representation of an echino-cidaris, partially filled 
with crystals " ripieni d'ingemamento bellissimo." 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 193 

This species is a rare production of the chalk, and is distinguished by its 
ovate form, and by the ambulacra not being grooved as in the two former 
species. Its surface, in some instances, is covered vs^ith minute and in- 
distinct papillae, but generally appears perfectly smooth; even the am_ 
bulacra are scarcely perceptible. It is therefore possible, that a pair may 
extend to the dorsal groove, although none can be detected in that situa- 
tion, in the specimens in my possession. 

Figs. 9, 21, are different views of the same specimen. 

A spatangus nearly related to this species, has very recently been dis- 
covered in the grey marl, at Hamsey ; the summit is depressed, the base 
slightly concave, and the dorsal groove rather more distinct than in S. 
planus. 

Locality. Lower chalk, near Lewes. 

43. Spatangus . Tab. xvii. figs. 22, 23. 

This species is perfectly smooth, and no traces of ambulacra are per- 
ceptible. The mouth and vent are placed as in the preceding species, of 
which, perhaps, the present specimen may be the shell in a young state. 

Mr. Konig informs me they are not unlike Spatangus prunella of La- 
marck, except that the ambulacra are not visible. 

Figs. 22, 23, are sketches of the same individual. I have seen no 
larger examples. 

Locahty. Brighton ; rather numerous in the Upper chalk. 

Ecf[iNiTAL Spines. 

It has already been mentioned, that these are the instruments of mo- 
tion, and are fixed by ligaments to the tubercles, or papillae, of the crus- 
taceous covering. 

Specimens in which they are still attached to the shell, are very rare 
in a fossil state ; the only example that has been discovered in Sussex, is 
in the possession of Miss Eebecca Godlee of Lewes ; it is a Cidaris papil- 
lata, with four or five spines imbedded in the surrounding chalk. 

The spines generally present considerable variety both in their forms 

c c 



194 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

and markings ; but the following are the only species that have been ob- 
served in this district. 

44. Clavated spines. Tab. xvii. figs. 11. 14. 

These are dehcately muricated; they belong to a species of Cidaris, to 
which Mr. Konig has appHed the name of C. claviger. 
Locahties. Upper chalk, near Lewes, and Brighton. 

45. Cucumerine spines. Tab. xvii. figs. 12, 13. 

The elegant spine, fig. 12, is well known to collectors, and occurs in 
great perfection in the hmestone of Calne, in Wiltshire ; it belongs to Ci- 
daris sceptrifera (of Konig). The other specimen, fig. 13, has previously 
been described as the spine of Cidax'is papillata'* . 

Locahty. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

Testace^. 
Univalves. 

46. Cnv\xQ perspectivus. Tab. xviii. figs. 12. 21. 

Obtusely conical; volutions convex, transversely ovate, spirally stri- 
ated ; umbihcus deep, exposing one-third of the volutions ; aperture 
transversely oblong. 

The umbilicus of this species resembles in structure that of the cele- 
brated staircase shell, (Trochus perspectivus of Linne,) exposing the 
inner edge of the volutions, to the extent of nearly one-third of their 
width. The volutions are six or seven in number, convex externally, 
smooth in the casts, but where portions of the shell remain, marked with 
fine spiral strife. 

The specimens are seldom more than chalky casts ; vestiges of the 
shell itself being exceedingly rare. A few examples have, however, been 
noticed, in which the casts are covered with a nacreous peUicle, the remains 
of the internal pearly coat of the original. 

Tab. xviii, fig. 12, represents the most perfect specimen in my posses- 

* The teeth of echini have been discovered in the chalk, near Brighton, and I remember 
seeing several specimens, collected in the vicinity of that town, a few years since ; but I have 
not been able to obtain a single example, either for description or representation. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 195 

sion ; a portion of the original shell is attached to one of the volutions. 
This species sometimes attains two inches and a half in height, and 
four inches in diameter. 

Fig. 21. View of an interesting example of the base, exhibiting 

the structure of the umbilicus. 

Localities. Upper, and Lower chalk of the South Downs ; rare in the 
latter deposit. 

47. Cirrus depressus. Tab. xviii. figs. 18. 22. 

Spire depressed ; volutions transversely ovate, spirally striated ; aper- 
ture ? umbilicus ? 

This shell might be referred to the genus Euomphalus of Sowerby, but 
is so clearly related to the preceding species, that I cannot hesitate to 
retain its present appropriation. 

It differs from C. pe7'spectivus, in the spire being scarcely elevated 
above the margin of the outer volution, the umbihcus must consequently 
be very shallow. 

In a large specimen in my collection, the width of the base is 3*5 
inches, while the height of the shell is 13 inch; some allowance, it is true, 
may be made for the effects of compression, but the circumstance is too 
constant to be the result of accident. The form of the aperture, and the 
structure of the umbihcus, are at present unknown. 

Tab. xviii. fig. 18, represents the appearance of a specimen viewed 
from above. 

Fig. 22. A perspective view of another example. 

Locality. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

48. Cirrus granulatus. 

Conical, volutions five or six, obscurely quadrangular, ornamented with 
regular, transverse, granulated striae ; umbihcus ? 

I have but very recently discovered this elegant shell, and only four 
imperfect casts are at present known : its characters are however sufficiently 
defined to identify the species. The volutions are depressed on the 
upper and under surface, and broad and sKghtly convex on the outer 

c c 2 



196 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

margin ; the form of the inner edge is unknown. The striae are about 
fifteen on each volution, very regular, and elegantly granulated, or moni- 
liform ; no traces of the shell remain. 

Locality. Lower chalk, near Lewes. 

49. Cast of a species of Dolium ? 

The fossil here alluded to, is the cast of a ventricose spiral univalve, 
consisting of three volutions. It is nearly seven inches long, and five 
in circumference. The body is ventricose, the surface smooth, the 
aperture oblong, extending the entire length of the last volution ; the 
spire is very small, and depressed obhquely. 

This specimen contains not the slightest remains of the shell, and 
is so much distorted, as to prevent the possibility of its generic cha- 
racters being determined. In its general form, it bears some resemblance 
to the Auricula represented in Tab. xix. fig. 34 ; but is still more nearly 
related to the sihceous cast of a Buccinum, from St. Peter's mountain, 
figured by Faujus St. Fond. {Hist. Nat. Mont. St. Pierre. PI. xxx. fig. 
1. a.) It seems, however, more probable that the recent shell may have 
belonged to the genus Dolium of Lamarck. 

Locahty. Clayton chalk-pit. Collected by, and in the possession of, 
Kichard Weekes, Esq. of Hurstperpoint. 

50. Vermicularia umbonata ? 

Imperfect examples of a species related to V. umbonata, are sometimes 
found in the vicinity of Lewes. The spire is composed of three or 
four contiguous volutions, the outer one being produced in a curved form. 

51. Vermicularia ? 

Masses composed of a smooth cylindrical shell, much convoluted or 
intertwined, are of frequent occurrence in the chalk, at Brighton ; the 
propriety of placing them in the present genus cannot, however, be deter- 
mined, tiU the discovery of more perfect specimens. 

52. Serpula. 

The remains of a species of serpula are very common on the shells of 
the echini, inocerami, &c. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 197 

53. N'autilus elegans. (vide Grey Marl Fossils, No. 27.) 
Examples of this species, with the undulating markings but faintly 

expressed, are occasionally found in the chalk; perfectly smooth casts 
also occur, and these are probably referable to the same, the striae being 
effaced by accident*. 

Locality. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

54. Ammonites varicms. {Grey Marl Fossils, No. 30.) f A few ex- 
amples have been found in the Lower chalk, near Lewes. 

65. Ammonites JVoollgari. Tab. xxi. fig. 16. Tab. xxii. fig. 7. 

Discoidal, depressed, volutions one-third inserted, transversely cos- 
tated ; costae remote, slightly curved, inclined towards the aperture, 
terminating on the outer margin in compressed tubercles, or spinous 
projections ; carene acute, deeply serrated. 

The volutions are generally three or four in number, rather depressed, 
and ornamented with transverse ribs, that terminate on the outer margin 
in carinated tubercles, which are elongated into spinous projections in the 
adult shell (as in fig. 16. Tab. xxi.) In some examples, there are two 
tubercles on the outer extremity of each rib, and one on the inner 
margin. The carene is acute, and deeply serrated, the projections being 
almost angular. 

This elegant ammonite is a rare production of the lower chalk: it 
varies in size from 0-5 inch, to four or five inches in diameter, and is easily 
identified by the serrated keel, and the form and disposition of the ribs, 
and tubercles. 

I have named it in honour of my esteemed fi-iend, Thomas Woollgar, 

* It is probable that the nautihis mentioned by Mr. Parkinson, {Geolog. Trans, vol. v. 
p. 56.) belongs to this species. It is stated to be nine inches long, six inches deep, and five 
wide ; the whorls obhque, the back marked with small, closely set, transverse, undulating strife; 
which agree in their direction with the contour of the shell. 

The obliquity of the spire observable more or less, in almost every example of the 
chalk nautili, ammonites, &c. is clearly the effect of accidental compression, and has no relation 
whatever to the structure of the original. 

■f- It may be remarked, that the upper chalk is the most recent formation, in which 
the shells of the genus ammonites have been discovered ; the ocean which deposited it appear- 
ing to be the last abode of this tribe of testaceje, no vestiges of their remains occurring in any 
of the superior deposits, and their recent analogue being unknown. 



198 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

Esq. of Lewes ; a gentleman, whose taste for science, leads him to 
patronize every attempt to elucidate the natural history, and topography, 
of his native town *. 

Tab. xxi. fig. 16. A cast of the adult shell, with its spinous projections ; 
a small specimen of Choanites subrotundus is attached to the inner 
volutions. It is scarcely necessary to observe, that the chalk ammonites, 
and other multilocular testaceee, very rarely contain any remains of their 
shelly covering. 

Tab. xxii. fig. 7. A cast of the young shell. 

LocaUty. Lower chalk, near Lewes. 

56. Ammonites navicularis. Tab. xxii. fig. 5. 

Elliptical ? umbilicate, volutions narrow, compressed, deeply inserted, 
rapidly enlarging ; ambit convex, very broad, transversely costated ; costae 
numerous, smooth, rounded. 

The specimen figured is the only known example of this species, and 
this is unfortunately imperfect ; it is however remarkably characterized 
by its navicular form, the width of the ambit, large rounded costs, and 
sudden increase of the outer volution. The ribs are perfectly smooth, 
and so numerous, as almost to expand into each other; with but few 
exceptions, they extend entirely across the ambit, forming a tuberculated 
margin on each side the wreaths. The form of the septa, aperture, and 
umbilicus, is unknown. The drawing is diminished to one-half the size 
of the original. 

Locality. Upper chalk, Ofi'ham. 

57. Ammonites catinus. Tab. xxii. fig. 10. 



* Since this was written, my lamented friend is no more ; but I feel a melancholy pleasm'e 
in paying this humble tribute to his memory. For many years he had been ardently en- 
gaged in forming a collection of drawings, and manuscripts, illustrative of the topography of 
the south-eastern part of Sussex, with a view to publication ; but a long, and painful illness, 
jirevented the accomplishment of his wishes. To the future historian of Sussex, his labours 
cannot fail to afford material assistance ; and his name will be associated by posterity, with those 
of Rowe, Burrell, Hay, Dallaway, and others, whose researches have lain the foundation of the 
history, of this former kingdom of the South Saxons. It is to be hoped that his son, John 
Webb Woollgar, Esq. M.A.S. whose scientific attainments are worthy of such a parent, will 
be induced to favor the public with the result of his father's investigations. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 199 

Depressed, volutions exposed, quadrangular; disk concave, ex- 
panded ; ambit broad, oblique ; a row of large obtuse tubercles on the 
outer margin. 

The volutions are three in number, almost entirely exposed ; their 
outer margin elevated, and crested with a row of large nodular projec- 
tions. The ambit is broad, and smooth, inclined outwards, forming an 
obtuse angle with the inner surface of the volutions. The septa are 
numerous. 

It is probable that this is the species described by Mr. Parkinson, as 
being " of a large size, with nodular projections on the sides towards the 
back, which is generally flat." (Geolog. Trans. Vol. i. p. 559,.) 

The specimen is nearly three and a half times the size of the figure. 

LocaUty. Lower chalk, near Lewes. 

58. Ammonites rusticus. Min. Conch. Tab. 177. 

Depressed, volutions few, gibbous, exposed, with a row of conical 
tubercles on each side, and two rows on the back ; aperture wider than 
long. 

The whorls seldom exceed three in number. The bases of the larger 
tubercles almost touch each other, and expand nearly across the volu- 
tions. The back is broad, and rather flat ; the tubercles upon it are 
numerous, and but httle elevated. The inner side of the aperture is 
concave. 

This species is of frequent occurrence in the lower chalk at Souther- 
ham, but the specimens are very imperfect. The fossil figured and 
described by Mr. Sowerby, is more distinct than any that have been found 
in Sussex. 

This ammonite corresponds in some particulars with A. catinus, but 
is distinguished by the two dorsal rows of tubercles, and the gibbous form 
of the volutions. 

Locahty. Lower chalk, near Lewes. 

59. Ammonites Lewesiensis. Tab. xxii. fig. 2. 

Depressed, umbiUcus minute; volutions wide, flat, almost entirely 



200 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

concealed ; the external whorl equal to four-sevenths of the diameter of 
the shell ; carene very narrow, rounded ; aperture acutely sagittate. 

This ammonite may be readily distinguished in a suite of specimens, 
although its characters are rather of a negative description. In its 
general form it resembles A. complanatus, {Grey Marl Fossils, No, 34;) 
but the umbihcus is larger, the carene less acute, and the surface exhibits 
no traces of striee, or pHcee. 

Its longest diameter is commonly about fourteen inches ; width of the 
outer volution nine inches ; greatest thickness five inches ; at the external 
edge, one inch and a half. The volutions are but few, and with the ex- 
ception of four or five obscure, transverse, radiating ridges, are perfectly 
even. The greatest thickness is at the inner margin, from whence the 
wreaths gradually taper to the keel. The outer volution increases rapidly, 
and is nearly equal to half the diameter of the sheU. 

In the specimen figured, which is nearly one foot and a half in 
diameter, the volutions appear to be wholly inserted, but probably in 
more perfect examples, their inner margin is exposed. The septa are 
sinuous, and very numerous ; and the surface of the specimens is generally 
covered with thin, foHaceous impressions, which closely resemble those of 
the "ammonite articulee" figured by Fauj us St. Fond, (PI. xxxi.FIist. 
Nat. St. Pierre.) 

Locality. Lower chalk, near Lewes. 

60. Ammonites peramplus. 

Discoidal, subumbihcate ; volutions subcylindrical, nearly half inserted ; 
a row of indistinct, distant, oblong eminences, on the inner margin ; aper- 
ture transversely obovate. 

This is a very large species, frequently exceeding two feet in diameter; 
it is seldom found entire. The longest diameter of a specimen in my 
possession is 24 inches ; shortest diameter 1 8 inches ; circumference of 
the outer volution, at the aperture, 23 inches ; diameter of the umbilicus 
7 inches ; depth of the same 3*5 inches. 

The volutions are four or five, almost half concealed, and in all 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. SOI 

probability, were originally cylindrical, but are now laterally compressed. 
The aperture has its inner edge indented by the preceding whorl. The 
back is smooth. The protuberances are indistinct, and wholly wanting 
in some examples. 

This, and the species last described, are the largest ammonites of 
the chalk formation * ; both are nearly destitute of ornament, yet their 
forms are so dissimilar, that even fragments can be distinguished with 
facility : those of A. Leivesiensis being flat, and thin, in proportion to 
their magnitude; while the remains of A. peramplus are convex, and 
almost cylindrical. 

Localities. Upper chalk, near Lewes, and Eastbourne. 

61. Belemnite . Tab. xvi. fig. 1. 

This figure represents the only species of belemnite, that occurs in 
the Upper, and Lower chalk, of Sussex. 

It is smooth, cylindrical, and unUke most of the genus, has no external 
sulcus. Longitudinal sections shew that a small tube extends from the 
alveolus to the apex of the spathose part. 

LocaUties. Brighton, and Lewes. 

62. Scaphites striatus. {Grey Marl Fossils, No. 35.) 

This species has been discovered in the Lower chalk, at Brighton. 

63. Hamites alternatus. {Grey Marl Fossils, No. 39.) 

The existence of Hamites, in the Upper chalk, has not previously been 
noticed : two decided examples of the present species have been found 
near Lewes. 

64. Pecten quinquecostata. Tab. xxvi. figs. 14, 19, 20. 
Subtriangular, slightly oblique, longitudinally costated, transversely 

striated ; lower valve gibbous, beaked, pentangular ; upper valve flat, front 
pentarcuate, sides forming an acute angle ; margin crenulated ; ears 
small. 



* A fragment of A. peramplus, sent some years since to Mr. Sowerby, must have belonged 
to a specimen nearly three feet in diameter. 



202 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

The length of this shell exceeds its width ; it is slightly oblique, and 
the surface is covered by numerous diverging ribs, and furrows, decussated 
by fine transverse stri^ : the hues of growth are deep, and frequent. 

The lower valve is convex, beaked, and of a pentangular form ; a large 
costa is placed on each angle, and four lesser ones on each of the inter- 
vening spaces. The beak is produced, and incurved. The upper valve 
is flat, rather depressed, and marked with diverging costae, and sulci, 
corresponding in number with those of the lower valve. The hinge hue 
is straight. The sides diverge from the beak towards the front, the 
margin of which is pentangular, and arcuate. 

Tab. xxvi. fig. 20. A perfect specimen of both valves. 

fig. 19. Inner surface of the upper valve. 

fiff. 14. A view of the back of the lower valve. 

Locahties. Upper, and Lower chalk, near Lewes, and Brighton ; it also 
occurs in the ferruginous sand of Kackham common. 
65. Pecten nitida. Tab. xxvi. figs. 4. 9. (1 ?) 

Obovate, rather oblique, longitudinally striated ; striae numerous, 
radiating ; upper valve flat ; lower valve shghtly convex. 

A remarkably neat shell, much depressed, and rather obhque. The 
upper valve is perfectly flat ; the lower one slightly convex. The striae 
are prominent, and regular, radiating from the hinge line to the margin ; 
about fifty on each valve. These are crossed by fine hues, which are 
scarcely visible to the naked eye. The margin is slightly crenulated, the 
ears are small, and placed obliquely ; the lines of increase few, and in- 
distinct ; the length and width of the shell nearly equal. 

Tab. xxvi. fig. 4, the inner surface of the lower valve ; and fig. 9, the 
external surface of the flat valve ; part of the lower shell is also seen, the 
upper valve being somewhat displaced. 

fig. 1, represents the inner surface of a pecten, bearing 

considerable resemblance to the present species. Where portions of the 
shell have been removed, the impressions of the outer surface remaining 
upon the chalk, indicate the existence of strise like those of P. nitida. The 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 203 

margin is however perfectly smooth, the hinge hne straight, and the length 
of the shell exceeds its width, in a greater proportion than in the present 
species. 

Localities. Upper chalk, near Lewes, and Brighton. 

66. Pecten . Tab. xxv. fig. 14. 

The specimen here figured, is in too anutilated a state to admit of 
specific distinction ; but as a rare production of the chalk, it is worthy of 
notice. It is a thin, delicate, shghtly convex shell, of a suborbicular form, 
marked with gentle undulating grooves, or furrows. The margin is entire, 
and smooth ; no transverse striae are perceptible, but the Hues of increase 
are strongly marked. The figure is reduced one-third. 

Locality. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

67. Pecten . Tab. xxv. fig. 6. 

The cast of a small pecten, its surface marked with eleven radiating 
costae ; — the imperfect state of this fossil prevents the determination of its 
species. 

Locality. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

68. Plagiostoma spinosa. Tab. xxvi. fig. 10. 

Obovate, inequivalve, longitudinally furrowed ; the flatter valve armed 
with spines : sides nearly equal ; beaks incm-ved, approximate ; ears small, 
even ; margin denticulated. 

This fossil is remarkably distinguished from the other shells of the 
chalk, by the long slender spines attached to the upper valve. 

Each valve has from 25 to 30 rounded costae, formed by intervening 
furrows, that radiate from the beaks to the margin ; these are decus- 
sated by fine transverse striae, and the Unes of increase ; the inner sur- 
face of the shell is also marked with corresponding impressions. The 
lower valve is most convex, and has the line of the hinge straight ; the 
upper valve is spinous, rather depressed, and contains the angular sinus, 
by which the shells of this genus are characterized. 

The spines arise from the ribs, but without any regularity, except that 
they are more numerous at the sides, than in the centre. They vary from 
15 to 20 in number, and are from half an inch, to two inches and a half 

D D 2 



204 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

in length ; each spine has a groove on the under, and a corresponding 
ridge on the upper surface. They generally project from the shell, but 
in some instances He close on the surface. 

The beaks are convex, and incurved ; the ears small, and even ; the 
margin neatly denticulated. A specimen cleared from the chalk, exhibited 
no muscular impression. 

There are several varieties of tliis species, of which the following are 
the most remarkable : 

Var. a. With both valves gibbous, and but few spines. 

b. Valves depressed, spines numerous. 

c. Valves gibbous, ribs regularly convex and even. 

d. , ribs channelled near the front. 

This shell is one of the most common productions of the Upper chalk, 
but is less frequent in the lower beds ; the hardness of the Sussex chalk 
renders it exceedingly difficult to clear the specimens, without destroying 
the spines. 

Localities. The chalk-quarries in every part of the South Downs. 
SiHceous casts of the interior of the shell, occur among the flints on 
Plumpton Plain. 

69. Plagiostoma Brightoniensis. Tab. xxv. fig. 15. 

Obovate, depressed, longitudinally costated: posterior side eared; an- 
terior side lunulate, concave, small, acuminated ; margin crenulated. 

The length of this species is 3 inches; greatest width 2-5 inches ; thick- 
ness of the united valves, 1 inch: the convexity of the valves is nearly equal. 
The costae are somewhat flattened, and channelled towards the anterior 
margin ; there are about thirty on each valve. The anterior depression 
is elongated, and marked with longitudinal striae ; the posterior side is 
short, and eared. The Hues of growth are very distinct. 

Locality. The specimen figured is from the Upper chalk of Brighton. 

70. Plagiostoma Hoperi. Tab. xxvi. figs. 2, 3, 15. 

Transversely ovate, obhque; valves convex, covered with numerous 
diverging striae ; posterior slope short ; anterior slope concave, elongated, 
obliqviely striated; ears unequal; margin entire. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 205 

This shell is nearly related to P. rigida, and P. ovalis of Sowerby, 
(Min. Conch. Vol. ii. tab. 114) from which it is distinguished by the in- 
equahty of the ears, and the deep elongated lunette of the anterior side. 
The general form of the shell is also somewhat dissimilar, and the strige 
are less distinct than in the fossils above mentioned. 

This species presents considerable variety both in its form, and mark- 
ings, but the differences observable, are not sufficiently constant to require 
notice. It is more or less obliquely oval, but forms a larger segment of a 
circle, than is strictly imphed by that term. The length and width nearly 
correspond ; and the thickness of the united valves equals about half the 
length. The striae, or rather sulci, are undulated, and distinct, in some 
examples, but in others are altogether wanting. The lunette, or depres- 
sion on the anterior side, is very deep, and extends from the beaks to 
the commencement of the front ; it is marked by numerous oblique stria^, 
which are decussated by the lines of growth. The ears are plicated ; that 
on the anterior side is small, and obscure, but the other is distinct. The 
beaks are small, and terminal. 

I have named this elegant shell in honour of the Kev. Henry Hoper, 
A.M. of Portslade, to whose kindness I am more indebted, than his 
modesty will permit me to acknowledge. 

Tab. xxvi. fig. 2. A specimen of the depressed variety with but few 
striae. 

fig. 3. A shell in which the strige are distinct. 

— fig. 15. The united valves, the upper one rather displaced; 

this example exhibits the lunette on the anterior 
side. 

Locahties. Upper, and Lower chalk, near Lewes. 

71. Dianchora lata. Tab. xxvi. fig. 21. 

Semicircular ; beak prominent ; free valve plain. 

The obhquity of this species is scarcely observable. The " lines of 
growth being slightly marked, ard the gentle convexity of its form, added 
to the indistinctness of the few striae upon its surface, and the sharpness 



206 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

of its margin, give it a peculiar neatness *." The specimen figured and 
described by Mr. Sowerby, was found in the chalk near Lewes. I have not 
been so fortunate as to discover another example of the united valves. 

Tab.xxvi. fig. 21, represents the inner surface of a mutilated specimen 
of the lower valve. 

Locality. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

72. Dianchora obliqua. Tab. xxv. fig. 1. Tab. xxvi. fig. 12. 
Obliquely obovate; upper valve convex, marked with numerous di- 
verging striae ; margin serrated. 

The free valve is convex, and marked with upwards of 50 prominent 
striee, separated from each other by fine sidci, and terminating in an 
acutely serrated margin. The beak is acuminated ; the ears small, and un- 
equal. The lower valve, by which it is attached to other bodies, has 
its inferior surface finely granulated; its sides are erect, wide at the 
anterior and posterior slopes, but very narrow in front. The posterior 
side is more elevated than the anterior, and the upper valve is in conse- 
quence inclined obhquely. 

This species is distinguished from D. lata by its ovate form, and 
numerous striee ; and from D. striata, (the only other known species) by its 
obliquity, striated surface, and denticulated margin. 

Tab. xxv. fig. 1. is a perfect specimen ; it shews the triangular cavity 
beneath the beak, formed by the union of the valves ; the smooth, erect 
border of the lower, and the striated surface of the upper valve. 

Tab. xxvi. fig. 12. The upper, or convex valve, detached; collected by 
Col. Birch. 

Localities. Upper chalk, near Lewes, and Brighton. 

73. Ostrea . Smith's strata, Upper chalk. Figs. 5, 6. 

The shells of the genus ostrea are so irregular in form, and the same 
species, in different stages of its growth, exhibits such dissimilar appear- 
ances, that it is very difficult to arrange them with precision. This con- 
sideration has induced me to relinquish the attempt to distinguish those 
* Min. Conch. Vol. i. p. 184 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 207 

that occur in Sussex by specific names; since the specimens present no 
remarkable character, and although of various shapes, and degrees of 
convexity, are probably only varieties of one species. 

The shells figured by Mr. Smith, are of frequent occurrence in the 
Upper chalk, near Lewes, and are commonly attached to other bodies; 
they appear to be the upper and under valves, of the same species. They 
are nearly flat, of a suborbicular form, their margins very thin, and much 
expanded. 

74. Ostrea . Tab. xxv. fig. 4. 

This shell is rather depressed, of an oblique, ovate form, the external 
surface scabrous, the margin thin, and undulated by five or six depressions. 
The hinge is tripartite, marked with transverse phcae, and the adjoining 
edge of the shell on each side, has a row of crenulated indentations ; the 
inner border of the hinge is straight, and rendered very distinct by a 
deep hollow that extends beneath it. The inner surface is marked with 
a few gentle concentric ridges. The muscular impression is shght. 

Three or four examples have been discovered with the characters 
above enumerated very distinctly marked, while others occur in which 
they are but obscurely expressed ; it is not improbable, that in a suite of 
specimens, the present variety may pass insensibly into the flat oyster, 
previously noticed. 

Locality. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

75. Teredo . Tab. xviii. fig. 23. 

The Teredo navalis, or ship-worm, is well known for its depredations 
on the hulls of vessels, which in warm climates, it sometimes completely 
destroys. The fossil, like the recent species, is found inhabiting cavities 
which it has formed in blocks of wood ; and the wood, with the shells 
imbedded, is frequently discovered in a petrified state, in many parts of 
England*. 

* Specimens of this kind are figured by Parkinson, Org. Rem. Vol. i. PI. viii. fig. 9- 
They are very abundant in the London clay; some of the finest examples known were collected 
by the author on the banks of the Regent's Canal. 



208 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

Portions of the tubular part of the shell, are the only vestiges that 
occur in the Sussex chalk ; these are sometimes enclosed in fragments of 
carbonized wood, but owing to the friable nature of the latter, are more 
commonly found detached. The specimens are of a depressed, cyhndrical 
form, more or less bent, and gradually tapering to a point. Their 
diameter at the larger extremity, seldom exceeds half an inch ; their length 
varying from one to six inches. The surface is smooth, and has numerous, 
indistinct, annular elevations, and depressions, Uke the recent teredo ; of 
which, in fact, the present species appears to be only a variety. 

Tab. xviii. fig. 23, represents the usual appearance of these fossils. 

Localities. Upper chalk, near Lewes, and Brighton. 

76. TeYehratuia. subrotunda. Min. Conch. Tab. xv. figs. 1, 2. 
Circular, depressed, smooth; valves regular, equally convex; beak 

short. 

The width of this shell rather exceeds its length, which is seldom more 
than 0-7 inch. The sides, near the beak, are somewhat angular. The 
surface of the valves is smooth, and marked by fine, transverse lines of 
growth. 

The lower, or beaked valve, has two hinge teeth, and the upper valve, 
two corresponding grooves for their reception, from which two elongated 
appendages proceed. This structure is beautifully represented by Mr. 
Sowerby, in fig. 6. Tab. xv. 

Localities. Common in every part of the South Downs. 

77. Terebratula ovata. Min. Conch. Tab. xv. fig. 3. 
Obovate, depressed, smooth ; upper valve depressed. 

In this species the proportions are reversed ; the length exceeding the 
width. It is nearly of the same size as the former ; the beak is rather 
more produced. 

Localities. Upper, and Lower chalk, near Brighton, and Lewes. 

78. Terebratula undata. Min. Conch. Tab. xv. fig. 7. 

Obovate, both valves convex, smooth ; front margin straight, with a 
deep undulation on each side ; beak produced. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 209 

The length of this species exceeds its width. It is distinguished from 
the two former, by the straightness of the front, and the deep undulations 
on each side. The beak is produced, and its perforation large; both 
valves are equally gibbous. It sometimes attains 1-5 inch in length. 

Localities. Common in every quarry in the South Downs. 

The three species above described are easily distinguished from each 
other ; but it must be confessed, that the two following are so nearly re- 
lated to the preceding, and in a suite of specimens pass so insensibly into 
each other, that the propriety of their separation may be questioned. I 
have, however, followed the arrangement of Mr. Sowerby, to avoid a mul- 
tiplication of synonymes*. 

79. Terebratula i?itermedia. Min. Conch. Tab. xv. fie. 8. 

" Obscurely five sided, rather depressed, smooth; larger valve most 
convex ; front margin undulated ; three depressions in the smaller valve, 
and two in the larger." 

The undulations in this species are not confined to the margin, but 
extend some distance along the body of the valves ; the front is depressed. 

Localities. Upper, and Lower chalk, South Downs. 

80. Terebratula sejniglobosa. Min. Conch. Tab. xv. fig. 9. 

" Nearly circular, gibbous, smooth; larger valve deepest, and uni- 
formly gibbous ; front margin undulated, with two ridges on the lesser 
valve." 

The width of this shell nearly equals its length ; some specimens are 
very gibbous. The undulation in front, the two eminences on the upper 

* A friend who has paid some attention to the subject, has favoured me with the following 
arrangement of these sheUs. 

Terebratula undata. Min. Conch. Tab. xv. figs. 7, 8, 9. 

Spec. char. Obovate, both valves convex, smooth; margin of the front either straight or 
depressed, undulated on each side ; beak produced. 

Var. a. suhundata, (fig. 7.) Longer than wide, front straight; valves equally convex. 

Var. h. intermedia (fig. 8.) Rather depressed, longer than wide; larger valve most convex ; 
front undulated; undulations extending upon the valves. 

Var. c. semiglobosa (fig. 9.) Subglobose; length, width, and thickness nearly equal; front 
margin undulated. 

The above descriptions refer to those specimens which present the most striking differ- 
ences i it would be easy to select examples of every intermediate gradation of form. 



210 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

valve, and the width and thickness of the united valves, appear to be the 
distinguishing characters of the species. 

The shells of the terebratulas above described, are invariably changed 
into crystallized carbonate of lime ; their cavities, Hke those of the echi- 
nites, being frequently Hned with calcareous spar, or crystals of sulphuret 
of iron. Their prevailing hue is a deep cream colour, but sometimes 
shades of red, brown, and blue, are observable ; may not this in some 
measure depend on the colour of the original ? 

LocaHties. Upper, and Lower chalk. South Downs. 

81. Terebratula jo/ica^zVis. Min. Conch. Tab. cxviii. fig. 1. 

— var. b. octoplicata. Min. Conch. Tab. cxviii. 

fig. 2. 

var. c. concinna. Mm. Conch. Tab. Ixxxiii. 

fig. 6. 

Gibbous, transversely obovate, longitudinally striated: margin finely 
serrated ; front sinuate, elevated with from six to twelve acute plicae ; 
beak slightly projecting. 

The difference in the number of folds on the front, is assumed by Mr. 
Sowerby, as the specific distinction between his T. jjlicatilis, and T. octo- 
plicata; T. concinna is separated on account of its more globose form. 
The specimens in my possession vary so much in the number of plic«, and 
in the convexity of the valves ; and the characters of each are so in- 
timately blended in many examples, that I have been compelled to con- 
sider them as only varieties of the same species. 

In var. a. the length of the shell exceeds the depth of the united 
valves, and the width is one-third greater than the length; the front 
margin is elevated by a broad sinus containing twelve plicae. Var. b. 
has but eight plicse. In var. c. there are but seven plicae ; the valves are 
globose, the depth and width of the shell being nearly equal. 

The strise are rounded, and diverge with a gentle sweep from the beaks 
to the margin ; the number on each valve varying from thirty to fifty. 
The lower valve is less convex than the upper ; the beak is but slightly 
produced, and the perforation very small. The lateral margin is acutely 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 211 

serrated, and sometimes marked by several rows of plicated indentations, 
formed by the lines of growth. 

The elevated front margin, and the numerous striae with which both 
valves are covered, distinguish the present species from the other striated 
terebratulae of the chalk. 

Localities. Upper, and Lower chalk, near Brighton and Lewes. 

82. Tevehvaiuhi siibplicata. Tab. xxvi. figs. 5, 6, 11. 

Transversely ovate, gibbous, nearly smooth; lower valve depressed, 
upper valve convex ; margin serrated ; front sinuate, Vvdth three or four 
sharp plicae ; beak slightly produced. 

This is a small species, weU characterized by its smooth surface, and 
elevated plicated front. The young of T. plicatilis, (the only chalk tere- 
bratula with which it can be confounded) have both valves covered with 
minute striae. 

Like the other species of this genus, considerable variety is observable 
in the contour of the shell, in different specimens. The pUcae are from 
three to five in number, and extend a short distance on both valves. The 
beak is very small. 

Locality. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

Inoceramus. 
This genus was formed by Mr. Sowerby for the reception of the fibrous 
bivalves, whose fragments occur in such prodigious quantities, in almost 
every locality of the Upper and Lower chalk. These shells were first 
noticed by Da Costa, who describes them as being " very large hmpets, 
which, like the concholepas, resemble the single sheU of a bivalve. They 
are of two kinds, and more irregular than that shell ; and instead of being 
sulcated lengthwise, are circularly wrought, in a transverse manner, with 
very high irregular ridges, not thickly but rather thinly set. The shells 
are very thick; one sort is high and copped; the other is broad and 
flattish* " 

* Elements of Conchology, p. 142. 

E E 2 



212 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

In the third vol. of Mr. Parkinson's " Organic Remains," a fragment 
of an inoceramus is accurately represented, (PI. v. fig. 3), and is noticed 
by that author as " part of an uncommon fossil shell, resembUng a pateUa 
in some of its characters*." 

The celebrated geologists, M. M. Cuvier and Brongniart, were in- 
duced from the striated crystalline structure of the shells in question, to 
regard them as belonging to the genus Pinna; but fragments of the hinge 
having been subsequently presented to their examination, they were led 
to doubt the correctness of their former opinion f. 

For a knowledge of the structure of these curious shells, we are in- 
debted to the acumen and zeal of Miss Benett, of Norton House. From 
specimens in her cabinet, and with the assistance of others collected by 
the present writer, Mr. Sowerby has constructed the following generic de- 
finition, 

Inoceramus. 

A free, inequilateral, beaked bivalve ; hinge linear, channelled, trans- 
versely sulcated, extending on one side of the beaks only ; cartilage partly 
external ; no visible muscular impression ? 

The shells of this genus are more or less gibbous, and are commonly 
marked with transverse concentric ridges, and striae ; their constituent sub- 
stance is invariably composed of crystallized carbonate of hme, of a radiated 
or fibrous structure. 

* Organic Remains, Vol. iii. p. 5L 

t " II n'est pas sur que les gros fragmens planes, de 12 millemetres d'epaisseur, et a tex- 
ture striee qu'on trouve dans la craie, appartient a ce genre de coquille. Nous avons vu chez 
M. Defrance, des portion de charniere qui indiquent un autre genre." Geograjph. Min. des 
Enviro?is de Pai-is. p. 11. 

Perfect specimens of this fragile tribe of shells are so exceedingly rare, that even at the 
present time, the distinguished naturalists above mentioned, have not been able to obtain an 
example, in which the structure of the hinge is satisfactorily shewn. 

In a recent communication from M. Brongniart, that gentleman remarks, " Je suis ex- 
tremement embarasse pour determiner la coquille fibreuse si commune dans la craie, et dont 
vous avez represente diverses parties dans votre Planche xxvii. J'ai voulu aussi faire figurer 
cette coquille, mais n'ayant pas eu le bonheur d'en avoir des echantillons assez entiers, j'ai ete 
force de me contentir de fragments, et de donner la copie de votre figure 1, PI. xxvii." 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 213 

The hinge is a longitudinal furrow, transversely crenulated, extending 
on one side of the beaks only; its direction, as it regards the transverse 
diameter of the shell, being generally obUque. 

There are several species, and many varieties, and in some speci- 
mens the characters are so much blended as to be distinguished with 
difficulty. The shell represented in fig. 1, Tab. xxvii. is an excellent 
type of the genus, and is probably the most perfect specimen hitherto 
discovered. 

83. Inoceramus Cuvieri. Tab. xxvii. fig. 4. Tab. xxviii. figs. 1. 4, 

Convex, with large, obtuse, distant, transverse costae ; surface covered 
with numerous linear lameDaj; hinge side depressed, expanded; posterior 
side flat, nearly smooth; beaks small, reflexed; hinge oblique. 

The number of the costee varies from eight to twelve; they are large 
and rounded, and extend with a gentle sweep across the valves, being 
gradually lost in the expanded anterior side. The surface is covered with 
transverse lines, and possesses a lameUated structure, appearing as if com- 
posed of a succession of tliin plates; but the substance of the shell is per- 
fectly sohd, and consists of fibrous calcareous spar. The posterior side 
is nearly flat, and smooth; the hinge is placed obliquely. The com- 
parative width and length of this species cannot be determined, since no 
perfect specimen has been discovered. 

The adult shell attains a gigantic size; a specimen in ray possession 
must, when entire, have exceeded three feet in length, and twenty inches 
in width. Fragments of the hinge of a corresponding magnitude are not 
uncommon, some of them being more than 1-5 inch wide, and 1-2 inch 
thick. 

This species is named in honour of the illustrious Cuvier, to whose 
researches the comparative anatomist, and the geologist, are so greatly 
indebted. 

Tab. xxvii. fig. 4, fragment of the hinge, exhibiting the transverse cre- 
nulated sulci. 

Tab. xxviii. fig. 1, a specimen, the interior of which is filled with flint. 
fig. 4, represents the upper and lower valve of the same 



214 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

individual imbedded in a block of chalk : the hinge groove is placed be- 
neath the obhque line on the left side of the uppermost valve. 

Locahties. Common in the Upper chalk, near Lewes, Eastbourne, 
&c. 

84. Inoceramus Lamarckii. Tab. xxvii. fig. 1. 

Valves equal, very convex, with a few obscure, longitudinal undula- 
tions, and distant transverse ridges ; surface covered with numerous con- 
centric striae ; posterior slope subdepressed ; anterior side lobate, expanded; 
hinge nearly transverse. 

Both valves are equally convex, and gradually expand towards the 
'margin ; the greatest convexity being near the middle of the shell, which 
is suddenly contracted longitudinally, and has a lobated appearance on 
the hinge side. The beaks are incurved and inclined toward the pos- 
terior slope, which is shghtly concave. The anterior side is convex, ex- 
panded, and separated from the body of the valve by a deep furrow or de- 
pression. The hinge is nearly transverse. The whole surface is marked 
with fine transverse striae, disposed concentrically on the convex part, 
and expanding over the anterior side with an elegant sweep, terminate 
on the hinge Hne. The ridges are distant, and vary in strength and 
number, but seldom exceed six or eight on each valve. The longitudinal 
depressions mentioned by Mr. Parkinson as affording a specific distinction, 
are obscure in many instances, and altogether wanting in others. The 
specimens are from 3 to 4 inches long, and 2-5 inches wide; the greatest 
convexity of the united valves is 3-5 inches. 

Mr. Parkinson, " as a tribute of gratitude for the advantages afforded 
to science by the classification of Lamarck, has affixed his name to the 
present species*." 

Localities. Upper chalk, near Lewes, and Brighton. 

85. Inoceramus Brongniarti. Tab. xxvii. fig. 8. 

Equivalved, gibbous, transversely costated; anterior side angular, 
acute ; posterior side flat, truncated ; hinge transverse, straight. 

* Geological Transactions, Vol. y. p. 55. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 215 

This shell is very gibbous, the convexity of the united valves being 
equal to its length. The valves are regular, and gradually increase in 
width from the hinge to the front ; there are about twenty prominent 
ridges, or costae, on each, which diverge from the posterior slope over 
the convexity of the shell, and terminate with a gentle curve on the 
border of the hinge. The posterior side is flat, the anterior acute, form- 
ing an angle with the hinge ; the latter is transverse, its plane cor- 
responding with the transverse diameter of the valves. The front is 
rounded, the margin very entire; the beaks small and reflexed. 

The present species may be distinguished from the preceding by the 
number and strength of the costas; the flat, truncated, posterior slope; 
and more particularly, by the hinge side, which is not expanded as in I. 
Lamarckii. 

I have named this elegant shell in honour of my friend M. Brongniart, 
the able colleague of Baron Cuvier, author of " Geographie Miner alogique 
des Environs de Paris" &c. 

Tab. xxvii. fig. 8, an excellent specimen in which the characters of the 
species are well defined ; the beaks are broken off. This figure is reduced 
to one-half the size of the original. 

Tab. xxviii. fig. S, an imperfect example of a variety of this species. 

Localities. Upper chalk, near Lewes, and Brighton. 

86. Inoceramus mytilloides. Tab. xxviii. fig. 2. 

Depressed, elongated, with numerous concentric striae, and a few dis- 
tant ridges; posterior slope inflated, its margin plicated; anterior side de- 
pressed, expanded ; beaks acuminated ; hinge very obhque. 

The shell is most convex near the beaks, and gradually becomes flatter 
and more expanded towards the margin. The beaks are produced, and 
terminate in a sharp point, over the commencement of the hinge; the 
plane of the latter is placed at an acute angle with the longitudinal dia- 
meter of the valve. 

The striae are numerous, and form a few irregular ridges that terminate 
in folds, on the margin of the posterior slope. Fragments of this species 



216 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

are not uncommon in the Lower chalk of Sussex ; but I have not seen a 
perfect specimen. 

Tab. xxviii. fig. 2. A specimen from Plumpton. 

The shell represented in Tab. xxvii. fig. 3. has the acuminated beaks, 
and oblique liinge of the present species ; but the ribs are more pro- 
minent and numerous, and the valves more convex : it may, perhaps, here- 
after prove to be specifically distinct. 

Locahties. Plumpton, Offham, Southerham. 

87. Inoceramus latus. Tab. xxvii. fig. 1 0. 

Valves convex near the beaks, flat and expanded towards the front ; 
surface marked with distant transverse ridges, and numerous concentric 
stri^ ; posterior slope smooth, depressed ? anterior side expanded ; hinge 
obHque. 

This species equals I. Cuvieri in length and width, but is much 
depressed, and is also destitute of the prominent costae by which that 
species is distinguished ; fragments occur that are from eighteen to twenty 
inches wide, and almost flat. The posterior side is smooth, and de- 
pressed ? the anterior expanded ; when this part is broken ofl:', the valves 
assume a triangular form, as in the example figured. The hinge is very 
oblique. 

Tab. xxviii. fig. 10, exhibits the usual appearance of the specimens : 
the figure is diminished three-fourths. 

Localities. Common in the Upper chalk near Brighton, Lewes, 
OfFham, &c. 

88. Inoceramus Websteri. Tab. xxvii. fig. 2. 

Convex, smooth, with distant, irregular, transverse ridges ; beaks 
rounded, posterior slope nearly flat ; anterior side expanded, hinge very 
obhque. 

The valves are convex, the surface smooth, and the ridges placed at 
unequal distances. The greatest convexity is near the beaks, from 
whence the shell gradually becomes flatter, and expands as it approaches 
the front. The posterior slope is small, and somewhat depressed, the 
hinge side flat, and broad. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 217 

This species differs from I. Brongniarti, in the ridges being distant, and 
irregular ; and from the young of I. Lamarckii, in the greatest convexity 
being near the beaks, and not in the centre of the valves, as in that species. 
It is a small shell, seldom exceeding the size of the figure, and is named 
in commemoration of the interesting researches of Thomas Webster, Esq. 
keeper of the Museum of the Geological Society, whose unassuming 
manners, and extensive information, have obtained him the respect, and 
esteem, of all who have the pleasure of his acquaintance. 

Locality. Lower chalk, South-street : very rare. 

89. Inoceramus striatus. Tab. xxvii. fig. 5. 

Gibbous, rounded, even, with numerous transverse striae ; hinge ob- 
lique ? beaks ? 

The roundness of this shell, and its finely striated surface, readily distin- 
guish it. The specimen figured, has a ridge down the convex part of 
the valve ; but as this appearance is not constant, it is omitted in the 
specific description. A perfect example has not been discovered. 

Locality. Lower chalk, South-street : very rare. It occurs also in 
the chalk near Heytesbury, Wilts. 

90. Inoceramus undulatus. Tab. xxvii. fig. 6. 

Convex, marked with numerous, regular, transverse elevations, and de- 
pressions ; posterior slope truncated ; hinge side expanded. 

The surface being gently undulated by the round, even, alternate 
elevations, and depressions, this shell has a peculiarly neat appearance. 
The posterior slope is flat, and nearly smooth. The valves are regularly 
convex, but hoUowed or contracted on the anterior side, which is ex- 
panded. The beaks are rounded, and incurved. 

LocaUty. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

91. Inoceramus . Tab. xxvii, fig. 9. 

This shell is rather depressed near the beaks, and inflected in front ; 
it has numerous concentric ridges and striae. It is in too mutilated a 
state to admit of a more particular description. 

Locality. Lower chalk, Lewes. 

Fragments of other species of Inoceramus occur in the chalk in the 

F F 



218 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

vicinity of Lewes, but the specimens hitherto collected, are not sufficiently 
perfect to warrant their specification. 

92. Parasitical bodies in the shells of various species of Inoceramus. 
Tab. xxvii. fig. 7. 

The shells of the larger Inocerami appear to have been subject to the 
ravages of a peculiar parasitical animal, which destroyed the intermediate 
substance, leaving the outer and inner plates entire, and supported only 
by thin partitions. The specimens exhibiting these appearances, are 
fuU of small oblong cells, connected by linear perforations ; and these are 
either empty, or filled with chalk, or flint ; in the latter case, they give rise 
to a curious class of fossils, the nature of which has but very lately been 
explained. 

A specimen of this kind is represented Tab. xxvii. fig. 7 ; it is part 
of a flint, moulded in the interior of an Inoceramus, containing on its 
surface, numerous irregular oblong bodies, more or less compressed, and 
united to each other by slender lateral filaments. 

These curious bodies were first noticed by Mr. Parkinson * ; and have 
subsequently formed the subject of an interesting memoir from the pen 
of the Eev. W. Conybeare, published in the 2d vol. of the Geological 
Transactions. 

The investigations of Mr. Conybeare, have clearly elucidated the origin 
of the fossils in question, and shewn " that they are siliceous casts, formed 
in little cells, excavated in the substance of certain marine shells, the work 
of animalculge preying on those shells, and on the vermes inhabiting them. 
These casts, hke the screw-stones of Derbyshire, must have been formed by 
the infiltration of siliceous matter while in a fluid state into the cavities of the 
shells, and which have been laid open and denuded by subsequent exposure 
to some agent, capable of dissolving and removing the calcareous matter of 
the shell forming the matrix, while the siliceous cast remained unaltered f ." 

* Organic Remains, Vol. ii. pp. 75, 76. 
•f Geological Transactions, Vol. ii. p. 328. 

In a very interesting fossil in my possession (from St. Peter's mountain, near 
Maestricht,) changes of a similar nature have taken place, but with this difference, that the 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. gf 9 

Upon this subject, Professor Buekland remarks, " that the hollows 
affording a mould for the formation of these bodies, are clearly the work 
of some minute parasitical insect. The small aperture, the cast of which 
now forms the projecting axis of each globule, was probably perforated by 
this intruder, as the entrance to his future habitation. Having completed 
this passage, and excavated at its termination a cell suited to his shape 
and convenience, he appears by the aid of a dehcate augur or proboscis? 
to have drilled many minute and ahnost capillary perforations into the 
substance of the shell on every side around him ; taking care to leave 
always partitions sufficient to support the thin external plate of the shell 
which formed the roof of his apartment. Having exhausted all the 
nourishment that could be procured in this manner with safety from the 
vicinity of his first establishment, the insect appears to have emigrated, 
and after working for itself a lateral passage to a considerable dis- 
tance, to have formed a new settlement in the midst of fresh supplies. 
In a recent oyster shell in my possession, this process has been carried on 
to a great extent in the intermediate matter between two or three sets of 
the pearly plates comprising it ; and yet without effecting the destruction 

casts, and their surrounding matrix, are composed of limestone, of a subcrystalline structure. 
The specimen contains numerous casts and impressions of bivalve shells, univalves, madre- 
porites, &c.; the forms of which are defined with much sharpness, and elegance. The cavities 
left by the removal of the shells, are more or less filled with groups of globular bodies, and are 
crossed by slender filaments, evidently moulded in perforations that existed in the recent 
testaceae. 

As the constituent substance both of the shells, and casts, in the present fossil, were ori- 
ginally composed of nearly similar materials, it appears difficult to explain by what agency the 
one has been removed, while the other has remained uninjured. The following observations 
of Mr. Parkinson, will illustrate the mode by which this operation has been effected. 

" Calcareous spar, exposed to the action of water, suffers through a long period but little 
change or diminution ; while on the other hand, animal substances, such as shells, the crusta- 
ceous parts of animals, and other bodies formed of an intermixture of animal membrane 
or gelatin, with carbonate of lime, undergo a very rapid decomposition by the agency of water 
alone, as is the case with dead shells, &c. on the sea and river shores. In these instances, the 
animal membrane suffers resolution particle after particle, and layer after layer, and the car- 
bonate of hme deprived of its cement and support, gradually separates and moulders away *." 
Thus it has happened to the shells enveloped in the crystalline limestone before us ; while the 
animal substances have been decomposed by the action of simple water, the investing matrix 
has suffered no change, but perfectly retains the form and impressions of the animal bodies that 
have passed away. 

* Org. Rem. Vol. ii. p. 173. 

F F 2 



220 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

of the exterior crust, or in any degree injuring the inner surface of the 
shell, which remains untouched ; and notwithstanding these attacks, still 
equally adapted to every purpose required by the economy of its in- 
habitant*." 

Siliceous specimens of this fossil are not frequent in Sussex ; but there 
are scarcely any of the larger Inocerami that do not exhibit traces of the 
depredation of this parasite, the cells being either empty, or filled with 
chalk. 

The example figured in Tab. xxvii. was found on the beach, at 
Brighton ; the shell is entirely removed. 

93. Balanus. Tab. xxxiii. fig. 11. 

The specimen figured, is the only vestige of a multivalve shell that 
has been noticed in the chalk of Sussex. 

It is gently curved, has two sharp ridges, and not inaptly resembles 
the beak of a bird ; it is the valve of an operculum of some unknown 
species of Balanus. 

LocaUty. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

Crustacea. 

The fossil remains of those species of cancer, in which the crustaceous 
covering is hard and compact, are not unfrequent in the London clay at 
Highgate, Sheppey, &c. ; and a few have already been noticed as occurring 
in the Blue chalk marl of Sussex : but the lobster, cray-fish, and other 
species, whose structure is more delicate and fragile, are but seldom found 
in a mineralized state, and rank among the most rare and interesting 
objects in the cabinet of the oryctologist. 

About seven years since, the remains of an unknown crustaceous 
animal were discovered in the Upper chalk near Lewes ; but the mutilated 
and brittle state of the specimens defied all my attempts to ascertain their 
original form. In the hope, however, that from detached portions of the 
animal, the required information might ultimately be obtained, every 

* Oyster shells perforated in the manner here described, are frequently found on the sea- 
shore at Hastings. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 221 

fragment that could be procured was carefully examined and preserved, 
and the result has ultimately exceeded my most sanguine expectations, 
since not only the generic, but also the specific characters of the original 
have been determined. 

The remains in question are composed of a delicate friable crust, and 
when first collected are of a dark chocolate colour, inclining to black, 
but become pale, and lose much of their beauty by exposure to the air. 
The inner surface only, is seen in those specimens that are exposed by 
fracture ; it is glossy, and covered with minute circular depressions, formed 
by the bases of the spines. The external surface is armed with short 
spines, and papillee, and is invariably concealed by the chalk, until the 
latter be carefully removed by art ; a process, which from the dehcacy of 
the fossil, and the hardness of the surrounding matrix, is exceedingly 
diflScult and tedious, and can scarcely be accomplished by an inexperienced 
hand. Of the specimens in my collection, some contain the claws, 
others the thorax, and a few exhibit the abdomen, and tail. These 
detached parts having been accurately delineated, a restored outline of 
the original was formed, and by a careful comparison of the latter with 
the recent Crustacea, the genus and species of the original have been 
ascertained. 

94. Astacus Leachii. Tab. xxix. figs. 1, 4, 5. Tab. xxx. figs. 1, 2. Tab. 
xxxi. 

Gen. Char. Antennas pedunculated, unequal ; the exterior ones long 
and setaceous; inner pair divided at the extremity; body elongated; legs 
commonly ten ; tail foliaceous. 

Spec. Char. Thorax scabrous, convex, sixlobed, marginate; head semi- 
circular in front; hands chelate, muricated, twice the length of the 
thorax ; pincers very long, armed with obtuse spines. 

The thorax is longitudinally oblong, convex, covered with small 
tubercles and papilla; it is divided into six lobes by a rounded dorsal 
ridge, and two lateral sulci; the margin is entire. 

The form of the head of this species is unknown ; it appears to have 
been semicircular or rounded in front, and is not distinct from the thorax. 



322 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

The external antennae are long, filiform, and setaceous, and are placed on 
squamous peduncles ; the inner pair have not been discovered. The two 
chelate hand-claws are equal, and have their surface muricated, or beset 
with short erect spines. The pincers are very long, not muricated, but 
marked with three or four longitudinal, punctated furrows ; each finger is 
armed with a row of obtuse, cylindi'ical spines, which are mutually re- 
ceived and inserted, when the claws are shut. The claws, including the 
pincers, are equal to twice the length of the thorax. 

There are five legs on each side ; the anterior pair is didactyle ; the 
others appear to terminate in swimmers or paddles, but this circumstance 
cannot be accurately determined. The abdomen is composed of six 
granulated arcuate segments. The tail is fohaceous, marginate, granu- 
lated, and has a few longitudinal ridges ; but the only known specimen 
(Tab. XXX. fig. 1.) does not exhibit the entire form. 

This species appears to be distinguished from the recent animals of 
the genus, by the dorsal ridge and lateral sulci of the thorax ; the great 
length and straightness of the pincers; and the peculiar form of their 
spinous processes. 

In naming this fossil in honour of Wm. Elford Leach, M.D. of the 
British Museum, I am desirous of testifying the high respect which I en- 
tertain for his talents as a naturalist, and particularly for his excellent 
systematical arrangement of the crustaceous animals. 

Tab. xxix. figs. 1, 4, 5. The chelate claws of A. Leachii. 

fig. 4. is the largest example hitherto discovered. 

fig. 1. A fragment of the pincers of the preceding specimens. 

fig. 5. A block of chalk, containing part of a claw, leg, 

and several detached spines; fragments of a fish are 
attached to the upper part of this specimen. 
Tab. XXX. fig. 2; two chelate hand-claws, attached to the chalk in which 
they were imbedded. 

Tab. xxxi. fig. 1 : on the left of this specimen, part of the thorax is 
attached; and on the right, a hand-claw deprived of 
one of its pincers. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 223 

Tab. xxxi. fig. 2. Cast of the thorax; the head broken off. 

fig. 3. The thorax flattened by compression. 

—fig- 4. Eepresents the most perfect specimen in my col- 
lection. 

a. The head. 

h. The thorax. 

c. One of the long setaceous antennae. 

d. The squamous peduncle of the same. 

e. One of the anterior legs, with its didactylous 

termination, 
/. The hand-claws, and pincers. 
Tab. xxxiv. fig. 9. Part of a claw flattened by compression. 
Localities. Upper chalk, near Lewes, and Houghton *. 

95. Astacus . Tab. xxx. fig. S. 

This specimen is evidently the chelate hand-claw of a species of 
Astacus, distinct from the preceding. The surface both of the claws and 
pincers is spinous, the latter are slightly curved, and armed with a row of 
obtuse tubercles. 

Locality. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

96. Cancer. Tab. xxix. fig. 3. 

This figure represents the chelate hand-claw of a species of Cancer, 
having a minutely granulated surface. The pincers are curved, and 
finely serrated on the inner edge. 

Locality. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

97. Cancer. Tab. xxix. fig. 2. 

The cast of the thorax, of a species of Cancer, is represented in the 
figure referred to. It is of an obcordate form, much depressed, the 
margin impressed with four or five indentations, and the front cleft in the 
middle. 



* A specimen, containing the chelate hand-claws, and the extremities of two legs, has lately 
been discovered in the chalk near Houghton, in Western Sussex, by Mr. Frederic Sargent, of 
Wool Lavington : to the kindness of John Drewett, Esq. of Peppering, I am indebted for an 
excellent lithographic drawing of this interesting fossil. 



224 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

Locality. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

98. Leg of an unknown crustaceous animal. Tab. xxxiv. fig. 4. 

This fossil is part of the leg of some crustaceous animal, but whether 
belonging to either of the genera above-mentioned cannot be ascertained ; 
it is nearly black, and its surface highly poUshed. 

Locahty. OfFham chalk-pit, near Lewes. 

ICHTHYOLITES, OR THE FOSSIL llEMAINS OF FISHES. 

The remains of fishes are of far less frequent occurrence in a fossil 
state, than those of many other tribes of animals ; nor will tliis circum- 
stance appear extraordinary, when it is considered that the softness of 
their structure renders them hable to undergo putrefaction with great 
rapidity, and that such as die a natural death, rise to the surface of the 
water, and immediately become the prey of a mrdtitude of assailants. A 
concurrence of circumstances, by which the destruction and envelopement 
of these animals m aybe instantaneously effected, seems therefore necessary 
to the preservation of their remains in the mineral kingdom. Hence 
some naturalists have asserted, that wherever petrified fishes occur in 
considerable numbers, it may be inferred that they perished by some 
sudden catastrophe which destroyed and overwhelmed them in shoals, in 
the very spots where they are now found entombed*. 

The Rev. Graydon f, in an interesting memoir on the fossil fish 

of Monte Bolca, endeavours to account for the phenomena they exhibit, 
by a very ingenious theory, that appears to be in perfect accordance with 
the facts already known on this subject. He supposes that the fishes 
were destroyed by submarine volcanic eruptions, by which immense 
masses of calcareous stone were ejected in a calcined state ; and which in- 
volving the animals, &c. within its reach, subsequently became consolidated, 
and now forms the cream-coloured matrix of these celebrated fossils. 

The minerahzed remains of fishes occur in various parts of England ; 

* Rees' Cyclopce<Ua, Art. Ichthyolites. Diet. D'llist. Nat. Tome viii. p. 550. Martin's Syst. 
Arrangement, p. 29. 

f Irish Transactions, Vol. v. p. 310. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 225 

but no where more abundantly than in the chalk of the South Downs, 
in the immediate vicinity of Lewes. 

The specimens are generally imperfect and distorted, and afford but 
slight indications of the form of the original; but few examples having 
been found, in which the number and situation of the fins, and other 
parts essential to the determination of the genus, or species, are distinctly 
exhibited. Yet, in many instances, their general characters are suf- 
ficiently defined, to prove their entire want of correspondence with any 
known existing species. 

The teeth and palates are remarkably beautiful, their original substance 
being heightened by an impregnation with iron, and their natural polish 
and sharpness remaining uninjured. The vertebrae and other bones are 
of a reddish brown colour, and very friable. 

The fins and scales possess a glossy surface, are exceedingly brittle, 
and both in colour, and in the mode of their preservation, perfectly re- 
semble the ichthyolites of Monte Bolca. 

Of the cartilaginous fishes, the teeth of several species of Squalus or 
shark, are most frequent; the vertebra are also occasionally met with, but 
no decided examples of any other part of these animals have hitherto been 
discovered. 

99. Vertebrae of an unknown species of Squalus. Tab. xxxiii. fig. 10. 

The specimen here represented exhibits two vertebrae, and the section 
of a third, imbedded in chalk, and is part of a large mass containing 
eleven others. The vertebree are concave both anteriorly, and posteriorly; 
but no traces of the spinous, or transverse processes remain. They re- 
semble those of the recent Squalus ?naximus; and correspond both in size, 
form, and colour, with the fossil vertebrae, figured in the Oryctographie de 
Bruxelles, PI. ii. B. G. and PI. iii. B. 

The latter are 38 in number, and articulated to each other, forming a 
column more than five feet long; they are thus described by Blainville*: 
" Dans le milieu de la pierre a chaux d'une carriere des environs de 

* Nouveau Did, d'Histoire Nat. Vol. xxviii. Art. Ichthyolites. 

G G 



226 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

Moelsbrock, a 6te trouvee, fossile, une serie de vertebres jointes ert^ 
semble, au nombre de S8, et formant un tout de cinq pieds, qui ne diminue 
dans cette longueur que de trois lignes ou plus. II n'y a aucune trace 
d'apophyses. M. Burtin regarde cet ichthyolite comme provenant d'un 
serpent de mer; et par-la il est probable qu'il entend parler du congi'e; 
mais il se pourroit plutot qu'il provint d'une grande esp^ce de squale, 
qu'il est a peu pres impossible de specifier." 
Locality. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

100. Teeth of Squalus cornubicus. Tab. xxxii. fig. 1. 

The teeth of sharks are so numerously distributed throughout almost 
every deposit of the secondary formations, that there is scarcely an 
oryctological writer, who has not made mention of them. They are the 
glossopetra, ornithoglossa, &c. of the earlier authors, and have been de- 
scribed by Woodward, Lhwyd, Knorr, Scilla, &c. 

The present species has sharp entire edges, and two sharp pointed 
lateral processes. The specimens are generally straight, slender, taper- 
ing, and sometimes slightly curved ; the cartilaginous base is deeply arched, 
and has an obtuse tubercle on the centre of the outer surface. The dif- 
ference observable in their forms, is probably owing either to the age of the 
individual, or to the situation the teeth respectively occupied in the jaw 
of the recent animal ; the anterior being longer, and more slender, than 
the posterior ones. 

Localities. Upper chalk near Lewes, Brighton, Steyning, &c. 

101. Teeth of the Squalus jnustelus*. Tab. xxxii. figs. % 3, 5, 6, 9, 11. 
These teeth are triangular, nearly straight, and flat, with entire cutting 

edges; and furnished with two small acuminated lateral processes. The 
base of the tooth is nearly straight, and the cartilage but slightly arched. 

The specimens figured are from the Upper and Lower chalk ; in fig. 1 1 
the lateral processes are destroyed. 

* A spfecimen of the recent animal, about six feet long, was caught a few years since off 
Newhaven ; the head came into my possession, and enabled me to compare the fossil with the 
recent teeth ; the correspondence between them was most complete, and left no doubt of their 
having belonged to the same species of Squal.us. 



. UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. ^7' 

Localities. Lewes, Brighton, Steyning. 

102. Teeth of the Squalus zygcenaf Tab. xxxii. figs. 4,7, 8, 10, 26, 28. 

These are either straight or sHghtly curved triangular teeth, with en- 
tire cutting edges, but destitute of lateral processes. It has been sug- 
gested that the latter may have been removed by accident, but this sup- 
position does not appear tenable, since in those examples where the 
cartilaginous base is perfect, no vestiges of lateral points can be de- 
tected. 

They bear a close analogy to Mr. Parkinson's figure of a fossil tooth of 
Sq. zyg<Bna; but their supposed identity, with those of the recent species, 
must be received with some hesitation. 

LocaUties. Upper, and Lower chalk, near Lewes, and Brighton. 

103. Teeth of the Squalus galeus? Tab. xxxii. figs. 12, 14, 15, 16. 
The width of these fossils frequently exceeds their length ; the body 

is inclined to one side, the edges are finely serrated, and the cartilaginous 
base nearly straight. 

The form of this species varies considerably, but the characters enu- 
merated, readily distinguish it from those above described. 

I am vmacquainted with the teeth of the recent animal, and have re- 
ferred these fossils to the Sq. zyg<Bna, upon the authority of Mr. Parkin- 
son, whose figure represents a specimen from the Kentish chalk, that 
perfectly corresponds with those of Sussex. 

Localities. Lower chalk, near Lewes, and Brighton. 

104. Teeth of an unknown species of Squalus. Tab. xxxii. fig. 13. 
Tab. xxxiii. fig. 9. 

These teeth are of a lanceolate form, with serrated edges ; they differ 
very essentially from the preceding, and probably belong to an unknown 
species of shark. 

Locality. Upper chalk, near Lewes; very rare. 

105. Tooth of a fish of the genus Squalus ? Tab. xxxii. fig. 22. 

This elegant little fossil resembles fig. 1276 of Lhwyd, and fig. Ill of 
Brander, and is supposed to be analogous to the teeth of the recent dog- 
fish of Scilla. Mr. Parkinson mentions that a species of Squalus from 

G G 2 



228 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

Messina, described by Spallanzani, (and which appears to agree in its 
characters, with the fish figured by Scilla, Tav, xxvii.) has also teeth of 
a similar structure. It may however be questioned, if the present spe- 
cimen belongs to the same kind of animal ; or whether it may not be the 
fin-bone of a fish allied to the Balistes. It consists of six sharp points or 
spines, anchylosed at the base, and attached to a narrow, bony or car- 
tilaginous process. 

The example figured, is probably the only fossil of the kind hitherto 
discovered in the chalk formation. Scilla's specimens were found in the 
Umestone of Malta, which is situated above the chalk; and those of the 
Enghsh authors above referred to, were collected from different localities 
of the London clay. 

Locality. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

106. Tooth of ? Tab. xxxiii. fig. 7. 

The fossil here represented is of a very singular character. It is of a 
lanceolate shape, of a dark brown colour inchning to black, and its surface 
is marked with numerous irregular fissures fiUed with chalk; this ap- 
pearance is constantly observable in every specimen. The edges are 
acute, and entire. 

I am unacquainted with any teeth, either in a fossil or recent state, 
that possess a similar structure. 

Locality. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

The remains we are next to examine, bear considerable analogy to the 
corresponding parts of certain species of Balistes, or file-fish : to illustrate 
the subject, we shall therefore insert a brief description of the recent 
animals. 

BALISTES. 

The fishes of this curious genus, have the head compressed, and close 
to the body, appearing as if it were a continuation of the trunk. The 
mouth is narrow, the teeth in each jaw are eight in number, of which the 
two anterior ones are the longest ; there are also three interior ones on 
each side, opposite the intervals between the external row. The aperture 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 229 

of the gills is narrow, destitute of opercula, and placed above the 
pectoral fins ; the branchiostegous membrane has two rays. The body 
is compressed, and carinated on each side; the scales are coriaceous, joined 
together, and rough, with sharp minute prickles. They have two dorsal 
Jins, of which the anterior one is armed with a strong spinous ray, concealed 
in a deep groove in the back, and can he erected or depressed by the animal, 
at pleasure *. Some species, as the B. monoceros (Unicorn file-fish), are 
furnished with a spine between the eyes. 

107. Spine of a species oi Balistes. Tab. xxxiii. figs. 5, 6. 

The specimen delineated in fig. 5, is evidently the defence of a fish, 
and so strikingly resembles the spine fixed between the eyes of certain 
species of Balistes, that there can be no hesitation in considering it as 
belonging to a fish of that genus. It is of a dark chocolate colour, and 
possesses a fine polish ; several vertebrae are imbedded in the chalk near 
its base. 

Fig. 6, is nearly allied to the preceding, but in all probabiUty is re- 
ferable to a different species of the same genus. 

Locality. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

108. Dorsal fin, or radius, of a fish allied to the Balistes. Tab. xxxix. 
This magnificent specimen, is one of the most interesting productions 

of the Upper chalk. It was unfortunately broken by the quarry-men, and 
the intermediate portion destroyed: the dotted outline will, however, 
assist in conveying an idea of its original form. 

It consists of thirteen narrow parallel rays, divided by fine sulci, that 
gradually diminish in size as they approach the apex, which is broken off! 
The rays are anchylosed, or united to each other, the grooves or furrows 
penetrating but a short distance in the substance of the fin. The upper 
edge is serrated, having fifteen obtuse projections, with corresponding 

* "lis ont deux nageoires aorsales, dont la premiere presente toujours un rayon tres fort, 
et souvent garni d'epines, qui, couche dans tine fossette creusee dans le dos, pent se relever a 
la volonte de ranimal, avec autant de vivacite que la corde d'une arbaletre qui se detend, ce qui 
ne permet pas aux poissons voraces de les saisir, ou leur blesse gravement le palais lorsqu' ils 
les ont saisis." Nouveau Diet. d'Hist. Nat. Tom. ii. p. 515. 



230 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK." 

depressions. The inferior margin is entire, and near the base of the fin, 
is furnished with numerous slender processes, or cirri, that occupy a space 
of three inches in length, and an inch and a half in breadth ; these are 
probably the remains of the tendinous expansion of the muscles, by which 
the fin was erected, and depressed. 

The external surface is in a great measure destroyed, but where 
portions of it remain, exhibits a granulated structure, Hke seal-skin. 
This appearance is distinctly seen near the two first teeth, and towards 
the smaller extremity. The fin is soHd, and is composed of a brown 
brittle substance, resembhng the constituent matter of the vertebrae of 
cartilaginous fishes found in the chalk. 

It is 10-5 inches long ; 3-5 wide at the base ; and about half an inch 
thick. 

In " Townsend's Character of Moses," a dorsal fin bearing a general 
resemblance to the present fossil is figured, PI. xviii. figs. 1, 2, 3. 
Similar specimens occur also in the Blue Lias of Dorsetshire. These fins 
consist of parallel rays, and are armed on the upper margin with sharp 
spines, placed in sockets, like the teeth in the proboscis of the Pristis. 
It must however be remarked, that in the specimen under consideration, 
the tooth-like processes are prolongations of the substance of the fin, and 
not distinct processes ; a structure that separates it from any fossils pre- 
viously discovered. It differs also from the dorsal fins of the EaHstes in 
its form, in the greater number of rays, and in the latter being anchy- 
losed ; while in the recent species the rays are but few, and placed at 
some distance from each other, being united by a membrane. It is there- 
fore obvious that the fossil in question belonged to a fish, of which the 
recent prototype is either extinct, or unknown. 

Locahty. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

109. Dorsal fin of a fish allied to the genus Balistes. Tab. xl. fig. 3. 

This fin is less perfect than the preceding, and differs from it in the 
tooth-hke projections being larger, and more distant ; those of No. 107 
being twice as numerous. There can, however, be no doubt that it 
belonged to a different species of the same genus. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. ^31- 

Locality. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

1 10. Part of a dorsal fin. Tab. xxxiv. fig. 8. 

This fragment consists of five parallel rays ; it difiers from those 
above mentioned, in its surface being marked with obhque finely serrated 
sutures * ; the interior is hoUow, and fiUed with chalk. 

LocaUty. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

Two other dorsal fins, apparently belonging to different species of the 
same tribe of fishes, have very recently been discovered. One of them is 
from the grey marl ; it is composed of twelve or thirteen rays, the upper 
ones being distinct, and the lower ones anchylosed ; it is ten inches long, 
and 1 -5 inch wide at the base : both margins are entire, but it is probable 
that the uppermost ray may be wanting. 

The other fin is imperfect; the rays are very slender, nearly cylindrical, 
and quite distinct from each other. 

111. Teeth of fishes allied to the genus Diodon. Tab. xxxii. figs. 18, 
19, 20, 23, 24, 25, 29. 

These teeth are more or less of a quadrangular shape, having the 
outer surface convex, and composed of an exceedingly hard enamel, which 
in the centre is formed into sharp and slightly curved ridges ; these are 
surrounded by a border of obtuse papillae. The specimens before us 
exactly resemble the teeth of the Diodon histrix, which has one tooth of 
this kind affixed to the os hyoides, and another to the palate or roof of the 
mouth. But the fossil teeth are sometimes found in considerable numbers, 
and of various sizes, forming a tesselated surface of several square inches ; 
and so regularly disposed, the smaller palates being adapted to the in- 
tervals between the larger ones, that no doubt can exist of this having 
been the mode in which they were placed in the original. Hence, instead 
of each specimen being a distinct palate, hke the corresponding teeth of 
the Diodon, they appear to have constituted the covering of the entire 
roof and base of the mouth f. 

* I am informed by Mr. Konig, that a similar structure is perceptible in the fin figured by 
Townsend, whicli is now in the British Museum. 

-f- These teeth are termed by Mr. Miller, dentes tritores : " they differ from the molares, in 



232 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

The specimens figured are of various forms, but do not appear to be 
specifically distinct. 

Tab. xxxii. fig. 29, diflPers from the preceding, in having a greater 
degree of convexity, in its ridges being transverse, more numerous and 
delicate, and the depressions less deep : it is, perhaps, referable to a 
different species. 

The conical teeth. Tab, xxxii. figs. 17, 21, 27, although not exactly 
corresponding with either of those above described, may yet, in all 
probabihty, be regarded as belonging to a fish of the same genus. 

Localities. Upper, and Lower chalk, in every quarry on the South 
Downs*. 

Apodes. 

The fishes of this order approach very nearly to the Amphibia nantes 
of Linne, and some of them resemble the serpent tribe. They are long 
and slender, having a smooth skin, which is generally naked or covered 
with small soft scales. Two species of fishes allied to the genus Murcena, 
are the only animals of this order that occur in a fossil state in Sussex. 

112. Muraena? Lewesiensis. Tab. xxxix. fig. 11. Tab. xl. fig. 2. 
A long cylindrical fish, of which neither the fins nor extremities have been 
discovered, is one of the most frequent, but most imperfect of the Sussex 
ichthyolites. The specimens are of a subcyhndrical form, rather flattened 
by compression, from six inches to two feet in length, and about one inch 
wide. They occur abundantly in the Upper chalk, and occasionally in 
the siliceous nodules. They are, for the most part, perfectly straight; 
but some specimens are undulated, as if the fish had been suddenly 
enveloped in the chalk, while in a state of motion. The surface is covered 
with small, delicate, smooth scales, confusedly mixed together; not one 

not being affixed to the jaws." He supposes them " to have been attached to the palate bones, 
OS hyoides, &c. of fish of the genera Diodon, and Batistes. It was their office to crush the food, 
fishes generally having teeth of detention in their maxillas." 

* About two years since, a block of chalk, containing upwards of a hundred of these 
bodies, was discovered by the workmen in OfFham pit ; it was sold to a sti'anger, or its repre- 
sentation would have formed a splendid embellishment to the present volume. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 233 

instance having been noticed, in which they are disposed with any degree 
of regularity. 

Tab. xl. fig. 2, represents the usual appearance of these fossils ; and 
Tab, xxxix. fig. 11, the only example that retains the slightest indication 
of a fin. In another solitary specimen, one extremity terminates in an ob- 
tuse projection, hke an obscure outline of the head; it is however, too im- 
perfect to warrant any speculation on the form of the original. 

Until more illustrative specimens shall be discovered, our conjectures 
concerning the recent animal must be vague, and unsatisfactory. That 
the remains in question are referable to a fish of the order Apodes, cannot 
however be questioned, and they certainly appear to be more intimately 
related to the genus Murana, than to any other with which we are ac- 
quainted. 

In the quarries at OfFham, the remains of a narrow, compressed, 
cylindrical body, evidently related to the preceding, are occasionally met 
with. They are more or less contorted, possess a glossy surface, and are 
of a light greenish colour ; the imperfect state of the specimens prevents a 
more particular notice. 

Localities. Upper, and Lower chalk, near Lewes, and Brighton. 

Thoracic:. 

In the fishes of this order, the ventral fins are placed on the trunk, or 
nearly under the pectoral fins. 

It is with some hesitation, that I refer to this division a thin com- 
pressed fish, whose remains are frequently met with in the Upper chalk 
near Lewes. This ichthyohteis related to the genera Stromateus, Chceto- 
don, and Zeus; but in its general form, more closely resembles the recent 
individuals of the latter. 

The fishes of the genus Zeus have the head compressed, and sloping, 
the upper Hp arched, the tongue subulated, the body compressed, thin, 
and shining ; and the rays of the first dorsal fin ending in filaments ; in 

H H 



234 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

every essential particular of this description, the fossils alluded to, will be 
found to correspond. 

113. Zeus Lewesiensis. Tab. xxxv. figs. 1,2. Tab. xxxvi. 
. This species is from six to eight inches long ; and its width is nearly 
equal to the length of the body, exclusive of the head. It is covered with 
large, ovate, striated scales; the back and abdomen are ridged, and gently 
arched; and the body is thin, and compressed. The head is somewhat 
obtuse, and large in proportion to the body; the orbits project, and are 
placed high in the head. The lower jaw is straight, the vipper one 
slightly arched; and both are destitute of teeth. The opercula hrancliialia 
are large, and there are six branchiostegous rays. The dorsal and anal 
fins are placed opposite to each other, and extend over two-thirds of the 
posterior part of the body, but do not unite with the tail ; the rays of the 
dorsal fin appear to pass into long filaments, as in the recent Dory. The 
pectoral fins have not been observed. The caudal fin, or tail, is rounded, 
and composed of numerous strong rays. The vertebrge are about twenty 
in number : in most instances the ribs still remain attached. 

The above description is taken from upwards of twenty specimens, not 
one of which is sufficiently entire, to indicate the structure of the original, 
without the assistance of other examples. Those figured, are the most 
perfect in my possession, and will serve to illustrate the general appear- 
ance of this species. It seemed unnecessary to dehneate detached parts. 

Tab. xxxv. fig. 1. A portion of the body, exposing several vertebra?, 
with the ribs attached. 

Tab. xxxv. fig. 2, and Tab. xxxvi. are corresponding parts of the same 
specimen. In fig. 2, the drawing is inverted, the fish being represented 
with the abdomen uppermost. It exhibits the anal fin, the termination of 
the lower jaw, and numerous remains of the bones of the head. 

In Tab. xxxvi. the same parts are more distinctly shewn; and also the 
elongated rays of the dorsal fin, with part of the tail, &c. 

Localities. Upper chalk, near Lewes, and Brighton. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 235 

Abdominales. 

The abdominal fishes are more frequent in the mineral kingdom, than 
those of any other order ; they are distinguished by the ventral fins being 
placed behind the pectoral, or upon the abdomen. The remains of three 
species, belonging to as many genera, have been discovered in the Sussex 
chalk, all of which appear to differ from any previously noticed, either in a 
recent, or fossil state. 

The first that claims our attention, is nearly related to the genera Salmo 
and Clupea, but does not entirely conform to the characters of either ; it 
may however be convenient to affix some name as a temporary distinction, 
and for reasons hereafter mentioned, the following has been selected. 

114, Salmo Lewesiensis. Tab. xxxiii. fig. 12. Tab, xl. fig. 1. 

The body of this ichthyoHte is of an elongated oval form, and covered 
with smooth, delicate, semicircular scales. The trunk is subcyUndrical, 
the back shghtly ridged, and the abdomen rounded. The head, so far as 
can be ascertained from the specimens in my collection, appears to have 
been of an obtuse form. The eyes are placed high on the head; the mouth 
and jaws resemble those of the Salmo odoe, but no vestiges of teeth are 
perceptible; the hps are rounded as in the Perch (Percajluviatilis.) The 
opercula branchialia consist of three or four plates, and in one example ten 
or eleven of the branchiostegous rays remain. The pectoral fins lie close 
to the gill-covers, and are composed of seven or more rays. The ventral 
fins are attached to the abdomen, and each has six or seven rays. The 
dorsal and caudal fins are unknown ; but the small adipose fin or process, 
so constantly observable between the dorsal fin and tail, in the recent 
fishes of the salmon tribe, is distinctly shewn in one specimen. 

The ventral fins being situated behind the pectoral, places this fossil 
fish in the order abdominales ; while the relative situation of these parts, 
the adipose dorsal appendage, the structure of the opercula, and the 
rounded form of the abdomen, prove its affinity to the salmo. The ab- 
sence of teeth, and the obtuse form of the head, appear to distinguish it 
from the recent species. 

Tab, xl. fig, ] . The body of S, Lewesiensis attached to a block of chalk ; 

H H 2 



236 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

it contains some traces of the tail; but no vestige of the other fins 
remains. 

Tab. xxxiii. fig. 12, represents the head of this ichthyohte; it exposes 
ihejaws, part of the gills, temporal bones, &c. , 

The specimens here figured, present but little information concerning 
the structure of the original; and it is but very lately, that the discovery 
of a most interesting example, has enabled me to determine its characters 
with precision. In the fossil alluded to, the back of the animal is im- 
bedded in the chalk, but the abdomen, head, &c. are distinctly exposed. 
This fish lies three inches in relief, is nine inches long, 2-5 inches wide 
between the pectoral fins, and one inch between the ventral; the latter 
being placed three inches below the former. The relative situation of 
these parts may probably have been altered by compression, but the spe- 
cimen is so httle distorted, that the difference produced by this cause 
cannot be material. The head is considerably mutilated ; it exhibits por- 
tions of the jaws, temporal bones, the plates of the opercula, and ten or 
eleven branchiostegous rays on each side ; the latter are spread ovit from 
beneath the opercula, and meet under the lower jaw. Both the pectoral 
fins are preserved; the right one remains in its natural situation; thfe 
other is displaced, and partly covered by the gills; each is composed 
of seven or eight rays. The ventral fins consist of six or seven rays, and 
are partially separated from the body of the fish. The number, form, 
and situation of the dorsal fins, cannot be ascertained without removing a 
considerable portion of the chalk, and incurring the risk of injuring the 
specimen. The tail is altogether wanting. 

This magnificent fossil fish, (probably one of the most interesting 
Great Britain has produced, was discovered too late for representation in 
the present volume. 

Locality. Lower chalk, near Lewes. 

115. Detached scales of fishes. Tab. xxxiv. figs. 1, 2, 3. 5, 6. 

With the exception of fig. 6, which evidently belongs to the Salmo 
Lewesiensis, the scales here delineated, cannot with certainty be referred to, 
any known species. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 237 

Figs. 1, and 3, are said by Mr. Konig, to resemble those of the Jew 
fish. Scales of this kind are figured by Knorr, in his Monumens des Ca- 
tastrophes, but I have no opportunity of referring to that celebrated work. 

Fig. 2, a scale with its process of attachment. 

Fig. 5, lozenge-shaped scales, their recent analogue unknown. 

Localities. Upper, and Lower chalk, near Lewes. 

116. Esox Lewesiensis. Tab, xli. figs. 1, 2. Tab, xxv. fig. 13. Tab. 
xxxiii. figs. 2, 3, 4. 

The specimen represented in Tab. xH. fig. l, is one of the most re- 
markable fossils of the Sussex chalk. It is evidently the lower jaw of a 
fish, whose recent prototype is unknown. The dentature of the maxilla in 
certain species of Esox or Pike, is very analogous, and in all probabihty, the 
interesting relic before us, will hereafter be found to belong to an extinct 
or unknown species of that genus. The engraving conveys so accurate an 
idea of the original, that a brief description will suffice. 

The jaw is nearly perfect, and is attached to the chalk by the left side, 
the opposite portion lying in alto relievo. Notwithstanding the brittle 
nature of the specimen, the chalk has been removed from the interior, and 
the dentature on both sides is completely exposed*. The maxilla, in- 
cluding the articulating process, is nearly six inches long, but the den- 
tated part does not exceed 3-5 inches. It is about one inch wide at the 
posterior part, and gradually contracts towards the front, which is only 0-5 
inch wide. 

There are twelve teeth remaining, viz. seven on the left side, and 
five on the right ; these are not fixed in sockets, but united to the jaw 
by anchylosis. They have a glossy surface, and are exceedingly brittle ; 
differing most essentially in this respect from those of the shark, and other 
fishes previously noticed. The two anterior teeth are nearly an inch in 
length, and possess a very peculiar form ; they are broad at the base, and 
suddenly contracting, terminate in a point ; they are convex behind, and 

* To the young collector it may not be unimportant to learn, that in clearing specimens 
of this kind, it is necessary to leave small brackets of chalk to support the teeth ; without this 
precaution, the brittle nature of the latter is an insurmountable obstacle to their preservation. 



238 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

rather channelled in front (vide fig. 2, Tab. xh.). The teeth on the left 
side (the uppermost row in the figure,) ai-e of various sizes, the two pos- 
terior ones being very short ; they are not attached to the edge of the jaw, 
but to a longitudinal depression on its inner surface. The teeth on the 
right side are very irregularly disposed, and appear to have suffered some 
degree of displacement; four of them, including the anterior tooth, are 
affixed to the margin of the jaw, but the penultimate one is placed nearly 
0-3 inch within the outer edge*. 

Tab. xh. fig. 1, the lower jaw above described. 

fig. 2. Front view of the anterior teeth of the same. 



Tab. XXV. fig. IS. Lower jaw oi I^sox Lewesiensis in a young state. 

Tab. xxxiii. figs. 2, 3, 4. Detached teeth of the same. 

Localities. Upper, and Lower chalk, near Lewes. 

The ichthyolite we have next to describe, is in all probability abdo- 
minal, but the situation of the fins is so imperfectly shewn, that even tliis 
point cannot be positively ascertained. The determination of its generic 
characters is involved in stiU greater obscurity, since there does not appear 
to be any recent genus to which it can be correctly appropriated. It 
bears some affinity to the Antherina, Mugil, and Polymnemus, but possesses 
characters obviously distinct from either of those genera. In the elon- 
gated form of the body, the number and situation of the fins, and in the 
dentature of the jaws, it resembles an ich thy ohte figured by Cuvierf ; and 
which is considered by that illustrious naturalist, as approaching to the 
Amia calva\ of Linne. 

Both the fossils in question differ however from each other, and from 
the recent species, in many important particulars; and although it is 
probable they wiU hereafter be found to be but very remotely related, yet 
in the present infancy of oryctological science, it may be excusable to 

* Whether this is the result of accident or of original conformation, cannot perhaps be 
determined. It is not however improbable, that the original may have been provided with 
two sets of teeth in each maxilla, the outer row being attached to the margin of the jaw, and 
the inner set, to a depression on the inner surface ; the teeth of the latter, being placed opposite 
to the intervals left between those of the former. 

■\ Fossiles de Paris; lieptiles et Poissons, fig. 13. 

% The Amia calva is a fresh water fish, inhabiting the rivers of Carolina. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 239 

retain thera under the same genus, until their characters shall be accu- 
rately determined, by the discovery of more illustrative specimens. 

117. Amia? Lewesiensis. Tab. xxxvii. xxxviii. 

The length of this ichthyolite generally exceeds eighteen inches, the 
head being equal to one-third of the whole; the width is about 4-5 inches. 
The body is of an elongated form, sHghtly compressed, scaly, and reti- 
culated. 

The scales are of a rhomboidal shape, and beset with numerous, small, 
adpressed spines, producing a scabrous reticulated appearance, not unlike 
the surface of some kinds of BaUstes. The head is angulated ; the orbits 
large; the opercula smooth, and rounded; the jaws dentated, and nearly 
straight. The teeth in the upper maxilla are conical, pointed, and rather 
fiat; there are about forty on each side, of which the eight or nine anterior 
ones, are the largest. Those of the lower jaw are exceedingly smaU, and 
very numerous. The dorsal fins are two in number; the anterior one 
{a. Tab. xxxvii.) is placed in a sulcus, or groove, in the back, and appears 
to have been capable of erection or depression ; it consists of eight strong 
rays, the two first being garnished mth spines. The posterior dorsal fin 
{b. Tab. xxxvii.) is remote from the other, and composed of numerous 
dehcate rays. The pectoral fins are placed on the thorax, near the lower 
margin of the opercula. The ventral fins (c. Tab. xxxvii.) are attached 
to the abdomen, opposite to the anterior dorsal fin. The anal fin is un- 
known. The tail appears to have been rounded, but no perfect specimen 
of this part has been obtained. The tongue is occasionally preserved, 
(vide Tab. xxix. fig. 6. Tab. xxxiv. fig. 7.) It is of a triangular form, 
and its surface is covered with numerous papillae. The air bladder is of 
an elongated oval shape, and hes in the abdomen, immediately beneath 
the spine*. 

From the preceding description, which comprehends all that is at 
present known concerning this curious ichthyolite, the original appears to 

* It may seem scarcely credible, that a part of such delicate structure, should be preserved 
in a mineralized state, yet the fact is unquestionable ; I have three specimens in my collection, 
in which it is clearly shewn. 



240 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

have borne some resemblance to the Miigil ; but its dentated maxillae, not 
to mention other obvious differences, distinguish it from the recent in- 
dividuals of that genus. 

The structure and situation of the anterior dorsal fin, and the re- 
ticulated scabrous surface of the body, is similar to what is observed in 
some species o£ JBalistes; but the fossil before us, does not present the 
slightest analogy in any other respect, to that tribe of fishes. 

The specimen figured by Cuvier, and described by BlainviUe, under 
thenameof ^mi'a ig?iota*, possesses many characters in common with the 
fossil before us. It consists of the skeleton of a fish, attached to a block 
of gypsum. It is twelve inches long, and four inches high ; the head being 
equal to one-third of the length. It has two dorsal fins occupying the 
same relative situation with those of the Sussex fossil ; the ventral fins 
also correspond; the lower jaw is furnished with many small pointed 
teeth, and the tail is rounded. But the angular form of the head in A. ? 
Lewesiensis: the spinous rays of the anterior dorsal fin, and the scabrous 
structure of the scales, separate it most decidedly from the A. ignota of 
the French naturalists. 

Tab. xxxvii. A portion of the body of Amia? Lewesiensis. 

a. The anterior dorsal fin. 

b. The posterior dorsal fin. 

c. One of the ventral fins. 

The whole surface is covered with scales in an excellent state of pre- 
servation. 

Tab. xxxviii. A specimen imbedded in chalk, the scales being almost 
entirely removed. 

a. The lower margin of the orbit. 

b. The maxiUae, with two teeth in the upper jaw. In 

another example the teeth are preserved in both jaws. 

c. The impression of one of the opercula branchialia. 

d. One of the ventral fins. 

e. The air bladder. 

* Nouveau Diet. d'Hist. Nat. Tom. xxviii. Art. Ichthyolites, p. 69. 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 241 

Tab. xxix. fig. 6, the tongue detached from a large specimen. 

Tab. xxxiv. fig. 7, a vertical section of the head, the tongue remaining 
in situ. 

Locality. Lower ohalk, near Lewes. 

118. The lower jaw; vertebra, &c. of an unknown fish? Tab. xlii. 

The fossils delineated in this plate were imbedded in the same block 
of chalk, and most probably belonged to the same individual. They con- 
sist of part of the lower jaw, several tusks or defences, a vertebra, and a 
cylindrical bone. 

The jaw, fig. 1, of which the right side only remains, is attached to 
the chalk, by its inner surface, the exterior being exposed. It is 5-5 
inches long ; 1 -2 inch wide ; and 0*5 inch thick in front : it contains twelve 
smooth pointed teeth. These are sHghtly convex, very brittle, and 
possess a glossy surface. 

The three anterior ones are gently curved ; their fangs are hollow, 
and placed in sockets that extend almost to the base of the jaw. The 
nine posterior teeth are of a lanceolate form, and probably destitute 
of fangs, appearing as if attached to the jaw by anchylosis. The two 
anterior and posterior teeth of this set, are placed close to each other ; 
one of them is very small and dehcate. A fragment of bone is imbedded 
immediately above the posterior part of the jaw ; and although it is too 
imperfect to admit of any satisfactory conjecture of its nature, yet there 
seems reason to suppose, that it may be the remains of a palate bone. 

The specimens figs. 3, and 4, are corresponding portions, and were by 
accident broken from the front of the jaw ; but the edges of the respective 
pieces were so much mutilated, that I have been unable to ascertain the 
precise situation they originally occupied. They consist of a portion of 
the jaw, with the remains of five tusks or defences, only one of which is 
entire ; these resemble the teeth in the fossil figured by Faujas St. Fond, 
Hist. Nat. de la Montagne de St. Pierre, Tab. xix. fig. 10 ; which that 
distinguished naturalist describes as "Portion de machoire d'lm poisson 
inconnu.'" 

The vertebra (fig. 2.) is deeply concave on both sides, and the inner 

II 



242 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

surface is marked with numerous annular ridges ; a small portion of the 
spinous process still remains. 

The bone (fig. 5.) is cylindrical in the centre, but the two extremities 
are nearly flat, and extend in opposite directions. These parts have 
suffered so much from compression, that it is scarcely possible to ascertain 
their original shape. It seems probable that they were once convex, and 
formed articulating surfaces; if this opinion be correct, the bone may, 
perhaps, have been a humerus. 

Of the nature of the original animal, I must confess myself incapable 
of offering any satisfactory conjectures : the fangs of the anterior teeth, 
like those of the crocodile, are hollow, fixed in sockets, and not attached 
to the jaw ; but their smooth pohshed surface, and flattened form, separate 
them most decidedly from the animals of that tribe. The posterior teeth 
are afiixed to the edge of the jaw, a mode of dentature observable in many 
kinds of fishes. The structure of the vertebra is decidedly that of a fish, 
the conical cavities being very deep ; and it possesses the annular markings 
so constantly observable in the vertebrse of fishes. The cylindrical bone 
is too much injured to allow of any correct inference being drawn from it. 
From these circumstances it seems probable, that the remains before us 
are those of an osseous fish, of a species, and perhaps genus, distinct from 
any previously known. 

Locality. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 
119. Vertebrae of the fossil Monitor of Maestricht, 
Tab. xxxiii. fig. IS. Tab. xh. fig. 3. 

The quarries of St. Peter's mountain, near Maestricht, have been long 
celebrated for the remains of one of the most extraordinary oviparous 
quadrupeds, liitherto discovered in a fossil state. Several mjignificent 
specimens of the skeleton of this animal, are figured and described in the 
splendid work on the fossils of that mountain, by Faujas St. Fond ; and 
the nature of the original has been ably elucidated by M. le Baron Cuvier, 
These remains have not previously been noticed in England ; and in- 
deed, have been found in the immediate vicinity of Maestricht only ; where 
they occur in a soft, yellowish, calcareous freestone. This Umestone 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 243 

reposes upon the flinty chalk, and contains beds of flints perfectly re- 
sembling those of the chalk formation. 

The vertebrae represented in the figures above referred to, are from 
the Upper chalk, near Lewes ; and being found in the same quarry, and 
at a short distance from each other, may probably have belonged to the 
same individual. Like those of the crocodile, motiitor, inguanas, and the' 
greater part of the saurian animals, they have the body convex posteriorly, 
and concave anteriorly ; a structure, that distinguishes them from those of 
the cetacea, and fishes. 

The bone, fig. 13. Tab. xxxiii. appears to correspond most completely 
with the posterior dorsal vertebrae in the spinal column of the Maestricht 
monitor, figured by Faujas, PI. 52 ; particularly with the third and fourth 
vertebrae, reckoning from the left hand of the specimen. The body of 
the vertebra is rather compressed, about two inches long, and 1-4 inch 
high; the face is sHghtly elliptical. The convexity of the posterior 
extremity is but shght, and the concavity of the opposite side of a cor- 
responding depth, the surface being perfectly plain and smooth. The 
spinous process, of which a fragment only reiuains, is compressed, and 
occupies the anterior four-fifths of the body of the vertebra. 

The specimen fig. 3. Tab. xU. contains two vertebrae articulated to 
each other. They are shorter than the one above described, and each 
has an inferior apophysis. In their general characters, they resemble the 
vertebrae delineated in PL vii. and viii. of Faujas; their bodies are 
compressed, and their length and height nearly equal ; their faces are 
eUiptical in a vertical direction, the transverse diameter being 1"1 inch, 
and the longitudinal 1*5 inch. The dorsal apophyses are narrower than in 
the preceding example. The inferior apophysis is strong, and rounded at 
the base, and suddenly contracts into a spinous process, which when entire, 
was probably several inches in length. As this appendage is placed rather 
laterally, it was suspected that another might exist on the opposite side, 
and that the union of the two would form a triangular bone, corresponding 
to the Vos en chevron of the crocodile, and other animals of the hzard tribe. 
To ascertain this point, the chalk was removed so far as was practicable, 

I I 9. 



244 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

but not the slightest trace of another process could be discovered. This 
circumstance puzzled me exceedingly ; and the difficulty of explaining it 
was increased, upon perceiving that the apophyses in question were per- 
fectly anchylosed to the bodies of the vertebrae, and not united by suture, 
as in the recent lacertee. A careful perusal of Cuvier's observations on 
the osteological characters of the monitor of Maestricht, enabled me, how- 
ever, to explain this apparent want of agreement, in a very satisfactory 
manner ; the researches of that philosopher having shewn that the posterior 
caudal vertebrcB possess the structure here described, " Vos en chevro7i n'y 
est plus articulS, mais soudS, et fait corps avec elks." The situation of this 
inferior process, presents also another striking proof of the identity of the 
vertebrae before us, with those of the INIaestricht monitor. In the lizard 
tribe in general, the chevron bone is placed at the junction of the vertebrae ; 
and in the monitor, at the posterior part ; but in the animal of St. Peter's 
mountain, it is attached to the middle of the vertebrae, as in the specimens 
before us. 

That the reader may form his own opinion upon this interesting 
subject, Cuvier's anatomical description of the vertebral column of the 
Maestricht animal, is here subjoined. The extract is rather long, but it 
will not be deemed irrelevant, when the importance of extreme accuracy 
in these researches is duly considered. 

" Toutes ces vertebres, comme celles des crocodiles, des monitors, des 
inguanes, et en general de la plupart des sauriens, et des ophidiens, ont 
leur corps concave en avant, et convexe en arriere, ce qui les distingue 
deja notablement de celles des cetaces qui I'ont a-peu-pr^s jo/awe, et bien 
plus encore de celles des poissons, oii il est creus6 des deux c6tes en cone 
concave. 

" Les anterieures ont cette convexit6 et cette concavit6 beaucoup plus 
prononcees que les posterieures. Quant aux apophyses, leur nombre 
etablit cinq sortes de ces vertebres. 

"Les premieres, ont une apophyse epineuse superieure, longue et 
comprimee ; une inferieure terminee par une concavite ; quatre articulaires 
dont les posterieures sont plus courtes et regardent de dehors, et deux 



UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 245 

transverses, grosses et courtes ; ce sont les derniferes vertfebres du cou et 
les premieres du dos. Leur corps est plus long que large, et plus large 
que haut; les faces sont en ovale transverse, ou en figure de rein. 
D'autres, ont I'apophyse inferieure de moins, mais ressemblent aux 
precedentes pour le reste ; ce sont les moyennes du dos. 

" II en est ensuite, qui n'ont plus d'apophyses articulaires ; ce sont les 
derni^res du dos, celles des lombes, et les premieres de la queue ; et leur 
place particulitjre se reconnoit a leurs apophyses transverses qui s'allongent 
et s'aplatissent. Les faces articulaires de leur corps sont presque trian- 
gulaires dans les posterieures. 

" Les suivantes ont outre leur apophyse 6pineuse superieure et les 
deux transverses, k leur face inferieure deux petites facettes pour porter 
I'os en chevron ; les faces articulaires de leur corps sont pentagonales. 

" Puis il en vient qui ne different des precedentes que parcequ'elles 
manquent d'apophyses transverses. Elles forment une grand partie de 
la queue, et les faces de leur corps sont en eUipses, d'abord transverses, 
et ensuite de plus en plus comprimees par les cotes. L'os en chevron 
n'y est plus articule, mais sonde, et fait corps avec eUes. 

" Enfin, les derniferes de la queue finissent par n'avoir plus d'apophyses 
du tout. 

" A mesure qu'on approche de la fin de la queue, les corps des vertebres 
se raccoursissent, et presque, d^s son commencement, ils sont moins longs 
que larges et que hauts. Leur longueur finit par etre moitie moindre 
que leur hauteur *." 

From this investigation, I think we may, without hesitation, refer the 
vertebrge before us to the fossil animal of Maestricht f. The specimen 
Tab. xxxiii. fig. 1 S, is evidently one of the posterior dorsal vertebrae ; 
those represented in Tab. xh. fig. 3, are two of the posterior vertebrae of 
the tail. 



* Animaux Fossiles. Tome iv. Animal de MaestricJit, p. 20, 2 L 

f This opinion is confirmed by the observations of Mr. Konig, who obliged me by com- 
paring the drawings of the Sussex specimens, with the vertebrffi of the Macstricht monitor, in 
the British Museum ; and expressed himself perfectly convinced of their identity. 



9A6 UPPER, OR FLINTY CHALK. 

In conclusion, it may be observed, that Cuvier has ascertained that 
the original animal formed an intermediate genus, between the lizards 
with a long and forked tongue, including the monito7's and common 
lizards; and those with a short tongue, and dentated palates, comprising 
the inguanas, marbres, and a7ioih. This genus, he thinks, would only 
have been allied to the crocodile, by the general characters of the hzardsi 
The length of the entire skeleton appears to have been nearly twenty- 
four feet ; the head being equal to a sixth of the whole length. The tail 
must have been very strong, and the width of its extremity so con- 
siderable, as to have rendered it a powerful oar, by which the animal 
could stem the most agitated waters. 

From this peculiar structure, and from the character of the organic 
remains with which those of the Maestricht animal are associated, there 
is every reason to conclude, that the original was an inhabitant of the 
ocean ; a circumstance very remarkable, since none of the existing lacert£& 
are known to live in salt water*. 

LocaUty. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

120. A conical striated tooth; probably of some speeies of lacerta? 
Tab. xxxiii. fig. 1. 

This specimen is of a conical form, with the apex truncated, and the 
surface finely marked with longitudinal grooves, and striae. 

It bears some resemblance to the teeth of the Ichthyosaurus, Crocodile, 
&c. but does not possess characters sufficiently decisive, to admit of its 
being appropriated to any of the recent or fossil lacertee. As a rare pro- 
duction of the chalk, it is worthy of notice, and it affords another proof of 
the httle that is at present known, concerning the organic remains of the 
chalk formation. 

Locahty. Upper chalk, near Lewes. 

* Vide Cuvier's interesting description of the remains of the anunal of Maestricht. Jnim; 
Foss. Tome iv. 



FORMATIONS ABOVE THE CHALK. 247 

XIV. 
§ III. FORMATIONS ABOVE THE CHALK. 



The flat maritime district, extending on the south side of the Downs, 
from Emsworth and Bracklesham, to Brighton, is composed of various 
deposits of clay, sand, and brick-earth, reposing upon the chalk. Accu- 
mulations of similar materials, enclosing waterworn blocks of sandstone, 
and boulders of a coarse, ferruginous breccia, occur also at Falmer, Lewes 
Piddinghoe, Newhaven, and Chimpting castle. These are evidently the 
ruins of strata that formerly existed above the chalk, and were probably 
of considerable thickness, extent, and variety. 

The class of deposits to which these belong, were but imperfectly 
known, till the researches of M. M. Cuvier, and Brongniart, in the 
environs of Paris. The publication of their masterly deUneation of the 
Geographle Mineralogique, of that district, excited universal attention, 
and attached to the investigation of these strata a high degree of interest 
and importance. The inquiry was pursued with equal zeal and success, 
in our own country, by Mr. Webster, who discovered in London, Hamp- 
shire, and the Isle of Wight, a series of beds, corresponding in their cha- 
racters, and geological position, with those of the neighbourhood of Paris, 
Insular portions of these strata have subsequently been noticed in 
numerous localities of the English chalk, and the facts already known, 
are sufficient to warrant the conclusion, that they were formerly as 
extensive in this island, as on the continent. 

To enable geologists to identify the English formations with those of 
other countries. Professor Buckland has constructed a tabular arrangement, 
which is admirably adapted to facilitate the acquirement of a correct 



248 



FORMATIONS ABOVE THE CHALK. 



knowledge of their geological relations. As this table will materially elu- 
cidate the nature of the tertiary deposits of Sussex, and has hitherto ap- 
peared only in a periodical work*, we shall subjoin that part of it which 
relates to the present subject. 

A Tabular Arrangement of the Rocks that occur i?i England, with their Equivalents 
in certain Districts on the Continent. By the Rev. Wm. Buckland, Professor of 
Mineralogy and Geology in the University of Oxford, F.R.S. ^c. 



ENGLISH FORMATIONS. 

Alluvium t- 
Effect of causes nolo in action. 
Mud of rivers, deltas, gravel of torrents. 
Diluvium. 
The effect of causes no longer in existence. 
Gravel and rolled blocks both on hills and 
in vallies, not produced by any causes now in 
action. 

Gravel of the vallies of the Thames, Se- 
vern, and Humber. 

Blocks of Cumberland granite in the plain 
of Shropshire, near Bridgenorth; and of 
Galway granite at Shalk, on the S.W. of 
Carlisle in Cumberland. 



FORMATIONS ON THE CONTINENT. 

Alluvium. 

Effect (ifcaitses now in action. 

Same as in England, but on a larger scale. 

Diluvium. 

The effect ofcames no longer in existence. 

Same as in England. 



Superficial gravel covering the regular ter- 
tiary strata of the vallies of the Po, the Danube, 
and Geneva. 

Granite blocks on the Jura, above Neuf- 
chatel, and on the Saleve mountain, near Ge- 



Tertiary Formations. 



London and Hampshire basins. 

1. Freshwater Limestone, 
Headen Cliff, Isle of Wight. 



Basin of Paris, vallies of the Po, the Da- 
nube, and Switzerland. 

1. Calcaire SEau Douce, 
Basin of Paris; Frienisberg, near Bernis; 
St. Sapphorin, near Vevey; Horgen, near Zu- 
rich; Locle on the Jura; valley of the Rhine, 
three miles N.E. of Basle. These are prin- 
cipally composed of marl stone, and contain 
beds of coal with freshwater shells intermixed. 
Oeningen, near Schaff hausen, with fresh water 
fish. 



* Annals of Philosophy, June, 1821. p. 462. 

t In this table Professor Buckland commences with the uppermost or newest deposits, a 
method directly the reverse of that which has been adopted in the present volume. 



FORMATIONS ABOVE THE CHALK. 



249 



2. London Clay. 
Highgate HiU, London. 



2. Calcaire Grassier of Paris. 

Verona, Vicentine Hills, and Monte Berici, 
in the valley of the Po. 

Loretto, S. E. of Vienna, in the basin of the 
Danube, Tour de Moliere, E. of Yverdun, in 
Switzerland. 

With plants and marine fish. 

Monte Bolca near Verona. Solenhofen near 
Pappenheim, (probably). Fish of Mount Le- 
banon, (probably). 

3. Plastic Clay Formation. 

Beds of clay, marl, sand, and gravel, with 
marine shells. 

Basin of Paris. 

All the edges of the plains of Lombardy, 
near Parma, Placenza, Asti, Turin, Vicenza 
Valley of the Danube. 

Valley of Geneva and Constance. 

4. Nagelflue of Switzerland, Como, and Saltzburg. 
Puddingstone of Riga near Lucerne, and 

of Bregentz, of Lake Constance. 

5. Lignite and Glance Coal. Perfect, and used 
for Fuel. 

Monte Bolca and Arzignarl in the Vicentino. 
Fussen in Bavaria. 

Titmoning, Teisendorf, Miesbach, and all the 
coal-pits in the valley of the Danube above 
Vienna. 

Marburg in Styria. 

Leoben in Styria. 

It is not implied that the above five subdivisional parts of the tertiary 
formations, maintain the same relative order of succession in England, and 
on the Continent ; most of them probably alternate, but they are all more 
recent than the chalk of England, France, and Italy. 

Secondary Formations. 
Chalk. 



With plants and marine fish. 
Isle of Sheppey. 



3. Plastic Clay Formation. 
Clay, marl, sand, and gravel, with marine 
shells. 
• Basins of London, Hants, and Dorset. 



4. Puddingstone of Hertfordshire. 
Druid sandstone blocks of Buckingham- 
shire, Wilts, Dorset, and Sussex. 

5. Lignite and Glance Coal. Imperfect Wood 
Coal, 
Alum Bay, Isle of Wight. 

Corfe clay pits. Isle of Purbeck. 



Large proportion of the S.E. of England. 



Craie of the French, encircling and forming 
the base of the basin of Paris. 

Younger Alpine limestone of the Euganean 
and Vicentine Hills in Italy. 

Fort near Lunenburg, close to the town on 
the side of liainburgh. 

Castle of (^:acow in Poland. 



250 FORMATIONS ABOVE THE CHALK. 

Green Sand*. Crate Inferieur of the French. 

Large proportion of the S.E. of England. Quader sandstien, and Planer Kalk, of Wer- 
ner. Younger Alpine limestone of Savoy, 
forming the summit of the high ridge from 
Mount Varens in the vale, of the Arve, of Dia- 
bleret, in the Rhone valley. 



In the preceding arrangement, the excavations or hollows in the chalk, 
containing the tertiary formations, are termed basins ; and these are 
farther distinguished by the names of their principal locahties : thus we 
have the Paris, London, and Isle of Wight basins ; the two last men- 
tioned, comprehend the whole of the tertiary beds that have been noticed 
in England. 

According to the plan of the present work, the alluvial and diluvial 
beds, will be hereafter described. The freshwater limestone does not 
occur in this county; the Druid sandstone, Plastic clay, and London clay 
are therefore the only members of the series that come under examination 
in this section. 

The Druid sandstone occurs in the form of boulders, promiscuously 
scattered over the surface, or imbedded in diluvial deposits. The Plastic 
and London clay occupy a considerable extent of country, and form the 
low maritime district of the south-western part of Sussex. These beds 
are supposed by Mr. Webster to have belonged to the Isle of Wight 
basin ; to obtain a clear idea of their geological relations, it will therefore 
be necessary to take a brief view of the extent, and characters, of that 
celebrated depression of the chalk. 

The district comprehended by the Isle of Wight basin, is about 100 
miles in length, and at its greatest breadth does not exceed twenty miles. 
The southern side is formed by the highly inclined chalk, extending from 
the Culver CHffs, at the east end of the Isle of Wight, to White Nose, in 
Dorsetshire, five miles west of Lulworth; the north side by the South 
Downs, that pass from Beachy Head, to Dorchester, in Dorsetshire, The 

* Professor Buckland continues this arrangement down to the Greywacke, of the transi- 
tion series. 



FORMATIONS ABOVE THE CHALK. 



251 



strata of which these hills are composed, dip generally from 15° to 5° to 
the south; the inchnation varying in different places. The south side of 
the basin must therefore have been extremely steep, vs^hile the slope of the 
north side was very gentle. The western margin cannot be distinctly 
traced, and the eastern is now entirely destroyed, the sea flowing through 
the opening*. 

The strata contained in the Hampshire or Isle of Wight basin, form 
five principal divisions, viz. 

1 . Lowest marine formation over the chalk, including the plastic clay 
and sand, together with the London clay. 

2. Lowest fresh water formation. 

3. Upper marine formation. 

4. Upper fresh water formation. 

5. Alluvium. 

The annexed sketch will illustrate this description, and shew the con- 
nexion between the outlying fragments of these beds in Sussex, and those 
of the Isle of Wight. 




The remains of the tertiary formations that occur in Sussex, admit of 
the following arrangement; it must however be remarked, that from the 
ruin and displacement to which they have been exposed, it is scarcely 
possible in every instance accurately to determine their geological positions. 



1. Druid sandstone. 



Tertiary Formations in Sussex. 

C Boulders of siliceous sandstone, some-"' 
* times enveloping pebbles, and forming { 
\ a breccia resembling that of Hertford- ( 
' shire. 



' Scattered over the surface 
■ of the Downs, near Falmer, 
I Brighton, Lewes, &c. 



* Mr, Webster on the Strata overlaying the Chalk. Geolog. Trans. Vol.ii. p. 170, et seq. 

K K 2 



252 



FORMATIONS ABOVE THE CHALK. 



2. Plastic Clay. 



3. London Clay. 



Blue clay containing shells. 



C Beds of clay, marl, sand, &c. resembling ^ Castle Hill, near Newhaven. 
I those of Woolwich. 5 Chimpting castle, &c. 

y Bracklesham, in the Isle of 

^ Selsea. 

Bognor Rocks ; Barn Rocks, 
between Selsea and Bognor; 
Houngate, and Street Rocks, 
west of Selsea. 



Greenish gTey sandstone. 



DRUID SANDSTONE. 253 

XV. 

§ III. 9. DRUID SANDSTONE, 



Immense blocks and boulders of siliceous sandstone, composed of gra- 
nular quartz, and occasionally enveloping chalk flints, and other extraneous 
bodies, lie scattered over the Downs, and on the ploughed lands, near 
Brighton, Falmer, and other places. This sandstone is perfectly analogous 
to that which occurs in Berkshire and Wiltshire, where it is distinguished 
by the provincial term of " Grey Weathers." Of this substance, Stonehenge 
and other druidical monuments are composed, a circumstance that has 
given rise to its present geological appellation. The cement of the beauti- 
ful conglomerate or puddingstone of Hertfordshire, agrees in its characters 
with the druid sandstone, and from that breccia also occurring in detached 
blocks above the chalk, it is now generally supposed that they are both of 
contemporaneous origin ; the siliceous deposition, when it did not envelope 
any foreign substance, forming the rock called the " Go-ey Weathers," 
and when it fell among pebbles of any kind, composing a breccia or j^ud- 
dingstone*. 

Professor Buckland, and Mr. Webster, have ably investigated the geo- 
logical history of this substance, and it affords me much pleasure to be 
able to corroborate their opinions, by the discovery of blocks of the sand- 
stone under circumstances similar in this county. 

The puddingstone is exceedingly rare in Sussex, but specimens some- 
times occur; and I have several examples from the vicinity of Newhaven, 
that could not be distinguished from the Hertfordshire breccia. 

* Geological Transactions, Vol. ii. p. 225. 



254 DRUID SANDSTONE. 

Examples of the siliceous sandstone may be seen on the hill near 
Lewes Kace-course; at Bormer; in Stanmer Park; and on the ploughed 
lands near Hogshrove farm. At Falmer, the pond that suppUes the vil- 
lao-e with water is surrounded with large masses of this substance. These 
boulders have their edges rounded and even, and exhibit incontestable 
proofs of long exposure to the action of the waves. They are of various 
sizes, some of them exceeding nine feet in length; their colour is either 
white, or of different shades of grey, and reddish brown. Their tex- 
ture is subcrystaUine ; the white varieties, when recently broken, much 
resembhno- lump sugar. In a few instances they enclose chalk flints 
shghtly worn, and small fragments of a dark green substance, the nature 
of which is unknown. 

Boulders of druid sandstone also occur in the shingle bed, and calca- 
reous deposit, at Brighton, and may be observed lying on the sea-shore in 
considerable numbers, after a recent fall of the cHffs. 

Upon comparing the sandstone of Stonehenge with that of Sussex, no 
perceptible difference can be detected; and in this county, as well as in 
Wiltshire, it has been employed by the earlier inhabitants, as landmarks to 
denote the boundaries of towns*, and villages, or to commemorate the 
site of battles ; as sepulchral stones, to perpetuate the memory of their 
chiefs ; and as altars, on which to sacrifice to their gods. 

No regular stratum of the druid sandstone has yet been discovered in 
this country, and its geological position is stiU undetermined. In the ta- 
bular arrangement of Professor Buckland, it is placed below the plastic 
clay f ; and if the cliffs at Brighton (hereafter described) belong to that 
formation, there is conclusive evidence, that the appropriation is correct. 

* The frequent occurrence of large smooth blocks of stone, on the boundary line of vil- 
lao-es and parishes, in the south-eastern part of Sussex, must have been noticed by many of my 
readers. A large boulder of druid sandstone placed at the corner of Ireland's Lane, in St. 
Ann's parish, forms the western boundary of the borough of Lewes. Similar stones are not 
unfrequent in the large tumuli on the Downs; several may be seen near Lewes Race-course. 
It seems probable, that the ancient Britons regarded this sandstone with superstitious venera- 
tion ; for besides employing it in the construction of their temples, kist-vaens, &c., they con- 
verted the pebbles and smaller stones into amulets and beads. 

f On a former occasion, this gentleman referred it to the plastic clay formation; and con- 



DRUID SANDSTONE. 255 

It appears to be more nearly related to the " Calcah'e siliceux" of 
M. M. Cuvier, and Brongniart, than to any other of the tertiary forma- 
tions of France*; but that deposit is stated to lie above the plastic clay f: 
future observations can alone reconcile this discrepancy of opinion. 

sidered it as a member of that series of irregular alternations of beds of clay, sand, and gravel. 
Geological Tratisactions, Vol. iv. p. 301. 

* My friend, Chas. Lyell, Jun. Esq. of Bartley Lodge, Hampshire, upon seeing the 
boulders of druid sandstone in the vicinity of Lewes, was immediately struck with their re- 
semblance to those of the Calcaire siliceux in the forest of Fontainbleau. 

t Calcaire siliceux.—" La formation dont nous allons parler, est dans line situation 
geologique parallele, pour ainsi dire, a celle du culcaire marin. Elle n'est situee ni au-dessous 
d'elle, ni au dessus, mais a cote, at semble en tenir la place dans I'immense etendue de terrain 
qu'elle recouvre a Test et au sud-est de Paris. Ce terrain est place immediatement au-dessus 
des argiles plastiqices." Geograpk. Min. p. 29. 



256 PLASTIC CLAY FORMATION. 

XVI. 

§ III. 10. PLASTIC CLAY FORMATION. 



In conformity with the nomenclature of M. M. Cuvier, and Brong- 
niart, a principal division of the tertiary formations, consisting of various 
beds of sand, clay, marl, and gravel, is distinguished by the name of Plastic 
Clay. (Argille Plastique). An attentive examination of the general 
points of resemblance in the physical characters, and organic remains, of 
these irregular alternations above the chalk, leaves no doubt of their being 
members of a series of nearly contemporaneous depositions, intermediate 
between that formation and the London clay*. 

A fine series of beds belonging to this division, occurs at Castle Hill, on 
the western side of Newhaven harbour, lying upon the chalk chfFs, which 
are there about fifty feet high. The summit of the hill is broken and 
rugged, and its appearance differs so remarkably from the smooth rounded 
surface of the surrounding downs, that the geologist, even at a distance, 
would suspect the existence of strata of a very dissimilar character to any 
that exist in its vicinity. Towards the sea it presents a steep declivity, 
having numerous shelvings, and fissures, occasioned by repeated slips 
of the strata. On the eastern brow, an ancient circular entrenchment still 
remains; and from this point the beds extend about one mile westward, 
where the chalk chfFs are covered only by a thin layer of ochraceous clay, 
and vegetable mould. These deposits were first noticed by Henry War- 
burton, Esq. F.R.S., secretary to the Geological Society, &c., and have 

* Geological Transactions, Vol. iv. p. 209. 



PLASTIC CLAY FORMATION. 257 

subsequently been described by Mr. Webster, and Professor Buck- 
land*. 

Section of the Strata at Castle Hill, near Newhaven. 

{Beginning with the lowermost deposit.) 

(Vide Tablet vi.) 

Thickness. 

1. Chalk with flints, _ _ _ _ 50 feet. 

2. Ochraceous clay, containing hydrate and suhsulphate of alu- 

niine, and crystallized sulphate of lime, about - - li foot. 

S. Breccia of green sand and chalk flints, the latter covered with 

a green and ferruginous crust, _ _ _ 1 foot. 

4. Sand, of various shades of yeUow, green, and ash colour, 20 feet. 

5. Blue clay with marl of a sulphur yellow colour; including 
large crystals of sulphate of lime, with fibrous and foliated 
gypsum, _ _ - - - 20 feet. 

6. A seam of surturbrand, or coal; about - - - 6 inches. 

7. Indurated reddish brown marl, the lower part slaty, contain- 
ing impressions of leaves, and casts of cerithia, cyclades, &c. a few inches. 

8. Blue clay, containing an immense number of shells, chiefly" 

of the genus cerithium; teeth of a species of squalus, &c. 
This bed is traversed by a seam of pyrites, a few inches 
thick, containing casts of cerithia : - - - 

9. Blue clay with broken bivalve sheUs, apparently of the ge- 

nera cytherea, and cyrene, - _ _ _ , 

10. A bed composed almost entirely of oyster shells held together 

by an argillaceous cement, about _ _ _ _ 5 feet. 

11. Diluvium, consisting of yellow and fawn coloured sand, with 

* Residing within a short distance of Castle Hill, the interesting character of its beds 
had long since engaged my attention; but from want of leisure to arrange the notes I had 
taken, my observations have been anticipated by the gentlemen above named in every import- 
ant particular. 



> 10 feet. 



258 PLASTIC CLAY FORMATION. 

pebbles; the latter evidently formed of broken chalk flints 
rounded by attrition, from - - - 10 to 15 feet. 

The ochraceous clay (No. 2) contains the substance that has ren- 
dered Castle HiU so interesting to the mineralogist — the subsulphate of 
alumine. As this mineral is peculiar to Sussex, or at least has not been 
discovered elsewhere in England, a particular description of it must not 
be omitted. 

Hydrate and submlphate of alumine. Brit. Min. Tab. 499. Annals 
of Philosophy, Vol. ii. p. 238. 

This substance is imbedded in a layer of ochraceous clay that lies im- 
mediately upon the chalk. The bed is situate nearly midway between 
the summit of the cliffs and the sea-shore, and therefore cannot be ex- 
amined without much difficulty, and exposure to considerable danger*. 

The first specimen of the subsiJphate was discovered by the author 
among some gravel that had been brought from Newhaven, and was 
lying in a wharf near Lewes -f. A few months afterwards, Mr. Webster, 
in a geological excursion along the Sussex coast, collected a specimen at 
Newhaven. This was analyzed by Dr. WoUaston, and found to consist 
of alumine, in combination with sulphuric acid, and a small proportion 
of silex, lime, and oxide of iron. 

This mineral occurs massive, in veins, and in tabular and tuberose 
masses; the former frequently attaining several feet in length, and the 
latter exceeding three or four pounds in weight. It appears to have 
been of stalactitical origin, and is supposed to result from the decomposition 
of iron pyrites, and the reaction of other substances. As the superin- 
cumbent strata contain aU the elements necessary for its production, it 
probably has been introduced into its present situation by infiltration:}:. 
When pure, it is perfectly white, but is generally more or less dis- 

* Specimens may generally be found among the ruins of the cliffs that lie scattered on 
the shore, from half a mile to a mile west of Newhaven harbour. 

■\ Vide Mr. Sowerby's description of this substance in British Mineralogy. 

X Professor Buckland on the Plastic Clay. Geological Transact io?i^s, Vol. iv. p. 294. 



PLASTIC CLAY FORMATION. 259 

coloured by an intermixture of yellow clay. It is dull and opaqvie, with 
an earthy fracture, and yields to the knife. It is infusible at 166° of 
Wedgwood*, but fuses rapidly when exposed to the stream of the hydro- 
oxygen blow-pipe : the result is a pearl white translucent enamel, a partial 
combustion taking place during its fusion f. According to Stromeyer it 
consists of 

Alumine, - 30 
Sulphuric acid, 24 
Water, - 45^ 

Crystals of gypsum are frequently disseminated through the masses of 
alumine, and the two substances enter into various states of combination, 
sometimes giving rise to specimens that are semitranslucent. Chalk flints, 
indurated ochraceous clay, and other extraneous bodies, are also occa- 
sionally enveloped. 

From the recent experiments of Dr. Clarke, it appears that the purer 
masses of alurainite are destitute of sulphuric acid, and consist simply of 
water and aluminous earth. Hence a suspicion has arisen that the sul- 
phuric acid in the examples analyzed by Stromeyer, and Dr. WoUaston, 
may have originated from the presence of gypsum ; this, however, is not 
the case, since in many specimens it is evident that the sulphate of lime 
has been decomposed, and the sulphuric acid entering into combination 
with the alumine, has formed a true subsulphate. 

The hydrate occurs in friable masses, of the colour and consistence of 
magnesia : it adheres to the tongue, and may be reduced to powder between 
the fingers. In this respect it differs from the subsulphate, which possesses 
considerable hardness, and is susceptible of a fine polish §. 

* Kir'wan. 

t History of the Gass Blow-pipe, ly E. D. Clarke, LL.D. 8vo. 1819, p. 56. The ex- 
periments of my brother gave similar results. 

J Phillips' Mineralogy, 2d edition, 1819. p. 111. 

§ In the elegant compendium of geology, inserted in Professor Brand's Manual of Che- 
mistry, are the following observations on this subject: 

" In the cUfFs at Newhaven, on the Sussex coast, a very curious series of changes is going 
on. A stratum of marl, containing decomposing pyrites, hes upon the chalk, which gives rise 

LL 2 



260 PLASTIC CLAY FORMATION. 

The flints or pebbles composing the breccia (No. 3) are characterized 
by their green and ferruginous crusts. 

This appearance is so peculiar, that it frequently serves to identify 
the situations formerly occupied by the breccia, even where the stratum 
itself has been broken up and destroyed. These pebbles are scattered over 
the ploughed lands on the summits and slopes of the Downs, near Tar- 
ring, Piddinghoe, Falmer, Stanmer, Bormer, and many other places in the 
vicinity of Lewes. I have also detected them in the alluvium of the in- 
to the formation of sulphate of alumine : this is decomposed by the chalk ; and aluminous earth, 
selenite, and oxide of iron are the results." {Manual of Chemistry, 3 Vols. 8vo. 1821. Vol. 
iii. p. 31'.i.) 

In the Annals of Philosophy for August, 1820, Mr. Cooper, of the Strand, gives a de- 
scription of an aluminous chalybeate spring, situated on the coast between Newhaven and 
Rottingdean. The precise situation of this spring is not mentioned, and my brother and my- 
self have searched for it in vain. I can therefore add nothing to the following extract from 
Mr, Cooper's letter : 

Description of an Aluminous Chalybeate Spring on the coast ofStissex, {from the Annals of 
Philosophy, Aug. 1819. Ai-t. 11, No. 80, page 148.) 

" Dear Sir, 89, Strand, July, 1819. 

" I was requested to examine a bottle of water which was brought to me from the coast of 
Sussex, between Newhaven and Rottingdean ; and although the quantity I had was small, 
(being only about a wine quart) yet there was sufficient to ascertain its general nature and 
characters, without regarding the quantities of its component parts. 

" The spring is situated, as I understand, about midway between Newhaven and Rotting- 
dean, at an elevation of about 15 or 16 feet above the level of the sea at high water mark. It 
issues from between the cliffs or fissures of the chalk in small streams, and these when united 
pour forth fi-om 20 to 25 gallons in the hour. The chalk about the place is every where tinged 
with an ochreous deposit. Its temperature as it issues is 65" Fahr. and remains constantly 
the same, \^'hen I received it, there was a deposit of a brownish colour, which proved on ex- 
amination to be oxide of iron. Its specific gravity, at the temperature of 60" Fahr. was 1-076: 
it is slightly acidulous, changing the colour of litmus paper both before and after boiling, by 
which operation it deposits a further portion of oxide of iron, and also a little lime. Reagents 
show it to contain the following substances in solution: 

Oxide of iron. Lime, 

Alumina, Carbonic acid. 

Muriatic acid. Soda. 

Sulphuric acid, 
•' This last substance I will not be quite certain of; but I expect shortly to be able to make 
a more perfect analysis, and to give a better account of its situation, which is of some im- 
portance, as I expect it is not far distant from the spot where the native alumina or subsulphate 
is found. 

I am, &c. 

John Thomas Cooper." 
" To Dr. Thompson." 



PLASTIC CLAY FORMATION. 261 

terior of the country. Waterworn fragments of the breccia occasionally 
occur in similar situations ; some of considerable magnitude may be ob- 
served lying bare in the fields near Brighton church, Goldstone-bottom, 
and F aimer-hill*. 

The selenites or crystallized gypsum (of No. 5) occurs in flattish 
crystals, from six to eight inches long, which are generally in the form of 
oblique parallelopipeds, or of rhomboidal prisms. The fibrous gypsum 
is deposited in veins in the marl; the foliated variety occurs in large 
tabular masses, composed of thin laminae, and is frequently coated with a 
coaly substance. 

The surturbrand or coal (No. 6) appears to be analogous to that of the 
Paris Basin, Corfe castle, and Alum bay : it also resembles the surturbrand 
of Iceland ; some specimens are exactly similar to the Bovey coal. 

KoUed masses of this substance are frequently found on the shore at 
Brighton, and were formerly so abundant as to be used for fuel by the 
poorer inhabitants-]-. They are provincially called stromholo, a corruption 
of strom-boUen, stream, or tide balk; the name given them by the Flemings, 
who formerly settled in that town. 

The use of this substance was prohibited, on account of the very 
offensive smell emitted during its combustion. It was employed by the 
late Dr. Russell as a fumigation in certain glandular complaints, and it is 
said with decided benefit. 



* The boulders of this breccia, like those of the siliceous sandstone, were used in distant 
ages as sepulchral stones. Beneath one of those, near Brighton church, an urn of high an- 
tiquity, containing human bones and ashes, was discovered by the late Rev. J. Douglass, 
F.A.S. 

An immense block of this kind is situated in Hove parish, near the Shoreham road, and 
is vulgarly called Goldstone, " from the British word col, or holy-stone ; it is evidently a tolmen 
of the British period. This stone is in a line to the south of Goldstone-bottom, at the end of 
which, close to the rise of the hill, is a dilapidated cirque, composed of large stones of the same 
kind. On the farm of Thomas Read Kemp, Esq. opposite Wick, are two dilapidated Hst 
vaens, formed of similar materials ; and on each side of the British trackway, leading to the 
Devil's Dyke, blocks of the same substance may also be observed." Extract of a letter from the 
late Rev. J. Douglass, to the Author, dated May, 1818. 

-f- Lee's History of Lewes and Brighthelmstone, Svo. 1795, p. 554. 

It is difficult to imagine from whence so large a quantity of this substance could have 
been derived. The narrow layer at Castle Hill, is evidently too inconsiderable for the pur- 



'262 PLASTIC CLAY FORMATION. 

The organic remains found in these deposits are the following : 

1. Wood. 

A small block of wood, with the ligneous structure well preserved, has 
been discovered in the sand of the Diluvium (No. 11.) 

2. Impressions and remains of leaves, Tab. viii. figs. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
: Brit. Mill. tab. 500. 

The specimens figured in Tab. viii. and in Mr. Sowerby's Brit. Min. 
were collected from the red marl (No. 7); but although considerable 
dihgence has been used to add to their number, our researches have been 
unsuccessful, nor can we discover the precise spot from whence they were 
taken. They are pecuUarly interesting, as they aiford an example of 
leaves and shells imbedded in the same stone ; an association but rarely 
observed. 

The impressions in figs. 1, and 4, are thought to bear some resemblance 
to the larger foliage of Platanus orientalis. This opinion may probably be 
correct so far as regards the genus ; but the characters of the leaves appear 
to be too imperfectly developed to admit of the species being identified. 

Figs. % and 3, differ in some respects from those above described. 

The upper beds of the " Calcaire marin grossier" of France, also 
contain vegetal impressions ; but those represented in the " Essai sur la 
Geographic Mineralogique," PI. 2. fig. 1. do not correspond with the 
fossils under consideration. The French specimens are supposed to 
belong to a species oi Neriiim; however this may be, it is obvious, that, 
like those of Newhaven, they cannot have belonged to any marine plant, 
although they are now imbedded in the midst of testaceous remains 
decidedly of marine origin*. 

3. Mr. Webster mentions that H. Warburton, Esq. discovered in 
the marl at Newhaven, leaves precisely similar to those figured by 

pose ; and no traces of it occur in any other part of the adjacent coast. The encroachments of 
the sea at Brighton are well known to have been very extensive within the few last centuries : 
is it probable that a bed of surturhrand formerly existed in the strata that have been swept 
away? or was the layer at Castle Hill, at that period, sufficiently extensive? was it washed 
from the opposite coast of France ? or from Alum bay, in the Isle of Wight ? 
* Essai Min. Geograjik. :p. 126. 



PLASTIC CLAY F0RMATI0:N. 263 

Cuvier, " and also a fruit of a species of palm, with the vegetable fibres 
quite distinct*." 

4. The casts of shells in the specimens figured, belong to the genera 
cerithium, unio, and cyclas ; the species of the latter resembles the 
Linnean Mactra solida, or subtruncata, which is also found abundantly 
with cerithia, in the blue clay at Woolwich j-. 

5. Cexiihmm funatiim. Tab. xvii. fig. 4. 

A conical elongated shell, with two obtuse, crenulated, transverse 
ridges on each volution. 

It consists of ten or eleven whorls, and is seldom found perfect. It 
occurs in immense quantities in the blue clay (No. 8), and is sparingly 
distributed in the oyster-bed (No. 10), and in the red marl (No. 7). 

6. Cerithium melanoides. Tab. xvii. fig. 3. 

Turreted, whorls convex, longitudinally undulated, transversely 
carinated ; carinee tuberculated. 

This elegant species is found in the same stratum with the above, 
but is easily distinguished by the sharp, tubercular, carinated ridges with 
which it is ornamented, and the longitudinal depressions between the 
tubercles. It is comparatively rare. 

7. HeHx ? Tab. xviii. figs. 19, 20. 

The delicate little shell, figured in the plate referred to, was found by 
Col. Eirch, of Bath, in the blue clay (No. 8), of Castle-Hill. The mouth 
is filled with clay, and the specimen is too fragile to permit its removal ; 
the surface is perfectly smooth ; the spire elevated ; the volutions are 
three in number. It has much the appearance of a fresh-water shell. 

8. Cytherea Scutellaria ? (of Webster). Tab. xxv. fig. 2. 

This fossil is from the blue clay (No. 9), which is almost entirely 
composed of broken bivalves, apparently of the genera cytherea and 
cyclas. A perfect example is exceedingly rare, and I have not yet been 
so fortunate as to discover one ; the shell represented being the most 
entire of any in my possession. 

* Geolog. Trans. Vol. ii. p. 191. t British Mineralogy, Vol. iv. p. 185. 



264 PLASTIC CLAY FORMATION. 

I believe it is this bivalve that Mr. Webster has designated by the 
name of Cytherea Scutellaria. It very nearly resembles the " cytheree 
bombee" of Lamarck, "des marnes superieures du gypse*." 

9. A species of cyrene 9 

This shell was also found in the blue clay (ISTo. 9), and is remarkable' 
from its being the only decided instance of a fresh-water shell that has 
been discovered in that deposit f. 

10. Ostrea. 

The bed, No. 10, consists principally of a broad, flat species of oyster, 
presenting nothing peculiar in its form or appearance. Another species 
is sometimes found, in which the upper valve is nearly flat, and the lower 
one very convex; this shell is precisely similar to a specimen in Mr. 
Parkinson's cabinet, marked ostrea vesicularisp 

11. Tooth of the Squalus niustelus. 

This specimen is from the blue clay (No. 8), and perfectly resembles 
the teeth of the recent fish. 

Of the strata above enumerated, Nos. 8, 9, 10, are considered by 
Professor Buckland, as analogous to the plastic clay beds of Woolwich, 
(Nos. 7, 8. PI. xiii. Geolog. Trans, vol. iv.) which contain also the same 
species of cerithium and cyclas. 

No. 4 of Castle Hill, is the ash coloured sand of Woolwich, in dimi- 
nished thickness. The breccia, No. 3, corresponds with the Reading oyster 
bed, which " though inconsiderable in thickness, seems constantly to occur 

* GeograpMe Miner alogi que, p. 276, PI. ii. fig. 7. 

f The fossil in question was submitted to the examination of Mr. G. B. Sowerby, who 
favoured me with the following observations. 

" The specimen you have sent me has evei-y character of a cyrene, and of being a fresh- 
•water bivalve. I would, however, suggest the necessity of extreme caution in noting the 
stratum from which it was obtained. If from the plastic clay, it is the first that I have seen 
decidedly from that formation, of a Jresh water origin ; all the fossils from the London and 
plastic clay being marine. This shell, too, bears considerable resemblance to some from 
Woolwich ; as well as to a species that occurs abundantly in the stratum of melange between 
the two fresh water beds at Headen hill, in the Isle ef Wight." 

J In a recent communication from M. Brongniart, that distinguished geologist questions 
the propriety of this appropriation. He remarks, that in the environs of Paris, the ostrea 
vesicularis of Lamarck is confined to the upper, or flinty chalk. It is therefore probable, that 
the English fossil belongs to a diiFerent species. 



PLASTIC CLAY FORMATION. ^65 

immediately above the chalk; although organic remains have been noticed 
in it only at Heading*." 

Between Castle Hill and Seaford, a flat alluvial tract intervenes, 
through wliich the Ouse flows into the British Channel. To the east of 
this marshy plain, the perpendicular slopes in which the Downs terminate, 
are covered with a cap of fawn coloured and greenish sand, with rolled 
blocks of chalk, and flint pebbles. An excavation on the side of the hill, 
near the road leading from Newhaven to Seaford, exhibits a good section 
of these deposits. The rolled pebbles and sand, occupy about fifteen feet 
of the upper part of the bank, and he in a hollow or basin of chalk 
rubble; and wherever the chalk is accessible to observation along this 
margin of the Downs, it is invariably in a broken and ruinous state. 

At Chimting Castle, about half a mile to the east of Seaford, the upper 
part of the cliffs is composed of a bed of sand, about fifty feet thick. 
Here a stratum of the ferruginous breccia, previously mentioned, is seen 
in situ, lying beneath the sand, and immediately upon the chalk. The 
sand is of a fawn colour, passing into olive green ; it contains numerous 
irregular veins, and concretions of mammillated ironstone. The pudding- 
stone, or breccia, is precisely similar to that of Castle Hill, with which, 
there can be no doubt, it was once continuous. The flints that compose 
it, present the same characters ; some being rolled, others angular, and 
all of them either of a dark green or yellow colour externally. The bed 
of breccia, in some places, is nearly four feet thick. These deposits 
extend eastward about half a mile, and disappear near the Signal House ; 
they dip to the west at an angle of from 10° to 20°. 

Eastward of this place, the chalk has only a covering of ochraceous 
clay, and vegetable mould, and, with the exception of the blocks of breccia 
at Brighton, &c. previously alluded to, and a few insular patches of olive 
green sand in hollows of the chalk at Piddinghoe, I am not aware of the 
existence of any other decided examples of the Plastic clay, in the south- 
eastern part of Sussex. 

In the western division of the county, Professor Buckland observed a 

* Professor Buckland on the Plastic Clay, Geolog. Trans. Vol. iv. 

M M 



266 PLASTIC CLAY FORMATION. 

red variety of Plastic clay, in a small valley, at the village of Binstead, 
three miles west of Arundel ; and also on the declivity of the lull by 
which the Binstead and Chichester road descends into Arundel. 

The country around Chichester has a foundation of chalk, with a sub- 
soil of fine red gravel, and pebbles, mixed with sand, loam, and chalk 
rubble. Furrows and weUs in the chalk, fiUed with these materials, are 
commonly observable in the quarries near that city. 



On the opposite coast of France, strata corresponding with those of 
Castle Hill, and Chimting Castle, occupy the same relative position. 

In the perpendicular cliifs, under the hght-house of St. Margaret, to 
the west of Dieppe, the following beds occur : — 

1. Chalk. 

2. Sand and sandstone in thick beds, containing concretions of the 

same substances. 

3. Plastic clay, impure, and containing Ugnite much charged with 

pyrites. Also oysters, cerithia, &c. both in beds, and irre- 
gularly disseminated. 

4. Alluvium*. 

These deposits M. Brongniart considers as identical with the beds of 
the Plastic clay formation in many other parts of France ; particularly at 
Marly, and in the Soissonnois, where similar organic remains occupy 
strata disposed in the same manner, and identical with those near Dieppe. 

In the preceding sketch of the strata of the Plastic clay of Sussex, 
the geologist will immediately recognize the usual characters of that 
formation, which, "viewed on an extended scale, is composed of an 
indefinite number of sand, clay, and pebble beds, irregularly alternating. 
The distribution of the organic remains, like the alternation of the strata, 
being exceedingly variable ; sometimes they occupy the clay ; at other 
times the sand or pebbles ; and very frequently are altogether wanting in 
them both-f-." 

* Professor Buckland on the Plastic Clay Formation, Geolog. Trans. Vol. iv. p. 295, 
f Geological Transactions, Vol. iv. loc. cit. 



LONDON CLAY. 267 

XVII. 
§. III. IL LONDON CLAY. 



This formation consists chiefly of a dark blue clay, which in some 
localities includes beds of grey limestone and sandstone. 

Eoth the clay and limestone occur in Sussex ; the former constitutes 
the flat maritime district of the south-western part of the county ; the 
latter composes groups of rocks on the coast. 

Blue Clay. 

This deposit forms the line of coast from Worthing to Christchurch 
in Hampshire, extending from the latter place inland, by Kingwood, 
Komsey, and Fareham ; and passing a mile or two south of Chichester, 
terminates near Worthing, from whence to Brighton, the surface of the 
chalk near the coast, is covered with beds of loam, clay, brick earth, 
gravel, &c.* 

In some parts of its course in Sussex, it contains an abundance of the 
organic remains for which it is so remarkable. Emsworth and Stubbing- 
ton, on the confines of the county, have been noticed by Mr. Webster, as 
abounding in fossil shells. Bracklesham, near Selsea, is equally pro- 
ductive ; and if I may judge from the hberal contributions of my friends, 
wiU almost rival the celebrated cHfis of HordweU. 

On the coast westward of Selsea, near Thorney and Bracklesham, vast 
quantities of fossil shells are washed out of the clay and deposited on the 
shore, by the action of the waves, particularly after severe storms. This 
bed of clay is, however, only accessible at low water, and even then but 
for a very short period. 

* Phillips' Geology, p. 32, edit. 1822. 

M M 2 



268 LONDON CLAY. 

Below the beach at Bracklesham, in the parish of East Wittering, the 
clay envelopes the trunks, roots, and branches of trees*. 

In the second volume of the Geological Transactions, Mr. Webster 
has enumerated the fossils discovered by him at Bracklesham. An 
interesting collection from that place, for which I am indebted to the 
kindness of Mr. Hawkins, has enabled me to add very considerably to 
their number. 

Organic Remains from the Blue Clay of Bracklesham. 

1. Trochus agglutinans. (Lamarck). Foss. Hant. Tab. i. figs. 4, 5-f-. 

2. Scalaria acuta. Min. Conch. Tab. xvi. figs. 4, 5. 

This very elegant shell seldom exceeds 0-7 inch in length. It is 
readily known by the transverse risings on the lower margin of the spire, 
and its acute, expanded, recurved ribs. 

It is very seldom found in the cliffs of Hampshire ; Mr. Hawkins is the 
first who has noticed it in Sussex. 

3. Voluta luctator. Min. Conch. Tab, cxv. fig. 1. 

4. bicorona. (Lamarck). Foss. Hant. fig. 68. 

A specimen of this species was discovered by Mr. Rollo. It appears 
to be rare at Bracklesham, although very common at Hordwell. 

5. Pyrula hulbiformis. Foss. Hant. fig. 54. 

6. {murex pyrus of Brander). Foss. Hant. figs. 52, 53. 

7. AmpuUaria patula. (Lamarck). Foss. Hant. figs. 57, 59. 

8. Natica similis. Min. Conch. Tab. v. 

9. Conus dormitor. (Brander). Foss. Hant. fig. 24. 

10. AnciQa aveniformis. Wlin. Conch. Tab. xcix. figs. 1, 2. 

Another species of Ancilla also occurs, which approaches in some re- 
spects to A. turritella (of Sowerby); and some mutilated specimens re- 
semble Bulla sopita (of Brander). 

* I am favoured with this account by my excellent friend John Hawkins, Esq. F.R.S. &c. 
of Bignor Park. Vide his " Observations on the geological phenomena of Western Sussex," 
published in Dallaway's history of that division of the county. Vol. ii. 

t Fossilia Hantoniensia coUecta, et in Musaeo Britannico deposita, a Gustavo Brander, 
Londini 1766. This work is much prized by collectors for the elegance and ttdelity of the 
plates. It contains figures of more than one hundred and thirty fossils of the London clay. 



LONDON CLAY. 269 

11. Fusus longcBvus. Mm. Conch. Tab. Ixiii. 

The specimens in my possession are very small, not exceeding three 
inches in length. There can however be no doubt of their belonging to 
this species. 

12. Solarium canaliculatum. (Lamarck). Foss. Hant. figs. 7, 8. 
This elegant httle shell is about 0-3 inch in diameter. The spu'e is 

depressed, and deeply umbilicated. The volutions are subrotund, and 
spirally striated; the striae crenulated; the outer margin of the wreaths 
acute; aperture round. 

13. Melania costellata. (Lamarck). Foss. Hant. fig. 27. 

14. sulcata. Min. Conch. Tab. xxxix. 

This is a fine spiral shell, sometimes attaining eight inches or more in 
length, having from thirteen to fifteen whorls. It is spirally striated, and 
has a sulcus, or groove, between each wreath. 

15. Pleurotoma , fragments of an unknown species. 

16. TuYiitella multisulcata. (Lamarck). 

17. conoidea. Min. Conch. Tab. U. figs. 1, 4. 

18. elongata. Min. Conch. Tab. li. fig. 2. 

Pyritous casts of TurritellcB are very frequent. 

19. Murex argutus. Foss. Hant. fig. IS. 

20. Dentalium entalis? 

These DentaHtes bear a close resemblance to the recent species; but 
there are some doubts as to their identity. 

21. Cerithium giganteum. Min. Conch. Tab. clxxxviii. fig. 2. 

22. Nummuhtes IcBvigata. Parkinson's Org. Rem. Vol. iii. PI. x. fig. 
IS. 

These are small, circular, multilocular shells, nearly smooth, and slightly 
convex on both sides. M. Cuvier considers the Nummulites to be charac- 
teristic of the lower beds of the Calcaire grassier. " Elles se trouvent, 
toujours dans les parties les plus inferieures*." 

* Geograph. Min. p. 23. 



270 LONDON CLAY. 

23. V enericavdiia planicosta. Mm. Conch. Tab. 1. 

This shell is one of the most elegant of the genus. It is frequently 
four or five inches wide; of an obliquely cordate form, and the surface is 
divided by longitudinal sulci into about twenty broad flat costae. Speci- 
mens from Grignon, sent me by M. Brongniart, are precisely similar to 
the Sussex shells; and are only to be distinguished from them, by their 
peculiar whiteness. 

24. Venericardia squamosa? (Lamarck). 

25. Sanguinolaria Holloivaysii. Min. Conch. Tab, clix. 

A thin, transversely ovate, elongated bivalve, having a striated surface. 
The anterior side is much wider than the posterior. 

26. Venericardia acuticosta? (Lamarck). 

This shell is 1 inch wide, and 0*8 inch long, with 20 acute longitudinal 
ribs ; the inner margin dentated. 

27. Pectunculus pulvinatus. 

28. Cardium semigranulatum. Min. Conch. Tab, cxliv. 
asperulum? of Lamarck. 

29. Chama^//c«^a. (Brander.) Foss. Hant. figs. 84, 85, 

The Bracklesham specimens are much larger than Brander's figures; 
but in other respects the resemblance is complete. The upper valve is 
nearly flat, and marked concentrically by the lines of growth; the lower 
one is convex, and deeply fiu-rowed by longitudinal sulci. 

50. Chama lamellosa. (Lamarck). Foss. Hant. fig. 86. 

This species is subrotund, the surface marked with transverse concen- 
tric sulci; the lower valve very convex. It was found by Mr. Kollo. 

51. Crassatella lamellosa. (Lamarck). Foss. Hant. fig. 89. 

An elegant equivalve shell, of an irregular ovate form, with numerous, 
transverse, undulating sulci ; the anterior slope produced, and angular ; the 
margin crenulated ; collected by Mr. Hollo. 

52. Ostrea. A shell of this genus, but too imperfect to admit of spe- 
cification. 

33. Palate of a fish of the ray kind resembling fig. 117. Foss. Hant. 



LONDON CLAY. 271 

34. Vertebra of a fish. Foss. Hant. fig. 109. 

2. Sandstone, or arenaceous limestone of Bognor. 

The sandstone rocks of Bognor are the ruins of a deposit once very 
extensive, and which, even within the memory of man, formed a Hne of 
low cliffs along the coast; at present, a few groups of detached rocks, 
covered by the sea at high water, are all that remains, and the period is 
not far distant, when all traces of it wiU be swept away by the encroach- 
ments of the ocean. The lowermost part of the rocks is a dark grey lime- 
stone, in some instances passing into sandstone : the upper part is sili- 
ceous. The Barn rocks between Selsea and Bognor, the Houndgate and 
Street rocks on the west, and Mixen rocks on the south of Selsea, are por- 
tions of the same bed. The fossils enclosed in these strata are nearly 
similar to those which occur in the London clay. 

These beds are decidedly analogous to the Calcaire grossier of Paris ; 
the correspondence in their geognostic situation, and in the nature of their 
materials, and organic remains, sufficiently evince their identity*. 

The sandstone is of a grey colour inclining to green ; and varies con- 
siderably in hardness and composition. The shells are generally white 
and friable, consisting of a soft calcareous earth, but in a few instances 
occur in a good state of preservation. To my young friend and pupil 
Mr. Rollo, (nephew of the late Dr. RoUo, of Woolwich,) I am indebted 
for the following specimens collected by him in the summer of 1820. 
Organic Remains of the Bognor Sandstone. 

1. Rostellaria. 

2. Natica similis ? Min. Conch. Tab. v. 

The specimen figured by Mr. Sowerby is from Bognor, and was col- 
lected by Wm. Borrer, Esq. of Henfield. 

S. Lingula tenuis. ■ Min. Conch. Tab. xix. fig. 3. 

A delicate minute shell, of a lanceolate form, the anterior end trun- 

* Geological Transactions, Vol. ii. p. 208. 



272 LONDON CLAY. 

cated. It is generally of a reddish brown colour, has a glossy surface, and 
very much resembles a detached scale of a fish, 

4. Vermicularia Bognoriensis. 

Spiral, last volution much produced, inferior side deeply umbilicate. 

The longest diameter is about 0-5 inch; the volutions are five or six 
in number; the produced part exceeding in length the longest diameter 
of the shell. 

The great length of the straight portion of the tube, the height of the 
spire, and the depth of the concave or umbilicated side, appear to be the 
distinguishing characters of this species. The wreaths are nearly round 
and smooth. It is gregarious, and occurs very abundantly in some parts 
of the sandstone : a block in my possession, about four inches square, con- 
tains nearly twenty specimens lying in rehef 

5. Pyrula . (Murex pyrus of Brander.) Foss. Hant. figs. 52, 53. 

A fine cast of this species is the only example hitherto discovered. 

6. TienidMvim planum. Min. Conch. Tab. Ixxix. fig. 1. 

This species is scarcely an inch long ; it is curved, and gently tapering ; 
the surface is smooth, and the aperture round. It occurs in small groups, 
and is evidently gregarious. 

7. Mya intermedia. 3Iin. Conch. Tab. Ixxvi. fig. 1. 

The width of this shell is equal to twice its length, which is seldom 
more than 1 S inch. The anterior side is expanded, and the shell pos- 
sesses a flatness, wliich Mr. Sowerby considers as characteristic of the 
species. The surface is smooth, except where it is marked by the lines of 
increase. 

8. Pinna margaritacea *. (Lamarck). 

The usu.al mode in wliich this species occurs, is that of casts covered 
with the pearly coat of the shell; very rarely, the shell itself remains. 

* This species is described by Mr. Parkinson; {Organic Remains, Vol. iii. p. 165) and is 
figured by Burtin, (OryctograjpJiie de Bruxelles), fig. B. PI. xviii. as a Jambonneau ou Pinne 
marine, 

Mr. RoUo found a small block of sandstone, containing the remains of eight individuals. 



. LONDON CLAY. 273 

The specimens are from four to five inches long, the shell very thin, 
and possessing the striated structure observable in the recent species of 
the genus. The surface is almost smooth, with the exception of a few in- 
distinct longitudinal ribs, that are decussated by gentle concentric depres- 
sions formed by the lines of increase. 

9. Vectuncnlns pnlvinatus. (Lamarck.) 

This shell is very abundant; large masses of the limestone being 
almost whoUy composed of it ; a slab in my possession, about a foot square, 
contains upwards of fifty specimens. Considerable variety is observable 
in the form of the shells; some being transversely, and others obliquely 
obovate, and a few nearly orbicular. They are from 0*5 inch to 1-8 inch 
long, and are marked by numerous longitudinal stria?, crossed by fine 
transverse lines ; the marks of increase are distant. The hinge teeth are 
from fourteen to sixteen in number, and the interior of the margin is finely 
serrated. 

10. A small tricuspid tooth of a species of squalus. 

11. Large ramose zoophytes; the specimens are in too imperfect a 
state to be particularized. 

The following shells are enumerated by Mr. Webster, but were not 
observed by Mr. KoUo. 

12. Calyptrgea trochiformis. Foss. Hant. figs. 1, 2. 

13. AmpuUaria j9a^M/«. 

14. Serpula. 

15. Modiola elegans. Min. Conch. Tab. ix. fig. 5. ;^ 

16. Ostrea edulis. 

17. Teredo navalis. ' 



N N 



274 ALLUVIAL FORMATIONS. 

XVIIL 

§ IV. ALLUVIAL FORMATIONS. 



By this term are designated those accumulations of sand, clay, gravel, 
rounded flints, and other water- worn materials, that cover the surface of 
the regular formations, and are composed either of the detritus of the 
upper portions of the strata on which they repose, or of heaps of materials 
confusedly mixed together, transported from distant or more elevated 
regions. These beds are consequently as various as the strata from 
whence they are derived, and it is neither possible, nor necessary, to 
enumerate every difference in their appearance, and composition. 

As monuments of the last revolutions that have swept over the face 
of the earth, their study becomes peculiarly interesting; for although 
most of them may be regarded as recent depositions, when compared with 
the formations previously examined, yet even the latest will be found to 
exhibit indisputable evidence of a very remote origin. 

The beds usually comprehended under the general name of Alluvium 
may be more properly separated into two divisions, viz. : 

1. Diluvium, consisting of gravel, boulders, sand, &c. produced by 
causes no longer in action. 

2. Alluvium, strictly so called, composed of the mud of rivers, deltas, 
the gravel of torrents, &c., the effect of causes which still continue in 
activity *. 

* " It will be convenient if geologists will consent to restrict the term Diluvium to the super- 
ficial gravel beds produced by the last universal deluge; and designate by the term Alluvium, 
those local accumulations that have been formed since that period by torrents, and rapid 
rivers, the bursting of alpine lakes, and similar minor causes, which operate daily, and partially, 
within the sphere of our own observation." Professor Buckland, Geolog. Trans. Vol. v. p. 333. 



DILUVIUM. 275 



XIX. 

§ IV. 12. DILUVIUM. 



IiiREGULAB accumulations of clay, sand, and gravel, intermixed with 
broken chalk flints, are every where indiscriminately distributed over the 
surface of the country, and obscure the outcrops of the regular forma- 
tions. These depositions are evidently composed of the ruin of the more 
ancient strata ; and in all probability have been produced by that last ca- 
tastrophe, by which the vaUies have been excavated, and the hiUs moulded 
into their present form. 

Of these deposits, the detritus of the chalk in a state of calcareous 
loam, broken flints, and gravel, constitute by far the most considerable 
portion; and so extensive is the destruction to which that formation has 
evidently been exposed, and so universally are its ruins distributed over 
the Weald of Sussex, as to warrant the conclusion, that it formerly ex- 
tended very far beyond its present limits. 

On the summits of the Downs, a layer of flints, slightly rolled, appears 
immediately beneath the turf, resting on an inconsiderable layer of chalk 
rubble. This bed contains rounded masses of chalk, crystallized car- 
bonate of lime, ferruginous breccia, scoriaceous ironstone, a coarse grit 
containing angular fragments of quartz, and flattened oval pebbles of 
druid sandstone. The flints are more or less broken, have suffered but 
little from attrition, and are so abundant, as to form a constant supply for 
repairing the roads in the south-eastern part of the county. This bed 
has clearly been formed by the destruction of the upper portion of the 
chalk ; and it is equally evident, that the cause which produced the ruin 
of the superior strata, was as transient, as it was powerful ; since although 



276 DILUVIUM. 

the chalk in which the flints were imbedded has been entirely destroyed, 
the latter have sustained but very Uttle injury. 

Descending into the vallies, accumulations of chalk rubble and ochra- 
ceous clay, are again seen lying upon the basseting edges of the solid 
strata; and the slopes of the hUls are generally composed of similar 
materials. Examples of this kind occur in almost every locality of the 
South Downs. 

The gravel-pits (as they are called) of Barcombe, are part of a ridge of 
broken chalk flints, shghtly rolled, resting upon a bed of ochraceous clay. 
The flints are of various shades of yeUow, brown, and carnelian. The 
colour, which in aU probability results partly from decomposition, and 
partly from an impregnation of metallic oxides, pervades the substance of 
the flint, but is much paler towards the centre than on the surface. These 
flints are not reduced to the state of pebbles, much less of gravel, but are 
merely broken, and the sharpness of their angles worn away. 

At Isfield, Little Horsted, Barcombe, WeUingham, &c., the surface of 
the Weald clay, Iron sand, and Green sand, is covered with beds of gravel? 
composed of water-worn fragments of sandstone and ironstone, which in 
some instances are consolidated into a coarse aggregate, and are evidently 
the detritus of the upper layers of the Iron and Green sand formations. 
A considerable bed of it occurs in the parish of Barcombe, near the Anchor ; 
at Hamsey, on the estate of the Eev. Geo. Shiffher; and at WelUngham, 
near the seat of Mr. John Rickman. 

At Ringmer, and Laughton Place, a layer of loam and ochraceous clay 
is distributed over the surface of the Blue chalk marl, and frequently con- 
tains belemnites and other organic remains, that have been washed from 
the upper beds of that deposit. On the south side of the Downs, to the 
north- west of Brighton, beds of loam, marl, and clay, with interspersions of 
gravel, constitute a flat narrow tract of country that extends without in- 
terruption to Shoreham. 

But the most considerable and important deposit of diluvial detritus in 
Sussex, is that forming the cliffs at Brighton ; and which possesses charac- 
ters so remarkable, as to require particular notice. 



DILUVIUM. 277 

Brighton is situated on an immense accumulation of water-worn ma- 
terials, which fills up a valley, or hollow, in the chalk. This diluvial de- 
})osit is bounded on the north-west by the South Downs ; on the east it 
extends to Kottingdean, and is there terminated by the chalk; on the 
south it is washed by the sea, and forms a hue of cliffs from 70 to 80 feet 
high ; these exhibit a vertical section of the strata, and enable us to ascer- 
tain their nature and position. 

A vertical section of the chffs, about half a mile east of Brighton, is 
represented in Tab. iv. fig. 1. The lowermost bed is 

1. The Upper, or flinty chalk; which constitutes about six or eight 
feet of the lower part of the cliff, and dipping southward, extends to an 
unknown distance into the sea. The continuation of the chalk behind 
the calcareous bed is marked ^^ former cliff" in the sketch; and is in- 
troduced to shew the relative situation of the masses, but without any 
regard to pi'oportion. 

2. Bed of fine sand, from three to four feet. 

3. Shingle bed, from five to eight feet. 

4. Calcareous bed, formed of the ruin of the chalk strata, with an in- 
termixture of clay; it is provincially termed Coombe rock; — from 50 to 
60 feet. 

The chalk presents its usual characters; and in various parts of its 
course is traversed by vertical and obHque veins of flint. 

The sand is very fine, varying from pure white to a light reddish 
brown colour. It disappears about a mile to the east of Brighton, where 
the succeeding deposit lies immediately upon the surface of the chalk. 

The shingle bed consists of pebbles, formed, Uke the present beach, of 
broken chalk flints rounded by attrition. It contains also water-worn 
blocks of granite, porphyry, slate, limestone, and druid sandstone. It oc- 
casionally envelopes masses of broken shells. The upper part of this bed 
is cemented together by calcareous spar, of a hght yellow or amber colour, 
forming a kind of breccia of a very singular appearance*. 

* A specimen of this mineral is figured in Sffwerbys British Mineralogy. 



278 DILUVIUM. 

The calcareous bed is composed of broken chalk, with angular frag- 
ments of flint, imbedded in a calcareous mass of a yellowish colour, con- 
stituting a very hard and coarse conglomerate. It is not stratified, but is 
merely a confused heap of alluvial materials. It varies considerably in its 
appearance and composition, in different parts of its course. In the in- 
ferior portion of the mass, the chalk is reduced to the state of small 
grains, which gradually become larger in proportion to their height in the 
cliff; at length fragments of flint appear, and these increase in size and 
number as they approach the upper part of the bed, of which they con- 
stitute the most considerable portion. These flints are more or less 
broken, and resemble those of oiu* ploughed lands that have been long 
exposed to the action of the atmosphere. 

In some parts of the cliff irregular masses occur of an extraordinary 
hardness ; these have been produced by an infiltration of crystallized car- 
bonate of hme. Large blocks of this variety may be seen on the shore, 
opposite to the New Stein e, where they have for years resisted the action 
of the waves. 

This bed also contains water- worn blocks of druid sandstone, and fer- 
ruginous breccia, corresponding in every respect with those previously 
noticed in our description of the plastic clay formation. Small nodular 
masses, composed of carbonate of iron in lenticidar crystals, interspersed 
with bro^vn calcareous spar, have occasionally been found at the depth of 
ten or twelve feet from the summit of the chff *. The only organic re- 
mains discovered in this deposit are the bones and teeth of the horse, 
and of the Asiatic elephant f; these occur but seldom, and are more or less 
water- worn J. 

* I am indebted to Mr. Langridge, of Brighton, for specimens of this substance, dis- 
covered in digging the foundation of a house on the east cliff. 

■f In the present month (April, 1822), a large molar tooth of the Asiatic elephant has 
been discovered in Lower Rock gardens, in a well 50 feet deep ; by John Smith, Esq. Foreign 
Consul. 

J I have specimens of the teeth by favour of Mr. James Berry, architect, found in a well 
50 yards inland, at the depth of 46 feet, in the Coombe rock, and immediately above a bed of 
shingle. 



■^ 



DILUVIUM. 279 

The wells in the lower part of the town pass through the calcareous 
bed, shingle, and sand, in succession ; upon reaching the chalk, springs of 
good water burst forth, and these are said to be influenced by the tides *. 

Such are the leading features of these remarkable beds, in the im- 
mediate vicinity of Brighton ; in their course eastward, towards Eot- 
tingdean, other characters are exhibited, which we shall now proceed to 
examine. 

About a mile to the east of Brighton, vertical veins of tabular flint 
traverse the chalk in an obhque direction, and terminate with the chalk, 
immediately beneath the shingle bed (vide Tab. iv. fig. 2). To avoid 
repetition, it may be proper in this place to remark, that the veins of 
flint, so numerously distributed both horizontally and vertically through- 
out the chalk, are invariably conjined to that formation, and in no instance, 
whatever appear either in the shingle bed, or in the calcareous bed above 
it-\. The shingle bed is perfectly horizontal, and contains boulders of 
chalk, druid sandstone, and ferruginous breccia. In the Coombe I'ock, the 
proportion of chalk is so great, that the cliff at a distance assumes the 
appearance of a regular stratum ; but upon closer examination, it is 
evident that the chalk at some remote period has been broken, and dis- 
placed ; and having fallen upon the shingle, previously to the formation 
of the calcareous bed, has subsequently been covered by that deposit. 

In Tab. iv. fig. 2, the chalk traversed by oblique veins of flint, is seen 

The teeth are rounded by attrition, but in other respects have suffered no material 
change. 

The story of human bones having been found in the " calcareous bed," is too apocryphal 
to require notice. 

* " Some wells at Tetney (a village on the coast of Lincolnshire), that are sunk in the chalk, 
are also affected by the tide ; the wells overflowing with a greater flux at the time of high 
water, and particularly at spring tides ; shewing that the water in the chalk communicates 
with the sea." Geolog. Trans. Vol. iii. p. 394. 

■f An opinion having been expressed (by a gentleman well known in the scientific world), 
that the flint veins traverse not only the shingle bed, but also the calcareous deposit; and have 
been formed " subsequently to the accumulation of an alluvial bed, by the attrition of agitated 
water;" and that the cliffs at Brighton are to be regarded as " two very distinct chalk forma- 
tions*;" I carefully repeated my examination of the strata in question; but could not discover 
any appearance to support such an hypothesis. 

* Vide Royal InsiUution Journal, No. 8^, pp. 227, et seq. Phillips' Outlines, Edit. 1823, p. 106. 



280 DILUVIUM. 

forming the base of the chiF. The shingle bed succeeds ; and imme- 
diately above it, is a heap of chalk in a state of ruin ; the latter is invested 
by the calcareous bed, of which the upper part of the cliff is composed. 
This appearance is curious, but the manner in which it has been produced 
is easily explained, by a reference to those natural operations that stiU 
continue in full activity on our coasts. Were a bed of calcareous rubble 
to be deposited over the ruins of the chalk chifs that are scattered along 
the shore, a collection of materials would be formed, corresponding in 
every respect with those above described ; and a vertical section would 
exhibit an appearance precisely similar ; namely, a stratum of solid chalk 
at the base ; then a layer of sand and of shingle ; and lastly, a heap of 
displaced chalk, surrounded by calcareous diluvium. In corroboration of 
this opinion, it may also be remarked, that while in general, the variations 
observable in the colour and composition of the calcareous bed, are nearly 
Jiorizontal, in the circumstances under discussion, they are no longer 
conformable to the subjacent deposit, but rise over the heaps of chalk 
rubble ; as in Tab. iv. fig. 2. These interspersions of pure chalk are 
frequent in other parts of the bed, but the present example is one of the 
most remarkable. 

Proceeding eastward, at the distance of two miles and a half from 
Brighton, the cliff is composed of the Upper chalk, to the extent of three 
hundred yards. This remarkable change in the structure of the cliff has 
evidently been occasioned, partly from the destruction of the diluvial 
deposits by the inroads of the sea, and partly from a projection of the 
chalk, which formed their ancient boundary ; for there appears to have 
been but Httle correspondence in the sinuosities of the ancient and modern 
shores. An abrupt recess marks this alteration in the face of the cHff ; 
and here the calcareous bed rises suddenly to the summit of the chalk, 
over which it is continued in a layer of inconsiderable thickness (vide 
Tab. V. fig. 1). The shingle bed, which at a short distance to the west 
contains large masses of chalk, here suffers a remarkable contraction, and 
is divided by thin seams of sand and fine rubble. At the curvature of 
the recess, the shingle diminishes very abruptly, and soon entirely dis- 



DILUVIUM. 281 

appears. Along the face of the chalk, slight traces of it are here and 
there perceptible, and in these situations, the vertical flint veins that 
traverse the cUff, invariably pass behind, and are concealed from view, by 
the insular patches of shingle. 

The face of the chalk is remarkably even ; it is not, however, vertical, 
but forms a precipitous slope. In the upper part, the chalk is much 
broken, and contains two horizontal veins of tabular flint ; the inferior 
strata are more regular. It is particularly necessary for the reader to bear 
in mind, that although the chalk with its horizontal flint veins, (vide Tab. 
V. fig. 1), is higher than the insular portions of the shingle bed, it is not 
situated perpendicularly above them ; the cliff", as before mentioned, forms 
an incHned plane, its summit receding considerably from the shore : con- 
sequently a vertical section would cut off'aU traces of the shingle*. 

On the eastern extremity of the recess, the chalk is traversed by 
numerous veins of marl, but in other respects presents nothing worthy of 
observation. At the termination of the chalk, a bold projection of the 
cliff" occurs, in which the shingle and calcareous bed appear in their 
usual position and proportions. 

Towards Eottingdean the cliff"s increase in altitude, but the calcareous 
bed diminishes considerably in thickness, and wherever a vertical section 
is exposed, is seen lying upon the shingle, in contact with a sloping 
bank of broken chalk ; the latter being evidently the ruin of the ancient 
chalk cliff's, the flints it contains presenting no appearance of having 
suflPered either from attrition, or exposure. 

To the west of Rottingdean, the cliff's are chiefly composed of the 
regular chalk strata, containing, as usual, horizontal beds of siliceous 
nodules, and veins of tabular flint. Veins of marl are also very numerous, 
and there is one of remarkable extent, which appears beneath the shingle, 
and extending in a horizontal direction to within a short distance of 

* It was probably from want of attention to this circumstance, that the I'espectable 
writer previously alluded to, was led to adopt the opinion, that the shingle bed was situated 
between two distinct beds of flinty chalk. 



282 DILUVIUM. 

Eottingdean, (vide Tab. v. fig. 2), reappears on the eastern bank of the 
landing place (vide Tab. v. fig. S). 

In that portion of the chfis we are now describing, the shingle ter- 
minates as represented in fig. 2. Tab. v. ; and by a singular coincidence, a 
bed of flint nodules commences immediately beneath it, and pursuing a 
horizontal course in the chalk, resembles at a distance a continuation of 
that bed. It is scarcely necessary to observe, that this apparent identity 
is a mere illusion ; a bed of rounded pebbles lying upon the chalk, cannot 
readily be mistaken for a stratum oi perfect chalk flints, still occupying the 
cavities in zvhich they were originally formed. 

On the west side of the landing place at Eottingdean, the cliff' is low, 
and its upper part occupied by a mass of chalk rubble, analogous in some 
of its characters to the calcareous bed, of which it may possibly be a con- 
tinuation. It is strongly marked with undulating hues, of an ochraceous 
yellow colour. The chalk on both sides of the gap is more or less 
disturbed, and the veins of tabular flint are broken and contorted ; this 
is remarkably the case with those on the eastern bank (vide fig. 3, Tab. v), 
in which the fragments of flint are detached from each other. The beach 
near this place contains semitranslucent pebbles of agate, and chalcedony, 
of a bluish grey colour. These are collected by visitors, and when cut 
and poHshed, are used for bracelets and other ornamental purposes : they 
are usually called " Rottingdean pebbles." 

In concluding this description of the cliffs between Brighton and 
Eottingdean, I would observe, in the words of Mr. Webster, " that it is 
impossible to view them, without immediately perceiving, that they do 
not owe their existence to original stratification, but are simply the 
section of an immense heap of fragments of chalk, and flints, mixed with 
clay and sand, the whole having, at some distant period, been subjected 
to the action of water, and deposited upon the solid chalk stratum." 

It would be unjust to close this article, without acknowledging my 
obligations to Miss Sarah Godlee, of Lewes, for the elegant and accurate 
sketches of the strata, engraved in Tab. iv. and v. ; and to Mr. Thomas 



DILUVIUM. £83 

Hodgkin, of Brighton, for an interesting account of the principal 
phenomena above described ; to the kind assistance of this gentleman, 
whose residence near the spot aflfbrded him every facihty for accurate 
observation, I hold myself particularly indebted. 

Organic Remains of the Diluvial Deposits. 

It is precisely in deposits of this kind, that is, in diluvial beds spread 
over the surface of plains, or accumulated in the bottoms of vallies, that 
the remains of quadrupeds have been discovered in various parts of 
England. In Sussex, however, these remains but very rarely occur ; the 
bones and teeth of the horse, and of the elephant, being the only ex- 
amples at present known. 

Mr. Hawkins informs me, that about sixty years since, the bones of 
an elephant were dug up in Burton Park, near Arundel, but I have been 
unable to obtain any satisfactory account of the circumstances attending 
their discovery. 

In the brick loam at Hove, near Brighton, a fragment of a bone 
resembhng the femur, and a grinder of a large size, were found at the 
depth of about six feet ; the tooth was decidedly that of the Asiatic 
elephant. 

In the spring of last year, at Peppering, near Arundel, the bones, and 
several grinders of elephants, were found in a bed of gravel, on the estate 
of John Drewett, Esq. of Peppering, who kindly favoured me with the 
following remarks concerning them. 

" The remains in question were found in a bed of gravelly loam, 
situated near the foot of the Downs, and reposing upon the chalk, at an 
elevation of about eighty feet above the level of the Arun. They were 
lying very superficially, the first fragment of bone that attracted our 
notice being scarcely three feet beneath the surface. The specimens col- 
lected consist of a tusk, four grinders, and several fragments of other 
bones, apparently portions of the skull ; the body appeared to lie beneath 
a bank of earth of considerable thickness, and could not have been 



284 DILXTVIUM. 

removed without much labour. The tusk was lying upon its convex 
part, and notwithstanding every precaution, broke into several pieces, 
upon our attempting to remove it. It measured four feet and a half 
long, and from twenty-two to twenty-four inches in circumference ; but 
neither the base nor point were perfect. The largest grinder of the lower 
jaw weighed six pounds four ounces ; its upper surface being three inches 
and a half wide, and seven inches long ; one of the molares of the upper 
jaw was broken in two, and the pieces detached from each other." 

The grinders and bones of the elephant, and horse, occur in the 
calcareous bed at Brighton, as previously mentioned. 

The antlers and bones of the red deer are said to have been discovered 
in a bed of loam, in sinking a well near the barracks, a mile to the north- 
east of Brighton ; but much confidence cannot be placed in the correctness 
of the information. 



ALLUVIUM. 285 



XX. 



§ IV. 13. ALLUVIUM. 



Under this name are included, 

1. Marsh land, composed of blue clay, silt, &c. produced by rivers. 

2. Peat, and subterranean forests. 

3. Calcareous tufa, deposited by springs. 

4. Sand, and comminuted shells, on the coast, and drifted inland. 
These depositions are clearly the effect of local causes which still 

continue in operation, and appear to have proceeded with but httle 
modification, from the period when our continents assumed their present 
form *. 

In Sussex, the marsh lands (No. 1), which from the flatness of their 
surface, have received the provincial name of " levels," constitute several 
extensive tracts, partially filhng up vaUies in the older formations. They 
perfectly correspond in the nature of their materials, and for the most 
part have a river flowing through them. A description of those of 
Lewes will serve to convey a correct idea of the whole. 

Lewes levels, have aheady been noticed as constituting a flat 
marshy tract, through which the river Ouse winds its way to the British 
Channel. Tradition, ancient records, and the names of several hamlets f 

* Phillips' Geology, (Edit. 1822), p. 4. f Hamsey, Landport, &c. 



286 ALLUVIUM. 

sitviated upon its borders, lead to the opinion, that in distant ages, it 
was covered either by an arm of the sea, or an inland marine lake, which 
extended up the country far beyond the town of Lewes ; the site of the 
cHff being buried beneath its waters. During the last century, and 
before the present improved state of the navigation of the Ouse, the 
levels were annually exposed to extensive inundations, from the over- 
flowing of the banks of the river ; the rhies and other eminences, forming 
islands in the midst of the lake. 

A section of this alluvial deposit exposes, 

1. Pipe clay; the detritus of the chalk marl upon which it 

reposes, ----.__- i foot. 

2. Silt, or blue clay, with marine and fresh water shells ; 

from - - - - - - - 5 to 25 feet. 

3. Impure peat, with trunks of trees, _ - _ - 5 feet. 

4. Vegetable mould, -____-- 1 foot. 
Interspersions of white sand, gravel, and chalk rubble, also occur in 

various places. 

The pipe clay is sufficiently plastic for the usual purposes to which 
that substance is applied, and is evidently the detritus of the chalk 
marl. 

The silt varies in thickness from three to twenty-five, and in some 
instances, to thirty feet. The lower part of the bed contains marine 
shells ; the upper, fresh water shells ; but in the intermediate layers, both 
kinds are indiscriminately mixed together. The shells correspond with 
the recent testaceee of the adjacent river, and sea ; and I believe, are 
common in other alluvial depositions near the coast. I am indebted to 
William Wood, Esq. F.K.S. &c. (of the Strand), for the following deter- 
mination of their characters. 



ALLUVIUM. 287 

Shells from the Silt of Lewes Levels. 

Marine. Fresh water. 

1. Turbo ulva. 1. Helix planorbis. (Planorbis of 

2. Tellina solidula. Lamarck). 

3. Cardium edule. 2. Helix cornea. (Planorbis cornea 

4. Mactr a List eri. of Lamarck). 

3. Helix stagnalis. (Lymnea of La- 
marck). 

4. Helix palustris. 

5. ■ limosa. 

6. putris. 

7. tentaculata. 

8. Tuvho fontinalis. 

9. Tellina cornea. (Cyclas cornea of 
Lamarck). 

The peat consists of the remains of rushes, flags, and the foliage of 
various kinds of plants that affect a marshy soil ; it occasionally contains 
the trunks of large trees*. 

The alluvial deposits above described, are clearly of very remote an- 
tiquity, as is evident from the superficial situation in which ancient coins, 
&c. have been found. On the west side of Glynd bridge, a paved Roman 
causeway was discovered lying about three feet beneath the turf, upon a 
bed of silt twenty feet thick f. And in forming the new road across the 
levels from Ransconibe to Beddingham, a coin of Domitian was found im- 
mediately beneath the turf From these circumstances we may infer, that 
the formation of the levels was antecedent to the Roman advent ; and 
that since that period, they have not received any material addition. 

They also afford an interesting example of the gradual conversion of 

* " In widening the bed of the Oiise, trees, each containing a load of timber, were dis- 
covered." CooTc's Topography of Sussex. 

•f- A large brass of Antoninus Pius was found near it. 



288 ALLUVIUM. 

an extensive basin of salt water, into a fresh water lake*, and of the 
transition of the latter into a narrow river, which now flows through a 
fertile tract formed of the detritus of other strata, brought in remote 
ages from the interior of the country, and deposited in a valley of the 
chalk formation. 

2. Subterranean Forests. 

The occurrence of large trees beneath the surface of the earth, with 
their leaves, roots, and even fruits, more or less preserved, attracted the 
attention of philosophers at a very early period. . These subterranean 
forests have been noticed in almost every part of England, and various 
conjectures offered in explanation of the catastrophes by which they have 
been overwhelmed. The subject has been ably treated by Mr. Parkin- 
son f, to whose work the reader is referred for an interesting account of 
the most remarkable examples. 

The trees are chiefly oak, hazel, fir, birch, yew, wiUow, and ash ; in 
short, almost every kind that is indigenous to this island occasionally 
occurs. The trunks, branches, &c., are dyed throughout of a deep ebony 
colour; the wood is firm and heavy, and sometimes sufiiciently sound 
for domestic use ; in Yorkshire it is employed in the construction of 
houses. Several accumulations of this kind have been discovered on the 
coast of Sussex, occupying low alluvial tracts, that are still subject to 
periodical inundations. 

At Felpham, near Bognor, on the 25th of October, 1799, a submarine 
forest was laid bare by a north-east hurricane. It was situated about five 
feet beneath the surface ; but neither its thickness nor extent could be 
ascertained ; notwithstanding, there can be no doubt, that it pervades the 

* This conclusion naturally results from the occurrence of marine shells in the lower beds 
only, and of fresh water in the upper, the two being intermixed in the intermediate layers; 
since the experiments of M. Beaudant have shewn, that if fresh water moUusca be suddenly 
introduced into sea water, they die in a vei'y short time ; but if the fresh water is very gradually 
impregnated with salt, they will live in it when of the strength of sea water without any injury: 
the same experiments repeated on fresh water mollusca gave similar results. Vide Annal. de 
Chim, et Physique, ii. 32. 

f Organic Remains, Vol. i. p. 62, et seq. 



ALLUVIUM. 289 

Felpham levels, probably as far as the village of Barnham. Large por- 
tions of the trunks of trees, and heaps of reeds, oak-leaves, &c., matted 
together, were observed, permeated throughout with a bituminous stain. 
This storm also exposed on the strand, at low water, upwards of forty 
large oak trees, lying with their heads toward the south-east. The body 
of the largest measured four feet in diameter, the wood was extremely 
black, and emitted a strong sulphureous smell during combustion. Trees 
of this kind have often been observed by the inhabitants of Bognor after 
a north-east storm, and doubtless, may again be witnessed under similar 
circumstances by any curious inquirer*. 

In Pevensey levels the trunks of large trees have often been observed, 
imbedded in a mass of decayed vegetables. The substratum is an inferior 
peat, with an intermixture of sand, reposing upon a thick bed of blue al- 
luvial clay, containing marine shells of the same species as those that occur 
in Lewes levels. In that division of the marsh called Hoo Levels, a sub- 
marine forest was discovered a few years since. It lies in the western 
extremity of Bexhill parish, just above low water mark, adjacent to a 
manor farm of the Duke of Dorset, called Conden, nearly midway between 
Hastings and Eastbourne. The following description, from an anonymous 
correspondent, was pubHshed in the Gentleman's Magazine for 17 — . 

" In this place, there are the remains of 200 or more trees, which are 
firmly rooted to the soil, now become sand, and still retain their perpen- 
dicularity, and original position. Some of the trees are four or five feet 
above the surface, others have been cut down, or rather I conjecture worn 
away by the continued flux and reflux of the water. The ramifications, 
&c. of the roots are very perfect. The trees are of the same species as 
those of which our Sussex woods are composed, being principally oak and 
birch. At high water this spot is covered by the sea to the depth of ten 
or twelve feet ; so that it is evident, that the earth must here have ex- 
perienced some grand convulsion, as it is utterly impossible, under present 

* Communicated by the late Rev. J. Douglas, F. A. S. of Preston. 

P P 



290 ALLUVIUM. 

circumstances, that any other than marine vegetation could thrive or even 
exist there. 

« The adjacent country, inland, is a marsh from which the sea has been 
expelled, and is now kept out with great difficulty, and at a vast expense, 
and there is no woodland nearer than four miles, on the hill adjoining 
these levels." 

The marsh called the Wish, near Eastbourne, cliiefly consists of peat, 
of the same character as that of Pevensey, containing leaves, nuts, branches 
of trees, &c., and the bones of ruminants * : and at Isfield, in sinking the 
weU near the paper-mill, a bed of similar materials was passed through ; 
it is nearly 20 feet tliick, and contains oak-leaves, nuts, branches of trees, 
&c. 

3. Calcareous tufa, deposited by SPRiNas flowing through lime- 
stone STRATA, &C. 

The deposition of calcareous earth from water flowing through beds 
of limestone, is a fact so well known as to require but little comment. 

Springs of this kind occur in many parts of England, particularly in 
Derbyshire, where the incrustations they form are generally considered 
as petrifactions, although certainly having no claim to that title. The 
chemical changes which give rise to the phenomena in question admit of 
an easy explanation. 

At the temperature of 60°, lime is soluble in 700 times its weight of 
water ; and if to this solution a smaU portion of carbonic acid be added, a 
carbonate of hme is formed, and precipitated in an insoluble state f . If 
however the carbonic acid be in such quantity as to supersaturate the 
lime, it is again rendered soluble in water, and it is thus that carbonate 
of Hme, held in solution by an excess of fixed air, not in actual combina- 
tion with the hme, but contained in the water, and acting as a men- 

* In 1817 Thomas Smith, Esq. F.R.S., discovered in this alluvial bed the bones of a 
species otBos. 

+ Organic Remains, Vol. i. p. 373. 



ALLUVIUM. 291 

struum, is commonly found in all waters. Hence it is obvious, that a 
deposition of carbonate of lime from water, may be occasioned either 
from an absorption of carbonic acid, or from the loss of that portion 
which exists in excess. 

The only incrusting spring that occurs in Sussex, has its source in the 
beds of limestone of the iron sand formation*. It is situated in a wood 
at Pouncefordf, between Heathfield and Burwash. It forms an incon- 
siderable cascade over a rock of sandstone, and pursuing a tortuous course, 
deposits carbonate of lime on every extraneous body that Hes in its 
channel ; converting the mosses and other vegetables within reach of its 
waters, into masses of calcareous tufa. The specimens in my possession 
consist of incrustations of mosses, small branches of trees, leaves, &c.: 
some of them arc composed of a porous friable calcareous earth; and 
others of a compact carbonate of lime of a subcrystalline structure, per- 
fectly resembhng tlie tufaceous depositions of Derbyshire. When re- 
cently collected, the moss on the surface was green and flourishing, and 
had evidently continued to vegetate although the roots, &c. were com- 
pletely imbedded in the stone. 

I have not been able to obtain ajiy of the water for analysis ; but it is 
evidently possessed of very considerable lapidescent powers, and might 
doubtless be applied to the same ingenious purposes as the waters of 
Tivoli, and the baths of St. Phillip, in Tuscany:};. 

* The existence of an incrusting spring in Sussex, was first made known to me by Mr. 
Daniel King of Lewes. 

f Pounceford is tlie name of a farm in the possession of Mr. Edward Simes ; in passing 
from Heathfield to Burwash, it lies to the right of the road, and may readily he found by en- 
quiring of the keeper uf the turnpike gate. 

:f At the baths of St. Phillip in Tuscany, a manufactory is estabHshed, where casts of 
medals and bas-reliefs are formed of calcareous tufa. The water is propelled from a considei'- 
able height into a large vessel, and being interrupted in its fall by a wooden cross, is separated 
into a fine spray and dashed against the moulds of the medals, which are placed round the 
sides of the vessel ; by this means excellent impressions are produced. Vide Org. Rem. Vol. i. 
p. 363. 

The waters of the Ouse also contain a considerable proportion of calcareous earth. A 
wooden pipe which had for several years been used for the conveyance of water from the 
paper-mill at Lewes, had its interior coated with a very compact carbonate of lime, nearly 0'4 
inch thick. 

P P 2 



292 ALLUVIUM. 

4. Sand and comminuted shells on the coast, &c. 
Under this head, I shall merely notice the low bank near the entrance of 
Shoreham harbour. It is about 20 feet high, and consists of clay and 
marl, resting upon a bed of sand that contains the remains of shells in 
a very fragile and mutilated state ; they appear to be of the same species 
as those which inhabit the adjoining sea*. 



Present effects of the Ocean. 

Having examined the various accumulations of mineral substances that 
are worthy of notice in the district comprehended in the present volume, 
and described the numerous organic remains distributed in the respective 
deposits, it now only remains to investigate the nature of those changes 
which are still produced by that element, of whose powerful effects we 
have seen such unequivocal manifestations. But the present operation of 
the sea, seems to be whoUy incapable of producing the important changes 
that have formerly taken place, and on the Sussex coast they are restricted 
to a gradual, but constant destruction, of the strata which compose its 
shores. 

The encroachments of the sea along the coast of Sussex, have con- 
tinued incessantly, from time immemorial ; and when so considerable as to 
have occasioned sudden inundations, or overwhelmed fertile or inhabited 
tracts, have been noticed in our historical records. In the " Tawatio 
Ecdesiastica Anglia et JVallia, auctoritate P. Nicholas, (A.D. 1292), and 
Nonariim inqiiisitiones in curia scaccarii, (A.D. 1340), the following notices 
occur, of the losses sustained by the action of the sea, between the years 
1260 and 1340 ; a period of only eighty years -f. 

* On the authority of Thomas Smith, Esq. F. R. S. of London. 

■f I was favoured with this notice by the late Thomas WooUgar, Esq. of Lewes. 



ALLUVIUM. 293 

At Pett, marsh land overflowed by the sea ; the tithes of which were 
valued at two marks per annum. 

Iklesham and Ryngermersh, lands of which the tithes were 49s. Sd. 
per annum. 

Thornije, 20 acres of arable, and 20 acres of pasturage. 

Selseye, much arable land. 

Felpham, 60 acres of land. 

Mid diet on, 60 acres. 

Brighthelmston, 40 acres. 

Aldington, 40 acres. 

Portslade, 60 acres. 

Lancing, land, the tithes of which were 44.y. 6d. per annum. 

Siddlesliam and Westwythering, much land. 

Hoitve, 150 acres. 

Terringe, land, the tithe valued at 6s. 8d. per annum. 

Bernham, 40 acres. 

Heas, 400 acres. 

Brede, great part of the marsh called Gabberghes. 

Salehurst and Udimer, land, the tithes of which were valued at 4O5. 
per annum. 

At Brighton, the inroads of the sea have been very extensive. In the 
year 1665, twenty-two tenements under the chff had been destroyed, 
among which were twelve shops, and three cottages, with land adjoining 
them. At that period, there stiU remained under the cliff, 113 tenements; 
and the whole of these were overwhelmed in 1703 and 1705. Since that 
time, an ancient fort called the Block House, with the Gun garden, wall, 
and gates, have been completely swept away, not the slightest trace of 
their ruins having been perceptible for the last 50 years*. 

At the present time, the whole line of coast, between the embouchure 
of the Arun, and Emsworth harbour, is visibly retreating, and the means 

* Lee's Hist, of Lewes and Brighton. 



294 ALLUVIUM. 

adopted for its prevention, have hitherto been attended with but little 
success*. 

The process by which this destruction of the coast is effected, is suf- 
ficiently obvious. By the incessant action of the waves the chffs are un- 
dermined, and at length fall down, and cover the shore with their ruins. 
The softer parts of the strata, as chalk, marl, clay, &c., are rapidly disin- 
tegrated and washed away ; while the flints, and more solid materials, are 
broken and rounded by the continual agitation of the water, and form 
those accumulations of sand and pebbles, that constitute the beach, and 
which serve, in some situations, to protect the land from farther encroach- 
ments. But when the cHffs are entuely composed of soft substances, their 
destruction is very rapid, unless artificial means are employed for their 
protection; and even these, in many instances, are but too frequently 
ineffectual. 

* Dallaway's Western Sussex, Vol. i. p. Iv. 



CONCLUDING observations: 295 



XXI. 
CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 



In the preceding pages, it has been my object to convey a general idea 
of the mineralogical structure of Sussex, confining myself, so far as the 
nature of the enquiry would permit, to a plain statement of facts ; and but 
seldom indulging in hypothetical discussions. I cannot, however, close 
this volume, without taking a more extended view of the subject; and, 
briefly noticing the principal phenomena that have been submitted to 
our examination, endeavour to point out the geological deductions that 
result from their investigation. 

The chalk formation has been described as traversing the county in a 
direction nearly east and west, extending from Beachy Head, to near 
Midhurst ; from whence it passes into Hampshire, and finally into Surrey 
and Kent, terminating in a range of lofty cHffs at Dover ; thus forming a 
semi-eUiptical chain of downs, that encloses an extensive district, composed 
of deposits more ancient than the chalk. On the south, and south-east, 
these strata are cut off by the British channel; and the southern margin 
of the chalk, is covered by the remains of the tertiary formations of the 
Isle of Wight basin. 

The area included by the chalk, has a range of hills belonging to the 
iron sand in the centre (the Forest Kidge) ; on each side of which the 
country gradually descends; the low district on the south-west, forming 
the Weald of Sussex; and that on the north-east, the Weald of Kent 
both being composed of the weald clay with its beds of shelly hraestone. 

In Kent, and Surrey, a range of hills formed by the green sand, inter- 
venes between the Weald, and the foot of the Downs; but in the south- 



296 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 



eastern part of Sussex, this deposit only constitutes a ridge of inconsider- 
able elevation. 

Intermediate between the hills of the green sand and the chalk, is 
another valley, fomied by the outcrops of the grey and blue chalk marl. 

The annexed diagram and section, although possessing no preten- 
sion to accuracy of detail, wiU serve to render this description more in- 
teUigible. 




The figures both in the plan and section, refer to the same deposits; 
the section is in the direction of a hne drawn from the south of Sussex, to 
the north of Kent. 



Explanation of the Plan, and Section. 
1. Tertiary formations ; Plastic clay of Newhaven. 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 297 

2. 2. Chalk, constituting the South Downs of Sussex, the Surrey hills, 
•and the North Downs of Kent. 

S. 3. Grey and Elue chalk marl ; at Kingmer, near Lewes, on the 
north of the South Downs; at Bletchingley in Surrey, and Folkstone in 
Kent, on the south side of the North Downs. 

4. 4. Green sand, and cherty sandstone ; at Eastbourne, south of 
Lewes, Ditchling, Haslemere, &c. in Sussex ; near Godalming, Keigate, 
Nutfield, &c. in Surrey ; Folkstone, and Hythe, in Kent. 

5. 5. Weald clay, containing Sussex marble ; Wealds of Surrey, 
Sussex, and Kent. The locaHties of the hmestone in Sussex, are well 
known ; in Surrey, it occurs at Eed-hill, near Reigate ; and in Kent, at 
Bethersden. 

6. 6. Iron sand, with beds of bivalve limestone ; forming the central 
range of hills on the boundary hue of Kent, and Sussex. 

7. Tilgate limestone, &c. 

The plan shews the appearance of the strata on the surface, and the 
manner in which the various formations are disposed in regular succession 
within the area encircled by the chalk hills, arranging themselves round 
the central mass of Iron sand. Hence in the section from Newhaven to 
the Forest ridge, the deposits form a descending series, and are incUned 
towards the south ; thus we have 1. the Plastic clay, 2. the Chalk, 3. the 
Blue chalk marl, 4. the Green sand, 5. the Weald clay, and 6. the Iron 
sand. But proceeding from the Forest ridge to Dover, they are passed 
over in an ascending order, and dip in a contrary direction ; the Iron 
sand being the first, which is succeeded by the Weald clay, Green sand. 
Blue chalk marl, and Chalk. 

Such is the geographical distribution of the strata in Surrey, Kent, 
and Sussex ; and it is worthy of remark, that the formations on the op- 
posite coast of France, are disposed in a similar manner, appearing hke a 
continuation of the English beds. The escarpment of the French chalk 
describes a semicircle of about twelve miles radius, ranging around Bou- 
logne as a centre; the southern extremity, on the coast near Etaples, 

Q Q 



298 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

corresponding with the termination of the Sussex Downs, at Beachyhead; 
and the northern point at Calais, with that of the Kentish hills, at Dover. 
The included area contains beds of Green and Iron sand, but the greater 
part of the coast is composed of a calcareo-argiHaceous formation, which 
underhes the sand last mentioned, and is considered by Professor Buckland 
as identical with the Oxford clay*. 

This occurrence of the more ancient deposits, within a zone of chalk 
hills, is a problem exceedingly difficult of solution. From the appearance 
of the strata, as shewn in the plan and section, one might be almost led to 
suppose that the chalk, at some remote period, was continuous over the 
whole extent of country that now forms the counties alluded to, and that 
by some unknown catastrophe the central mass of chalk had been swept 
away, and the underlying deposits forced into their present situation, I 
do not, however, mean to insinuate, that such has actually been the case, 
but that the mode in which the strata are disposed presents such an 
appearance ; for although (as an eminent geologist f has remarked), the 
truncated form of the escarpment of the chalk, evidently shews it to have 
once extended much farther than at present, stiU it would be highly rash 
to assume, that at any period it actually covered the whole space in which 
the inferior strata are denuded. 

We shall now proceed to take a rapid sketch of the geological features 
of the several formations previously described, that their most important 
characters may be placed in a conspicuous point of view. 

1. The Iron sand (p. 24), requires but a brief notice. It has been 
shewn to consist of various strata of sand and sandstone, including beds 
of ironstone (p. 28), shelly limestone (p. SO), and coal (p. 34). The Hme- 
stone bears a considerable resemblance to the upper beds of the Purbeck, 
and is supposed to form the base, upon which the iron sand rests ; yet 
there is reason to conclude that in some instances (p. 33), these deposits 
alternate. The shells enclosed in the hmestone are wholly bivalve ; some 

* Vide Phillip^ Geological Outlines, p. 155. f Rev. W. D. Conybeare, Phillips' Outlines, p. 144, 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 299 

resemble a species of Tellina, or ISTucula, and others are supposed to 
belong to the genus Cyrene ; but whether they are of fresh water, or of 
marine origin, has not been satisfactorily determined. 

The beds of Coal appear to be of very limited extent, and not likely 
to be sixfficiently productive for economical purposes ; their occurrence in 
such a situation, is, however, highly interesting to the geologist, and 
proves how much the existence of a deposit may depend upon local 
causes. 

The organic remains are but few ; traces of lignite or charred wood 
occur in the Iron sand ; impressions of ferns, in the coal shale ; and the 
casts and remains of bivalves, in the limestone. 

2. Tilgate Limestone, &c. (p. 37). The strata designated by this 
name, are fully described in the body of the work ; in this place it is only 
necessary to recapitulate the more important points. These deposits 
consist of thin beds of Mmestone and sandstone, which repose on Blue 
clay, and correspond in so many particidars with the Purbeck, that there 
is every reason to conclude they belong to that formation, and form a 
protrusion through the Iron sand by which they are surrounded (vide 
p. 58). They contain the remains of four or five species of vegetables, 
bearing a distant resemblance to recent tropical plants ; nine or ten kinds 
of univalves and bivalves ; several genera and species of fishes ; three 
species of Turtle ; and one or more gigantic animals of the lizard tribe, 
besides the bones, teeth, &c. of unknown animals, and perhaps of birds ? 

The remains of turtles, fishes, lizards, &c. occur in the Purbeck Hme- 
stone, and the latter also corresponds in its chemical characters with that 
of Tilgate ; it therefore appears unnecessary to renew the discussion on 
their supposed identity ; and I shall only remark, that the fossils collected 
since the former part of this volume was written, serve to confirm the 
opinion therein advanced. 

3. The Weald clay (p. 61), is characterized by the Sussex marble, 
which has commonly been supposed to be of fresh water origin, from the 
presumption, that the univalves it contains, are related to the recent 
HeUx vivipara. But if the observations of Mr. G. B. Sowerby (vide 

Q Q 2 



300 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

p. 67), are correct, (and his opinions on the subject are entitled to con- 
siderable deference), the hypothesis is untenable, since he believes that 
the shells in question possess neither the form nor structure of fresh 
water shells, but bear a close resemblance to a species of marine Turbo, 
allied to T. littoreus. 

4. The Green sand (p. 69), with its beds and concretions of cherty 
sandstone, exhibits considerable variety, both in colour, and in the nature 
of its materials ; it is, however, clearly identified with the Chlorite sand of 
Wiltshire by its organic remains, consisting of more than twenty kinds of 
fossil shells, most of which also occur in the same deposit in Devonshire 
and Wiltshire (p. 78). In some instances, the sandstone is strongly 
impregnated with bitumen (p. 76) ; in others, it contains fragments of 
petrified wood (p. 76) *. 

5. The Blue chalk marl or Gait (p. 80), is a remarkable division of 
the chalk formation ; and although not always present, yet wherever it 
does occur, maintains a striking uniformity, both in its mineralogical 
characters, and organic remains. It contains two or three species of 
Turbinolia ; more than thirty kinds of testacete, which in most instances 
retain their shelly coverings in a beautiful state of preservation ; five 
species of Crustacea ; and the scales, teeth, and vertebra of fishes. Many 
of these fossils are peculiar to this deposit ; namely, Turbinolia Konigii, 
Cirrus plicatus, Rostellaria carinata, Nautilus inequalis, Ammonites 
splendens, Hamites attenuatus, 'N ucvXa pectinata, Inoceramus concentricus, 
I. sulcatus, &c. and the Crustacea. 

The " MaUn Eock" of western Sussex (p. 84), is evidently a con- 
tinuation of the same bed, but somewhat altered in its characters by the 
influence of local causes. 

6. The Grey chalk marl (p. 99), is co-extensive with the chalk, 
appearing throughout the county, on the inner edge of the escarpment 
of the Downs. Its organic remains are very numerous : those discovered 

* I have lately obtained several examples of fossil wood, from the Blue marl of Folkstone ; 
and these so closely resemble the specimens found at Willingdon (described at page 76), that it 
is not improbable the latter may also belong to the lower beds of that formation. 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 301 

in the vicinity of Lewes consist of wood, supposed Juli of the Larch, im- 
pressions of leaves, seven kinds of Zoophytes, several species of Echinites, 
upwards of fifty species of univalves and bivalves, and the remains of 
fishes, and Crustacea. Of these, the Scaphites, Turrilites, Hamites, and 
the supposed Juli, are the most remarkable. 

7. The Upper and Lower chalk (pp. 139 and 143), form the South 
Downs ; their characters are too well known to require farther notice. 
They contain wood ; impressions of supposed vegetable bodies ; nearly 
thirty different kinds of Zoophytes ; Star fish ; fifteen species of Echinites ; 
fifty species of univalves and bivalves ; four species of Crustacea ; eighteen 
or more kinds of fishes ; and the remains of a species of Monitor. 

The strata comprised in the preceding sketch have manifestly, with 
but few exceptions, been formed by gradual deposition at the bottom of 
tranquil seas ; the zoophytes and shell-fish having in all probabihty been 
enveloped, while living in their native beds. It is also evident, that 
these formations took place at periods sufficiently remote from each other, 
to allow of the consolidation of the inferior beds, before the upper ones 
were deposited; the hne of separation being always distinctly marked, 
and the inhabitants of each formation, essentially differing from those 
contained in the strata either above, or below it. 

8. The Tertiary formations have been described (p. 250), as lying in a 
basin, or hoUow of the chalk ; hence it is obvious, that the latter must 
have suffered considerable destruction subsequently to its consoHdation ; 
and the immense quantity of roUed chalk flints that occur in the Plastic 
and London clay, not only confirms that supposition, but also tends to 
prove that a considerable period must have intervened between the 
deposition of the chalk, and that of the strata under consideration. The 
beds comprehended in this division are the Druid sandstone, Plastic clay, 
and the London clay, and Sandstone. 

The Druid sandstone (p. 253), appears to have anciently extended 
over a considerable portion of the EngUsh chalk, but now only occurs in the 
state of large boulders, which in most instances he bare on the surface 
of the Downs. It is supposed that this sandstone did not form a 



SOS CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

continuous bed*, but was originally imbedded in sand, like the masses of 
" AVhin stone" in western Sussex (vide p. 73 ). It is destitute of organic 
remains. 

The Plastic clay (p. 256), consists of various beds of marl, sand, clay, 
and gravel ; the lowermost constituting a ferruginous breccia, which lies 
immediately on the chalk. Castle hill, near Newhaven, and Chimting 
Castle east of Seaford, are the principal locahties of these deposits in 
Sussex. This formation contains aluminite, crystallized sulphate of lime, 
surturbrand, wood, the impression of the fohage of a species of Platanus, 
fruit of the Palm ? shells of the genera Cerithium, Helix, Mactra, Unio, 
Cytherea, Cyclas, and Ostrea ; a shell which is supposed to be a fresh 
water bivalve (p. 264), and the teeth of a species of Shark. 

The analogues of these beds appear on the opposite coast near Dieppe, 
where strata of sand, sandstone, and Plastic clay, are seen lying upon the 
chalk (p. 266)-f. 

The London clay ( p. 267), is confined to the south-western part of 
the county. At Bracklesham it abounds in fossil shells, which exactly 
correspond with those of Hordwell in Hampshire, and Grignon near 
Paris; nearly forty species have been discovered. 

The Limestone constitutes several groups of rocks, near Bognor and 
Selsea, (p. 271), and appears to be decidedly analogous to the calcaire 
grassier of Paris. It contains nearly twenty shells, pecuhar to that 
deposit. 

These Tertiary formations closely correspond with the lower beds of 
the Paris basin, and are without doubt detached portions of a series of 
strata, deposited under similar circumstances in that excavation of the 
English chalk, which geologists distinguish by the name of the Isle of 
Wight basin. 

* Phillips^ Outlines, p. 14. 

t That Great Britain was formerly united to the continent can scarcely be questioned; 
indeed, as Mr. Phillips observes, "the many remarkable points of agreement between the 
opposite coasts of France and England, render the supposition too reasonable to be ranked 
among mere hypotheses ; their separation was, in all probability, occasioned by an iiTuption of 
the sea, which washed away the connecting mass." Vide Geological Transactions, Vol. v. p. 51. 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 303 

Here then we have undeniable proofs of another deposition of regular 
strata, formed by a sea in a state of tranquillity, having been broken up 
and almost annihilated by some sudden and powerful catastrophe. 

9. The Diluvian accumulations of sand, gravel, clay, pebbles, &c. (p. 275) 
promiscuously distributed over the surface of the country, and occa- 
sionally including the remains of Elephants, and other land quadrupeds, 
( p. 283), afford also conclusive evidence, that some general irruption of 
water has taken place subsequently to the deposition of the most recent 
of the regular strata. 

To the same cause may hkewise be ascribed, the present form and 
appearance of the surface of the earth, the rounded outhnes of our hills, 
and the vallies, coombes, and sinuosities, by which they are intersected. 
For if there be any one fact thoroughly estabhshed by geological in- 
vestigations, it is the circumstance, that our globe has been overwhelmed 
at a comparatively recent period, by the waters of a transient deluge*. 

From the facts that have been presented to oiir notice, the following 
inferences naturally arise : 

\stly. That the strata composing the county of Sussex, have been 
formed at different periods, by successive depositions at the bottom of 
tranqviil seas f . 

2dly. That the waters which deposited these formations were in- 
habited by shell-fish, zoophytes, fishes, &c., the greater part of which were 
not only essentially distinct from any that are known in a recent state, 
but many of them are confined to certain deposits. 

Sdly. That one of these formations (the Tilgate beds) contain the re- 

* Vide Cuvier's Theory of the Earth, (translated by Jameson), p. 171. Mr. Greenough'& 
Critical Examination of the First Principles of Geology, p. 155. Professor BucEand on the 
Quartz Rock, 8fc. Geological Transactions, Vol. v. p. 544. 

t The absence of all traces of land animals and vegetables in these beds, does not however 
appear to warrant the inference, that the former were not then in existence. For if we suppose 
that after the deposition of the Iron sand, the sea retired, and the surface of that formation be- 
came clothed with vegetation, and inhabited by animals ; may it not be presumed, that if the ap- 
proach of the next ocean was gradual, the advance and retrocession of its waves might destroy 
all traces of the land and its productions, before the water covered the surface to a sufficient 
depth, to allow of the tranquil deposition of the Weald clay? This remark equally applies ta 
the other secondary formations. 



S04 CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

mains of shells, fishes, Palms, arborescent ferns. Turtles, gigantic Lizards, 
and unknown quadrupeds ; an assemblage of organic remains, for which it 
is difficult to account, unless we suppose, that the bed in which they are 
enclosed was deposited by a river, or lake of fresh water. 

Athly. That the chalk subsequently to its consohdation has suffered 
extensive destruction ; the upper beds having been swept away, and ex- 
tensive basins formed on its surface. 

5thly. That the excavations, or basins of the chalk, have been filled 
up by a series of depositions, possessing very different characters to any 
that preceded them ; and which in some places (Isle of Wight, Paris, &c.) 
consist of alternations of marine, and fresh water deposits. 

Gthly. That these newer depositions have also been broken up, and in 
a great measure destroyed, by an irruption of water in a state of violent 
commotion ; a catastrophe to whose powerful agency the present form 
of the surface of the earth, and the accumulations of beds of gravel, sand, 
&c. are to be attributed. 

Ithly. That it is only among these last and newest deposits, the wrecks 
of ancient formations, that the remains of the EleiDhant, Deer, Horse, and 
other land quadrupeds, have hitherto been discovered. 

Lastly, That the present effects of the ocean appear to be wholly 
inadequate to produce changes hke those which have formerly taken place. 

Hence it appears, that in the lapse of ages, the sea alternately encroaches 
on, and retreats from the land, and the districts it formerly occupied 

become the habitation of terrestrial animals and vegetables ; but other 

revolutions succeed, the sea returns to its ancient bed, and the countries 
from which it retires, are again fitted for the reception of their former 
inhabitants. 

Thus, as an elegant writer* has remarked, to discover order and intel- 
ligence in scenes of apparent wildness and confusion, is the pleasing task 
of the geological enquirer, who recognizes in the changes which are con- 
tinually taking place on the surface of the globe, a series of awful but 

* Dr. Paris. 



CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 305 

necessary operations, by which the harmony, beauty, and integrity of the 
universe are maintained and perpetuated ; and which must be regarded, 
not as symptoms of frailty or decay, but as wise provisions of the Supreme 
Cause, to ensure that circle of changes so essential to animal and vegetable 
existence. 

Mysterious round! what skill, what force divine 
Deep felt in these appear! 



Were every falt'ring tongue of man, 

Almighty Father ! silent in thy praise, 

Thy works themselves would raise a general voice. 

Even in the depths of solitary wilds, 

By human foot untrod, proclaim thy power. 



307 



A Catalogue of the Organic Remains described in this Volume, to tchich Generic 
a?id Specific "Names have been appropriated by the Author. 



Zoophytes. 
Alcyonium piriformis. 
Choanites, (a new genus, the name suggested 

by Mr. Konig). 
jlexuosus. 

Konigii. 

suhrotundus. 

Madrepora centralis. 
Marsupites, (a new genus). 

Milleri. 

Millepora Gilberti. 

Spongus, (a new genus, formed by Mr. Konig)- 
labyrinthicus. 

Townsendi. 

Spongia ramosa. 
Turbinolia Konigii. 
Ventriculites, (a new genus). 

alcyonoides. 

— - HenetticE. 

qiiadrangidaris. 

• — - radiatus. 

ECHINITES. 

Cidaris Konigii. 
Conulus subrotundus. 
Spatangus planus. 
■ rostratiis. 

TESTACE.E. 

Univalves. 
Ammonites biplicatus. 

catinus. 

ductus. 

complanatus. 

curvatus. 

falcatus. 

Lewesiensis. 



Ammonites navicularis. 

peramplus. 

Sussexiensis. 

tuberctdatus. 

Woollgari. 

AmpuUaria canalicidata. 

Belemnites Listeri. 

Cirrus granulatus. 

perspectivus. 

Hamites alternatus. 

hacidoides. 

ellipticus. 

Rostellaria carinata. 

Parkinsoni. 

Scaphites, costatus. 

striatus. 

Solarium canaliculatum. 

Trochus linearis. 

Turrilites undulatus. 

Vermicularia Bognoriensis . 

Sowerbii. 

Bivalves. 
Cardium asperulum. 

decussatum. 

Dianchora obliqua. 
Fistulana pyriformis, 
Inoceramus Brongniarti. 

Cripsii. 

latus. 

— — striatus. 

tenuis. 

undulattts. 

Websteri. 



Nucula ovafa. 
Pecten jiitida. 
-^— laminosa. 
triplicata. 



R R 2 



308 

Plagiostoma aspera. Crustacea. 

Brightoniensis. Astacus Leachii. 

Hoperi. 

Terebratula Martini. ' . Fishes. 



squamosa. Amia? Lewesiensis. 

striatula. Esox Lewesiensis. 

sicbplicata. Mursna Lewesiensis. 

sulcata. Salmo Lewesiensis. 



Venus Ringmeriensis . 



S09 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 



TABLET I. 

Geological map of the south-eastern part of Sussex. 

TABLET IL 

Fig. 1. View from a mill, west of Lewes, exhibiting a profile of the chalk hills to the south 
of the town, and the situation of the "Bkies" in the levels, see page 20. 

Fig. 2. View from the eastern brow of Mount Harry, west of Lewes ; shewing the general 
form of the chalk hills in the south-eastern part of Sussex. 

Fig. 3. Profile of Cliff Hills, near Lewes ; with a section. 

TABLET in. 

Fig. 1. Plan of the stratification of the county of Sussex. 

The Tilgate beds are not introduced, as their position was unknown when this plate was 
engraved. The " limestone i?t clay" resting on the ferruginous sand, refers to the Framfield 
limestone; but its situation is incorrect, for subsequent observations have shewn that it 
alternates with the iron-sand*. 

Fig. 2. Section from Lewes to the Black Boys. The situation of the hmestone near 
Eason's green, is hypothetical; see the remark on fig. 1. 

Fig. 3. Section of the iron sand, and limestone beds, in the parish of Framfield; the strata 
have not been perforated to a sufficient depth to shew their relative position, p. 32. 

TABLET IV. 

Fig. 1. Vertical section of Brighton cliffs, p. 277. 
Fig. 2. Cliffs east of Brighton, p. 279. 

Fig. 3. Fissures in the chalk at Falmer, filled with clay, and the deti-itus of the breccia of 
the Plastic clay, p. 151. 

* Limestone, sinular to that of Framfield, and Ashburnham, and enclosing the same kind of testacesp, may 
be observed alternating with Iron sand, in a quarry near Winchelsea. 



310 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

TABLET V. 

Fig. 1. Strata between Brighton and Rottingdean, p. 281. 

Fig. 2. Sti-ata to the west of Rottingdean, p. 282. , . 

Fig. 3. The landing-place at Rottingdean, p, 282. 

TABLET VI. 

(The frontispiece). 
Natural section of the Plastic clay beds at Castle Hill, west of Newhaven, p. 25T. 
No. 1. Diluvium, consisting of sand and pebbles. 

2. Bed of oyster shells. 

3. Blue clay containing broken bivalves, chiefly of the genera Cytha-ea and Ci/rene. 

4. Blue clay, enclosing immense quantities of univalves of the genus Cerithium ; and 

sharks' teeth. 

5. Reddish brown marl, containing remains of shells and vegetables ; see the spe- 

cimens delineated in Tab. viii. 

6. A seam of surturbrand or hgnite. 

7. Blue clay, including crystals of sulphate of lime, &c. 

8. Sand. 

9. Breccia of green sand and pebbles. 

10. Ochraceous clay, containing hydrate and subsulphate of Ahimine. 

11. The summit of the chalk cliffs. 

TABLET VIL 

View of the chalk pit at Southerham, near Lewes, shewing the dip of the Lower chalk, 
p. 140. For this sketch I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Warren Lee. 

TABLET VIII. 

Specimens of red marl from the Plastic clay beds at Castle Hill, containing the remains 
and impressions of the fohage of unknown vegetables, allied to the Platanus orientalis ; and 
casts of shells of the genera Cerithium, Cyclas, and Unio, p. 262. 

TABLET IX. 

Supposed vegetable bodies from the Chalk and Chalk Marl. 
Fig. 1. The remains of a winged seed? in chalk, p. 158. ' 

Figs. 2. 12. Linear markings, resembling the foliage of a species of Pinus, p. 157. 
Figs. 3. 6. 9. 10. Unknown fossil bodies from the chalk, generally supposed to be the 
remains of aments or cones, p. 158. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 311 

Figs. 4. 5. 7. 8. 11. Supposed aments or cones of a species of Larch, from Hamsey; 
p. 103. 

TABLET X. 

Flints of various shapes, deriving their forms from Ventriculites radiatm, p. 170. 

TABLET XL 

Two specimens of Ventriculites radiatus, in which the lower part of the funnel-like cavity 
is filled with flint; the upper portion being expanded on the chalk, p. 171. 

TABLET XII. 

Fig. 1. Ann I'ar flint formed in a Ventriculite, p. 172. 

Fig. 2. A Ventriculite in chalk, exhibiting the external surface, and the ramifications of 
the radical processes, p. 172. 

TABLET XIII. 

Fig. 1. A flint deriving its form from Ventriculites radiatus, p. 173. 

Figs. 2. 3. 5. Chalk specimens of the stirps, or inferior part of VentricuUtes radiatus, 
p. 173. 

Fig. 4. A Ventriculite with the inferior portion enclosed in flint, and the upper part 
exposed on the chalk, p. 173. 

Fig. 6. Magnified representation of part of the external integument of fig. 2. 

TABLET XIV. 

Specimens of VentricuUtes radiatus expanded on the chalk, p. 173. 
Fig. 1. The internal surface studded with numerous perforated papilla. 
Fig. 2. The external surface. 

TABLET XV. 

Fig. 1. C^aoamtes Jlexuosus, p. 179- 

Fig. 2. subrotundus, p. 179- 

Fig. 3. Ventriculites Benettice, p. 177. 

Fig. 4. Section of a fossil zoophyte related to the Alcyonia, p. 162. 

Fig. 5. Turbinated alcyonite, p. 161. 

Fig. 6. Ventriculites quadrangidaris, p. 177. 

Fig. 7. Spongus labyrinthicus, p. 165. 

Fig. 8. Sihceous cast of a branched coral, from the centre of a flint, p. 163. 



S12 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Fig. 9. Siliceous specimen of Spongus Townsendi, p. 164. 

Fig. 10. Fossil coral, supposed to belong to the genus Millepora ; from the chalk marl, 
p. 106. 

Fig. 11. Spongia ramosa, p. 162. 

TABLET XVI. 

Fig. 1. A Belemnite from the chalk at Brighton, p. 201. 

Figs. 2. 4. Madrepora centralis, p. ISO- 
Figs. 3. 12. Entrochites ; or portions of the column of Apiocrinites elUpticus, p. 182. 

Fig. 5. Hamites armatus, p. 121. 

Fig. 6. Marsupites Milleri, shewing the pectoral plates in situ, p. 183. 

Fig. 7. The semilunar depression on the upper margin of the scapula in M. Milleri. 

Fig. 8. The outer surface of the clavicle of M. Milleri. 

Fig. 9. Clavicle and humerus of M. Milleri. 

Fig. 10. Octaedral sulphui-et of iron, from the Upper chalk, near Lewes, p. 155. 

Fig. 11. A group of crystals of sulphuret of iron, frcm the Lower chalk, near Lewes, 
p. 140. 

Figs. 13, 14. Detached plates of Marsupites Milleri, p. 185. 

Fig. 15. Marsupites Milleri, p. 184. 

Fig. 16. Singular form of sulphuret of iron, from the chalk at Steyning, p. 153. 

Fig. 17, 18. Siliceous specimens of a Zoophyte of a pyriform shape, the nature of which 
is unknown, p. 162. 

Fig. 19- Choanites Konigii, p. 179. 

Fig. 20. Vertical section of the same. 

Fig. 21. Transverse section of the same. 

Figs. 22, 23, 24. Different views of a species of Lunulites? p. 180. 

TABLET XVII. 

Fig. 1. A species of Cidaris, allied to C. saxatilis; from the grey chalk marl, p. 107. 

Fig. 2. Siliceous cast of Cidaris corollaris, p. 180. 

Fig. 3. Cerithium melanoides, from the Plastic clay, p. 263. 

Fig. 4. funatum, p. Wo. 

Figs. 5, 6. Detached specimens of the univalves contained in the Sussex marble ; and 
described by Mr. Sowerby under the name of \i\y^axa,Jluvionim, p. 67. 
Fig. 7. A polished slab of Sussex marble, p. 64. 
Fig. 8. Conulus albogalerus, p. 190. 
Fig. 9- Spatangus planus, p. 192. 

Fig. 10. rostratus, p. 192. 

Figs. 11. 14. Echinital spines, belonging to Cidaris claviger, p. 194. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. SIS 

Fig. 12. Spines referable to Cidaris sceptrifera, p. l&i. 
Fig. 13. Spine oi CiAa.ris papillata, p. 194. 
Fig. 15. Conulus suhrotundus, p. 191. 

Fig. 16. albogalei'iis ; the acute variety, p. 190. 

Fig. 17. Front view of Spatangus rostratus. 
Fig. 18. The base of Conulus suhrotundus. 

Fig. 19. albogalerus, var. acuta. 

Fig. 20. The base of fig. 8. 
Fig. 21. The base of Spatangus ^fcnz/s. 

Figs. 22, 23. Different views of a species of Spatangus from Brighton; allied to S. 
prunella, p. 193. 

TABLET XVIII. 

Figs. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 10. Views of various specimens of Rostellaria Parkinsoni, from the 
chalk marl, p. 108. 

Fig. 3. Cast of Auricula simulata, p. 111. 

Fig. 7. Trochus agglutinans? p. 109. 

Fig. 8. Voluta amhigua, attached to a fragment of an Ammonite, p. 108. 

Fig. 9. Trochus, related to T. agglutinans, p. 109. 

Fig. 11. Cast of a species oi Ampullaria, p. 111. 

Fig. 12. Cirrus perspcctivus, p. 194. 

Fig. 13. Portion of an unknown species of Buccinum, p. 108. 

Figs. 14, 15. Vermicularia Soieerbii, p. 111. 

Fig. 16. A distorted specimen of Trochus linearis, p. 110. 

Fig. 17. Trochus linearis, p. 110. 

Figs. 18, 22. Different views of Cirrus depressus, p. 195. 

Figs. 19, 20. A species of HeUx, from the Plastic clay at Castle Hill, p. 263. 

Fig. 21. View of the base and umbilicus of Cirrus perspectivus. 

Fig. 23. A species of Teredo, p. 207. 

Fig. 24. Vermicularia umbonata, p. 111. 

TABLET XIX. 

The whole of the fossils represented in this plate, with the exception of figs. 1, 2, 3, and 
34, are from the Blue chalk marl, near Lewes. 

Fig. 1. Cast of a species of Pecten or Plagiostoma, p. 129. 

Figs. 2, 3. Auricula incrassata, from the Grey chalk marl, p. 110. 

Fig. 4. Dentalium striatum, p. 87. 

Fig. 5. Cast oi^McxAa, pectinata, p. 94. 

Figs. 6, 9. Perfect specimens of Nucula pectinata. 

s s 



SI 4 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Figs. 7, 8. Casts of unknown bivalves, p. 96. 

Figs. 10, 11, 12, 14. Various specimens of Rostellaria carinata, p. 86. 

Fig. 13. Ampullaria canaliculata, p. 87. 

Fio-. 15. The Leaked part of the lower valve of Inoceramus concentric us, p. 95. 

Fig. 16. Inoceramus sulcatus, p. 95. 

Fio-s. 17, 18. Belemnites Listeri, p. 88. 

Fig. 19. Inoceramus concentricus, p. 95. 

Fig. 20. A specimen of Inoceramus, shewing the crenulated hinge, p. 96. 

Fig. 21. DentaUum ellipticum, p. 87. 

Fio-. 22. The upper surface of Turbinolia Konigii, p. 85. 

Fi<^. 2S. Variety of Belemnites Listeri, p. 88. 

Fio-. 24. View of the base of Turbinoha Konigii, p. 85. 

Fio-. 25, Cast of the interior of Dentahum ellipticum, p. 87. 

Figs. 26, 27. Nucula ovata, p. 94. 

Fio-. 28. An unknown species of Dentalium, p. 87. 

Figs. 29, 30. Hamites attenuatus, p. 93. 

Figs. 31, 32. Probably a species of Natica, p. 87. 

Fig. 33. Cast of a species of Area ? or Nucula ? 

Fig. 34. Auricula incrassata, p. 110. 

TABLET XX. 

Fig. 1. Nautilus elegans, from the Grey chalk marl at Middleham, p. 112. 
Fio-. 2. Ammonites Sussexiensis, from Hamsey, p. 114. 

TABLET XXI. 

Nautili, and Ammonites, from the chalk, and chalk marl, near Lewes. 
Figs. 1, 4, 8. Casts of Nautilus elegans, in a young state, p. 113. 
Figs. 2, 5, 7. Varieties of Ammonites wrzaMS, p. 115. 
Fig. 3. Ammonites planus, from the Blue marl, p. 90. 
Fig. 6. Kmmomies falcatus, p. 117. 
Fio-. 9. Costated variety of Ammonites Mantelli, p. 113. 
Fig. 10. Ammonites Sussexiensis, p. 114. 

Fjo-. 11. lautus, from the Blue marl, p. 91. 

Fio. 12. A portion oi Ammomtesfalcatus, shewing the ambit, p. 118. 

Fig. 13. Fragment of Ammonites splendens, p. 89. 

Figs. 14, 15. Nautilus inequalis, p. 88. 

Fig. 16. Ammonites Woollgari, p. 197. 

Fig. 17. A cast of A. splendens, p. 89. 

Fig. 18. Ammonites curvatus, p. 118. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. SI 5 

TABLET XXII. 

Ammonites, and Scaphites, from the chalk and chalk marl, near Lewes. 
Fig. 1. Ammonites Mantelli, p. 113. 

Fig. 2. Lewesiensis, p. 199. 

Figs. 3, 4, 9, 11, 13. Various specimens of Scaphites striatus, p. 119. 
Fig. 5. Ammonites cdtihm, p. 198. ' <? '^ ^ " ^ ' ^' 

Fig. 6. biplicatus, from the Blue marl, p. 91. 

Fig. 1: Woollgari, in a young state, p. 197. 

Figs. 8, 12. Scaphites costatus, p. 120. 
Fig. 10. Ammonites catinus, p. 198. 

Figs. 14, 15. Different views of a pyritous cast of the inner volutions of Scaphites striatus, 
p. 119. 

Fig. 16. Section of a cast of Scaphites striatus. 

TABLET XXm. 

Hamites, and Turrilites, from the chalk marl in the vicinity of Lewes. 
Figs. 1, 2. Hamites plicatilis, p. 121. 

Fig. 3. View of the foUaceous structure of the septa in Hamites armatus, p. 121 . 
Fig. 4. Hamites armatus, from the grey marl at Hamsey. 
Fig. 5. Fragment of a large Hamite, p. 121. 
Figs. 6, 7. Hamites baculoides, p. 123. 
Figs. 8, 13. Portions of Hamites attenuutus, p. 122. 
Fig. 9. Hamites ellrpticus, p. 122. 
Figs. 10, 11. Hamites alternatus, p. 122. 
Fig. 12. Hamites intermedius ; from the Blue marl, p. 93. 
Figs. 14, 16. TurrUites undidatus, p. 124. 
Fig. 15. costatus, p. 123. 

TABLET XXIV. 

Turrihtes from the Grey chalk marl, near Lewes. 

Figs. 1, 4, 5. Turrihtes costatus, p. 123. 

Fig. 2. View of the base of a wreath of Turrilites tuberculatus, p. 124. 

Fig. 3. A variety of T. tuberculatus, p. 124. 

Fig. 6. Perspective view of a specimen of T. tuberculatus. 

Fig. 7. Turrilites tuberculatus, from Middleham ; exposing the situation of the siphun- 
culus, p. 124. 

Fig. 8. A very fine specimen of Turrihtes undulatus, from Hamsey, shewing the rounded 
termination of the coliunella, p. 124. 

S S 2 



316 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

TABLET XXV. 

Fig. 1. Dianchora obliqua, p. 206. 

Fig. 2. Cytherea Scutellaria ? from the Plastic clay, p. 263. 

Fig. 3. Cardium decussatum, p. 126. 

Fig. 4. Ostrea, p. 206. 

Fig. 5. Venus ? Ringineriensis, p. 126. 

Fig. 6. Pecten ; the species unknown, p. 203. 

Figs. 7, 8, 12. Different views of Terebratula striatula, from Hamsey, p. 131. 

Fig. 9. Pecten triplicata, p. 128. 

Fig. 10. quinquecostata, p. 128. 

Fig. 11. Bedveri, p. 127. 

Fig. 13. Lower jaw of Esox Lewesiensis, in a young state, p. 238. 
Fig. 14. Pecten ; the species unknown, p. 203. 
Fig. 15. Plagiostoma Brightoniensis, p. 204. 

TABLET XXVL 

Figs. 1, 4, 9. Pecten 7iitida, p. 202. 

Figs. 2, 3, 15. Plagiostoma Hoperi, p. 204. 

Figs. 5, 6, 11. Terebratula subplicata, p. 211. 

Fig. 7. Pecten, from Hamsey marl pit, p. 129. 

Figs. 8. 22. Pecten laminosa, p. 128. 

Fig. 10. Plagiostoma spinosa, p. 203. 

Fig. 12. Dianchora obliqua, p. 206. 

Figs. 13, 16, 17. Plicatula spinosa, p. 129. 

Fig. 14. Lower valve of Pecten quinquecostata, p. 201. 

Fig. 18. Plagiostoma? aspera, p. 129. 

Fig. 19. Inner surface of the flat valve of pecten quinquecostata, p. 201. 

Fig. 20. Pecten quinquecostata, p. 201. 

Fig. 21. Inner surface of the flat, or adherent valve, of Dianchora lata, p. 220. 

TABLET XXVII. 

Fig. 1. Inoceramus Lamarckii, p. 214. 

Fig. 2. Websteri, p. 216. 

Fig. 3. Variety of I. mytillo'ides, p. 215. 

Fig. 4. Fragment of the hinge of I. Cuvieri, p. 213. 

Fig. 5. Inoceramus striatus, p. 217. 

Fig. 6. undulatus, p. 217. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 317 

Fig. 7. Siliceous casts of cells formed in the shell of an Inoceramus by some parasitical 
animal, p. 218. 

Fig. 8. Inoceramus Brongniarti, p. 214. 

Fig. 9. , the species not determined, p. 217. 

Fig, 10. latus, p. 216. 

Fig. 11. Cripsii, p. 133. 

TABLET XXVIII. 

Fig. 1. Inoceramus Cuvieri, p. 213. 

Fig. 2. mytilloides, p. 215. 

Fig. 3. , probably a variety of I. Brongniarti, p. 214. 

Fig. 4. Upper and under valve of I. Cuvieri, p. 213. 

TABLET XXIX. 

Remains of various species of Crustacea. 
Figs. 1, 4. Chelate hand-claw of Astacus Leachii, p. 221. 
Fig. 2. Cast of the thorax of a species of Cancer, p. 223. 
Fig. 3, Chelate hand-claw of a species of Cancer, p. 223. 

Fig. 5. A block of chalk, containing part of a claw, leg, and several detached spines, of 
Astacus Leachii; in the upper part of this specimen the remains of a fish are imbedded, p. 222. 
Fig. 6. The tongue of Amia Lewesie7isis, p. 241. 

The following are from the Blue chalk marl, near Lewes. 
Figs. 7, 8, 14. A species of Cancer allied to the genus arcania, p. 96. 
Figs. 9, 10. A species belonging to the family Corystidce, p. 97. 
Figs. 11, 12. A species o? Etyiis, p. 97. 
Figs. 13, 15, 16. Species o{ Con/sfes, p. 97. 

TABLET XXX. 

Fig. 1. The tail and part of the abdomen of Astacus Leachii, p. 222. 

Fig. 2. The two chelate hand-claws of A. Leachii, p. 221. 

Fig. 3. The chelate hand-claw of an unknown species of Astacus, p. 223. 

TABLET XXXI. 

Fig. 1. On the left of this specimen is a portion of the thorax of Astacus Leachii, and on 
the right, a claw deprived of one of its pincers, p. 222. 
Fig. 2. Cast of the thorax of A. Leachii, p. 223. 
Fig. 3. The thorax of the same, flattened by compression. 
Fig. 4. The most perfect specimen of Astacus Leachii hitherto discovered. 



318 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

a. The head. 

b. The thorax. 

c. One of the long setaceous antenna. 

d. The squamous peduncle of the same. 

e. One of the anterior legs, with its didactylous termination. 
y. The hand-claws, and pincers. 

TABLET XXXIL 

Teeth of various kinds of fishes from the chalk formation, near Lewes. 
Fig. 1. Tooth of Squalus cornubicus, p. 226. 
Figs. 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11. Teeth of Squalus viustelus, p. 226. 

Figs. 4, 7, 8, 10, 26, 28. zygcBna, p. 227. 

Figs. 12, 14, 15, 16. ^aZm, p. 227. 

Fig. 13. Tooth of an unknown species of Squalus, p. 227. 

Figs. 17, 21, 27. Teeth of an unknown fish, aUied to the genus Diodon, p. 231. 
Figs. 18, 19, 20, 23, 24, 25, 29. Teeth of fishes allied to the genus Diodon, p. 231. 
Fig. 22. Tooth of a species of Squalus, p. 227. 

TABLET XXXIII. 

Fig. 1. Tooth of an animal of the Lizard tribe, p. 246. 

Figs. 2, 3, 4. Teeth of Esox Lewesiensis, p. 238. 

Figs. 5, 6. Spines of a species of Balistes, p. 229- 

Fig. 7. Tooth of an unknown fish, p. 228. 

Fig. 8. Tooth resembhng the incisors of Anarhicas lupus. 

Fig. 9. Tooth of a species of Squalus, p. 227. 

Fig. 10. Vertebra of a species of Squalus, p. 225. 

Fig. 11. Part of the valve of a species of Balanus, p. 220. 

Fig. 12. The head of Sahno Lewesiensis, p. 236. 

Fig. 13. A posterior dorsal vertebra of the Fossil Monitor of Maestricht, p. 242. 

TABLET XXXIV. 

Figs. 1. 3. Scales of an unknown fish, p. 237. 

Fig. 2. A scale with its process of attachment, p. 237. 

Fig. 4. Leg of an unknown crustaceous animal, p. 224. 

Fig. 5. Lozenge-shaped scales, p. 237. 

Fig. 6. A detached scale of Salmo Lewesiensis, p. 237. 

Fig. 7. Part of the head of Amia? Lewesiensis, with the tongue remaining in situ, p. 241. 

Fig. 8. A portion of the dorsal fin of a fish, allied to the Balistes, p. 231. 

Fig. 9. Fragment of a claw of Astacus Leachii, flattened by compression, p. 223. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 319 

Fig. 10. Imperfect specimen of afishfromHamsey, p. 133. 

Fig. 11. Part of the body of Muraena Lewesiensis, exhibiting traces of a fin, p. 232. 

TABLET XXXV. 

Specimens of Zeus Lewesiensis, in chalk. 
Fig. 1. Part of the body, exhibiting several vertebrae and ribs. 

Fig. 2. This specimen is the counterpart of the fossil represented in Tab. XXXVI. it 
shews the anal fin, the termination of the lower jaw, &c. p. 234. 

TABLET XXXVI. 

The most perfect example of Zeus Lewesiensis hitherto discovered ; it exhibits part of the 
opercula branchialia, the dorsal, and anal fin, and the taU, p. 234. 

TABLET XXXVII. 

A fine specimen of the body of Amia ? Lewesiensis. 

a. The anterior dorsal fin. 

b. The posterior dorsal fin. 

c. One of the ventral fins, vide p. 240. 

TABLET XXXVIII. 

A specimen of Amia Lewesiensis, exhibiting its internal stmcture, p. 240. 
a. The inferior margin of the orbit. 
h. The maxillas, with two teeth in the upper jaw. 

c. The impression of one of the opercula branchialia. 

d. One of the ventral fins. 
e. e. e. The an- bladder. 

TABLET XXXIX. 

A dorsal fin, or radius, of a fish allied to the genus Balistes, from the Upper chalk, near 
Lewes, p. 229. 

TABLET XL. 

Fig. 1. The body of Salmo Lewesiensis, p. 235. 

Fig. 2. The usual appearance of the specimens of Muraena Lewesiensis, p. 232. 

Fig. 3. Dorsal fin of a fish alhed to the BaUstes, p. 230. 

TABLET XLI. 

Fig. 1. The lower jaw, containing twelve teeth, of Esox Lewesiensis, p. 237. 



320 EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

Fig. 2. Front view of the anterior teeth of the above. 

Fig. 3. Two posterior caudal vertebrae of the Fossil Monitor of Maestricht, p. 242. 

TABLET XLII. 

The lower jaw, (containing twelve teeth), incisor teeth, one of the vertebra-, and a bone of 
some unknown marine animal, p. 241. 



fc5- It was the intention of the Author to have subjoined a systematical catalogue of the fossils 
described in this volume, with copious references to other works, and a list of synonymes ; 
but he has been compelled to abandon the design, having already exceeded the limits assigned 
him by his publisher. 



Sh'/c/f ///w /frJr.l/' ^'//^rfr/s . /////. 




JOffMn JttiMar JaM»* 




^ 








v\^ 





s 



Veriical Sectio?t of the Clzff ai Bric/htc/z. 



Calcareous Sed, 



OudknMU % 



Tab. IV 



-^^^^ — Shiru/le. 3icL or^ndent Beach 
~^N~^^-^^^ Sand, 




Strata. Slast of Sriahton 



jp^y, 



O^.^"^ -^(cu). 



Chalk 




JFifsures in the f/uz^/c, near Ihl??ier. 



Mfsu 



\ 



c7uiU? much 
and displaced . 






Lridepn Ifimtell Scu/f' 



Tab. r. 




Strata betwee7t Brit/hic'/i and ^ottinf/dea?i. 




Strata to t/ie }fcst of 'Rottinadean. 




Jlmirn /'I'J/l/..- o>.//. 



Ttie Zandm^ ^?Mce at 'Jiottrnadean. 



Enffrnvcd by irfUanteU. 



•A^v- 




Tab. Yin. 




Jfary ^rm, Ma/iXelL Scalps 



Tab. IX. 






Sculp . 



Tal\ X. 










^; M^ 



"v 













Mary^rm ManZeU Scu2p*iSi8. 



Tab. XI. 




MaryJrtn, Ifantell Scu^/.-: 



Tab. Xni. 




W 



lo 



■' y. 







iS^ 










i\\ 



u 



^ii^i*'^ 




""m^ 



Mary ^rtn Jfafzt&ll Sciil/f. 






Tall XIV.' 






^4! ^ - * " ■ ' i ^« V ,• t *• *- ^ i- ^, J.*-',*- '-• . se " , V. . -•'i . ) 




_7/^//:i' ..^nnManteU Sculp* 




2l..d.3fante.Zl ScuT/'* 



Tab. Xri. 





MM 



n 



w MW 









MA.MarOell Sculpt 



Tab. XVIL 







IF 



cA~ 





hi 






~^. cg ( 6^^y^^ 







^aE^<v 







/^^^^ 



•^^^f^l' 




M.A-3£ante-U. Sculp 



■^ 



m 



jj m ^J 




Tab XVIII 



!^. 





^ 








%^^ 




Marv Ann Jfantcll Scutv'- 



Tab. XIX. 











17 



^///;\\^ 



26 



31 



^ 






15 





30 



Tab. XX 




3lhr\' -j^fin JianieU SciiTp^ 



Tab. XXI. 




10 y~ 

Ifary ^rvi MarUeU Sculpt 



Tab XXII 




Tab.ixm. 




J/ary^nn Jfan^t^/ Sad^^ 



Tab. XXIV. 




Mary Ann. 2fanceZL JaUp^ 



Tab. XXV 




v ^nn. Jfantx:U Sau',v' 



Tah. XYT7 



J 


'% 




lab. XXVJI. 




Ifarv Ann- IfanteS Sculpt 



Tab. IXVIIL 




JfcwyJnn Ifanieil Sculp' 



Tub. XIII 




Jfarv Ann- JfiViteli Scii/i' 



Tab. XXX 






Mary Ami Ma/Ll:ell Sculp.' 



Tab XXXI. 








rS'=^ -¥...,. ^iA^ .-J.^ .-^v.„ 






M 






rr^^^c-Tiirf)- -^-^r- 




J/6//:f .-^?/zr^ Mi.u'itfU Sai-7p. 



Tab. XXXII. 



"-h^ 



7 



15 



16 



■•^IVite!" 



.\ 



19 



'—^ 



\^i^*'^-^Ji^ J 







23 



22 



«? 



24 



i 



Mary Arm. ManZed.SojJpTidiO. 



'Tad. XXXIIL 





2 3 




/ 





2&ry^-lrm. Mmtsll Sculpt. 



Tab. JJXW. 



^. 







Mary AnrvM'anteZl' Scuip^ 



lalK XJXV 





¥^.-, 








1^^ 



1 S^ as* . ' 






s 

^ 

^ 




Tab XXXV /ff 




y^ry.lnn Manf^i^ S-v^^ 



i 



TdlK XL . 



r 






Jfan' AivhMameU- Sculp* 




Tab. I'LL 



Varv .Jiin JJ.in.tv, 



Tad.^LlI 




INDEX. 



Abdominales, fossil fishes of the order of, 

Actinias recent, observations on, 

Adur river, - . . 

Alluvial deposits. 

Alligator, fossil scales of, 

Alcyonium pyriformis, 

Alcyonia, flints deriving their forms from, 

Alumina, hydrate and subsulphate of, 

Ampullaria canaliculata, 

unknown species of, 

patula, 

Amia Lewesiensis, 
Ammonites auritus, 

' biplicatus, - 

of the blue marl, 

chalk, 

— cafinus, 

cinctm, 

■ complanatus, 

■ curvatus, 

falcatm, 

• of the grey marl, 

. lautus, 

Lewesiensis, 

• Mantelli, 

navicularis, 

■ perampltis, - 



planus, 

rusticus, 

splendens, 



Page 




Page 


of, 235 


Ammonites Sussexiensis, 


114 


175 


■ tuberculatm, 


92 


15 
23 




115 


Woollgari, 


197 


46 


Anarhicas lupiis, fossil teeth of. 


46 


105 


Animals unknown, fossil remains of. 


54 


)m, 162 


Ancilla aveniformis, 


268 


258 


Apiocrinites ellipticus, 


182 


87 


Apodes, fossil fishes of the order of. 


232 


111 


Arun river, - - " 


15 


268 


Archer's Wood, strata of, - 


31 


239 


Ashburnham Park, strata of. 


29 


90 


Astacus LeacMi, - - - 


221 


91 


Astacidffi, fossil remains of. 


98 


89 


Asteria, or star fish, remains of. 


188 


197 


Avicula, . - - - 


126 


198 


Aui'icula incrassata. 


110 


116 






118 


Balanus, fossil valve of, 


220 


118 


Bahstes, description of. 


228 


117 


fossil spine of. 


229 


113 


. dorsal fin, or radius of, 


230 


91 


Barcombe, gravel pits at. 


276 


199 


Barracouta, fossil teeth of the. 


55 


113 


Basin, Isle of Wight, 


251 


198 


Beddingham, chalk pit at. 


149 


200 


Beechwood Green, sand of. 


75 


90 


Belemnites Listeri, - - 


88 


199 
89 


in chalk 


201 


Bexhill, coal of, - - - 


35 



322 



INDEX. 



Bituminous sandstone of Chilley, 
Blue chalk marl, 

sections of, 

organic remains of, 

Bognor rocks, and sandstone, 

fossils of, 

Bones fossil, 
Bracklesham, fossils of. 
Breccia, ferruginous, 
Brighton chalk pits, 
chfFs, 



Page 

76 

80 

82 

85 

271 

271 

52 

268 

257. 265 

152 

276 

62 

108 



Broyle, strata of the, 
Buccinum, in the grey marl, 
Buckland, Professor, tabular arrangement 
of, - ... 248 



Calcareous bed of Brighton, 

tufa, . - . 

Cancer in chalk, _ . - 

Castle HiU, near Newhaven, section of, 
Cardium asperulum, . - . 

deaissatum, 

semigranulatum, 

Chalcedony, - - 

Chalk, - - - . 

formation, . . - 

lower, 

■ marl. 



upper, 

Chama plicata, 

lamellosa, 

Cliilley, bituminous sandstone of, 
ChUtington, strata of, 
Chimting Castle, 
Choanites, definition of, 

' Jlexuosus, 

Konigii, 

subrotundus, 

Chlorite sand, 
Cev\\hmmfiinatum, 



277 
290 
223 
257 
270 
126 
270 
153 
138 

79 

139. 183. 190 

80. 99 

143 

270 

270 

76 

84 
265 
178 
179 
179 
179 

69 
263 



Cerithium gigantewn, - . 269 

melanoides, - . 263 

Cidaris, fossil species of, - - 107 

corollaris, - - . IQO 

• Konigii, - - - 189 

papillata, - - 189 

saxatilis, - - - 189 

Cirrns plicatus, - - - 86 

perspecfivus, • - 194 

depressus, - 195 

granulatus, - - 195 

Clay, plastic, - - - 256 

London, - - - 267 

slate, in marl, - - 102 

weald, - - - 61 

Clayton chalk pit, - - 151 

CUff hills, - - - - 19 

Cliffs at Brighton, - - 148 

Rottingdean, - - 281 

Dieppe, - - - 266 

near Seaford, - - 265 

Coal of Newick Park, and Bexhill, 34 

Coins in flints, ... 147 

in alluvial deposits, - 287 

Concluding observations, - - 295 

Cooksbridge, strata of, - - 83 

Conus dormitor, - - - 268 

Conulus albogalervs, - - 190 

indgaris, - - - 191 

subrotundus, - - 191 

Conybeare, Rev. W., observations of, 218 

Corystidae, fossil species of, - 97 

Crassatella lamellosa, - - 270 
Creation, Mosaic account of, considered, 1 

Crocodile, fossil teeth of, . . 48 

gangetic, fossil teeth of, 50 

bones of, - - 50 

Crustacea of the blue marl, - 96 

chalk, - - 220 

grey marl, - 134 



INDEX. 



323 



Crystallized carbonate of lime, 

quartz, 

Cuckmere river, 
CucuUea, fossil species of, 
Cytherea Scutellaria, 
Cyrene, species of, 

Danny, sandstone of, 
Dentalium, fossil species of, 

siriatiim, 

ellipticum, 

— entalis, 

planum, 

Dianchora lata, 

obliqua, 

Dicksonia, fossil species of, 
Dieppe, strata west of, 
Diodon, fossil teeth of. 
Diluvium, 

organic remains of, 

Ditchling, strata at, 
Dolium, fossil species of. 
Dorsal fin of Balistes, 
Downs of Sussex, 
Druid sandstone, 

Eastbourne, strata at, 
Echinites of the chalk, 

. grey marl, 

Echinital spines, 
Echino-spatangus cordiformis, 

— radiatus, 

Echinocorys scutatus, 
Elephant, fossil remains of, 
Encrinites, 
Esox Lewesiensis, 
Essay, preliminary, 
Etyus, fossil species of, 
EuphorbisB, fossil species of, 



154 

153 

16 

73 

264 

74 

72 

87 

87 

38 

272 

220 

206 

42 

266 

231 

275 

283 

75 

196 

229 

14 

352 

99 

188 

107 

193 

108 

108 

191 

283 

181 

237 

1 

97 

43 



Falmer chalk-pit, 

druid sandstone at, 

Felpham, submarine forest at, 
Fern, arborescent, fossil remains of, 
Fishes fossil, in sandstone, 

in blue marl, 

in grey marl, - 

in chalk, 

scales of, in chalk, ^ 



Fish, lower jaw of, in chalk, 
YistyAansi piriformis, 
Fletching, strata at, 
Flint, formation of, 

analysis of, - - 

Flints, cylindrical bodies in. 

Forest ridge, . . - 

subterranean, 

submarine, - - - 

Formations above the chalk, 

secondary, of Sussex, 

tertiary, 

Fusus longcevus, - . . 

Gangetic crocodile, fossil teeth of, 
Gavial, supposed fossil teeth of. 
Geographical description of Sussex, 
Geological structure of Sussex, 
Green sand formation. 
Grey chalk marl, - - 

Hamites of the blue marl, 
.Hamites alternatus, 

attenuatus, 

armatus, - - 

haculoides, 

ellipticus, - - 

intermedius, 

■ — maximm, - - 

plicatilis. 



151 

254 

288 

42 

45 

98 

133 

224 

236 

237 

76 

27 

144 

143 

166 

17 

288 

289 

247 

22 

248 

269 

50 
50 
14 
21 
24. 69 
99 

92 
122 

93 
121 
123 
122 

93 

93 
121 



T T 2 



INDEX. 



Hamsey, grey marl of, 
Helix, fossil species of, 
Horse, fossil remains of, 
Hydrate of alumine, 

Ichthyolites in chalk, 
Incrusting spring at Pounceford, 
Inoceramus Brongniarti, 

— concentricus, 

- — ■ Cripsii, 

Cuvieri, 

— ■ LamarcJcii, 

latiis, 

■ — nu/tilloides, 

— parasitical bodies in the 

of, ... 

sU'iatus, 

sulcatus, 

. tenuis, 

— undulatus, 

. Websteii, 

Iron sand, - - - 

stone, - - - 

pyrites 

works at Ashburnham, 

Isle of Wight, basin of, 

JuU of the larch, fossil remains of, 

Lacertae, fossil teeth and bones of, 
Laughton Place, fossils of, 
Leaves, impressions of, in limestone, 

— — ■ marl, 

. plastic clay, 



100 
263 

283 
258 

224 
291 
214 
95 
133 
213 
214 
216 
215 



shells 



Leucosiadae, fossil species of, - 
Lewes, situation of, 
— Levels, 



217 

95 

132 

217 

216 

24 

28 

140. 155 

28 

251 

158. 103 

48 
82 
44 
105 
262 
96 
18 



Little Horsted, strata of, - - 25 

Lizard, fossil species of, - - 48 

London clay, ... 267 

, organic remains of, . 268 

Lunulites, . - - - 180 

Lyell, Charles, Esq., fossils collected by, 59 



Madrepora centralis, 

Madreporite, compound, 

Maestricht, fossil monitor of, 

Mahn Rock of Western Sussex, 

Marsupites Milleri, 

Marl grey, 

Marble, Sussex, 

Marsh land, 

Melania costellata, 

Melsbroeck, fossil turtles of. 

Miller Mr., researches of, 

Millepora Gilbei-ti, 

Minerals, - . 101. 

Modiola imbricata, 

Monitor gigantic, bones of, - 

, teeth of) - 

, jaw of, 

of Maestricht, vertebrse of. 



- 159 

- 160 

- 242 
. 84 

- 183 

- 99 

- m 

- 285 

- 269 

- 87 
. 181 

- 106 
140. 153 

. 73 

- 48 

- 49 

- 55 
242 

Mosaic account of the creation, essay on, 1 

Murex argutus, ... ogg 

Muraena Lcwesiensis, - . 232 

Mya, casts of, . .. . 45 

intermedia, - •■ - 74 

Mytilus, fossil, - . - 73 



Natica, 



similis. 



Nautilus elegans, 
inequalis. 



Limestone in blue clay. 
Limestone of Tilgate Forest, 
Lingula tenuis. 



19. 101. 286 Newhaven, strata near, 

30 Newick Park, coal of, 

37 Newtimber, blue marl of, 

271 Norlington, blue marl of. 



72.87 

- 268 

- 112 

88 

- 256 

- 34 
. 84 
. 82 



INDEX. 



325 



Nucula pectinata, 

ovata, 

Nummulites Icevigata, 

Oak Tree clay, 

Ocean, present effects of, 

Offham, grey marl of. 

Organic remains of the Alluvium 

— Blue Marl, 

Bogn or Rocks, 

■ Diluvium, 

Green sand. 



Page 

94 

94 

269 

61 

292 
100 
287 

85 
271 
283 

72 
102 

36 
268 
141 

98 

72 
262 



Ostrea, 

Ouse river, 

Oxide of iron, in marl, 



— Grey marl, 

— Iron sand, 

— London clay, 

— Lower chalk, 

— Malm Rock, 

— Parham sand, 

— Plastic clay, 

— Stonesfield slate, 59 

— Sussex marble, &o 
42 

156 

206 

16 

102 



Tilgate beds. 
Upper chalk, 



Palate of a species of Ray, - - 270 

Palm, fossil species of, - - 43 

Parasitical bodies in Inocerami, - 218 

Parham Park, sand of, - 71 

Patella, - . - 72 

Peat, - . - 287 

Pebbles of Rottingdean, - 282 

Pecten Beaveriy - . . 127 

— — laminosa, . - 128 

■ nitida, . ^ 202 

triplicata, - - 128 

■ quinquecostatOy - 74. 128. 201 

V eQtanc\Avis pulvinatus, •- . 373 



Pentacrinites, definition of, 
Perna, 

Petworth marble, 
Pevensey, subterranean forest at, 
Phillips Mr., on the Dover chalk, 
Piddinghoe, chalk pit at. 
Pinna margaritacea, 
Plagiostoma aspera, 

Brightoniensis, 

Hoperi, 

spinosa, 



Plastic clay formation, 

Pleurotoma, 

Plicatula spinosa, 

Preston chalk-pit, 

Pyriform zoophytes in chalk, 

Pyrula bulbiformis, - . . 

Quadrupeds oviparous, fossil remains of, 

land, remains of, 

, supposed ribs of, 

Rand Cater, Esq., section of strata by, 
Ringmer green, sand of, 

, blue marl of. 

Rivers of Sussex. 
Rocks of Bognor, 

at Uckfield, 

-, tabular arrangement of, 22 

RosteUaria carinata, 

Parkinsoni, _ 72, 

Rottingdean cliffs, 
pebbles, 

Saint Peter's Mountain, fossil from, 
Salmo Lewesiensis, ... 

Sanguinolaria Holloiioafysii, 
Scales of a species of lizard, 
Scalaria acuta, . - . 

Scaphites costatus, ... 



Page 

181 
74 
63 
289 
138 
150 
272 
129 
204 
204 
203 
256 
269 
129 
152 
162 



47 

283 

52 

34 

75 

82 

15 

271 

26 

, 248 

86 

108 

281 



218 
235 
270 
46' 
268 
120 



326 



INDEX. 



Scaphites striatus, 
Serpula, 
in chalk, 



119 
112 
196 
261 
292 
292 
31 
19 
277 
292 
286 



Selenites, . . - 

Sea, encroachments of, 

, present eiFects of, 

Shale in blue clay, 

Sheep ponds, 

Shingle bed of Brighton, 

Shoreham, bank of shells near, 

SUt of Lewes levels, - 

Smith, Thomas Esq., bones collected by, 290 

Solarium canaliculatum, - - 269 

South Downs, - - - 17 

Southbourne, grey sand of, - 77 

Southerham quarry, ... 140 

Spatangus cor anguinum, - - 192 

planus, - - - 192 

rostratus, - - - 192 

Spongia ramosa, - - - 162 

Spongus To-Misendi, - - - 164 

laln/rinthicus, - - 165 

Spring, chalybeate, - - - 260 

, incrusting, - - - 291 

Squalus, teeth of, in sandstone, - 46 

■ cor?iubicus, teeth of, - 226 

mustehis, - - 98. 134. 226 

galeus, - - 134. 227 

, teeth of an unknown species of, 227 

225 
153 
59 
75 
52 
296 
35 
258 



, vertebra of, 

Steyning chalk pits, - . . 

Stonesfield hmestone, fossils o^ 
Stonepound, strata of, 
Strata in the Broyle, 

in Surrey, Kent, and Sussex, - 

sections of, at Bexhill, 

Subsulphate of Alumina, 
Subterranean forest, - - 288 

Sulphuret of iron, - . 101,140 

Surturbrand, - - - 261 



Sussex, geographical description of, 

, geological structure of, 

, strata of, 

, secondary formations of, 

, Weald of, 

marble, 



Tellina, 

Tertiary formations, 
Terrible Down, strata of. 
Teredo in chalk, 
Terebratula intermedia, 

Martini, 

ovata, 

pUcatilis, 

semiglobosa, 

striatida, 

mbundata. 



subrotunda, 

— subplicata, 

— sulcata, - 
squamosa. 



Testaceee in chalk, 
Testudo imbricata, 
Thoracici, fishes of the order of, 
Tilgate forest, strata of, 

, section of, 

-, organic remains of. 



Tortoises fossil, 

plates of, 

Trionyx, fossil remains of, 
Trigonia aliformis, 
— clavellata, 
Trochus, 

agglutinans, 

Turbinated alcyonite, 
Turbinolia Konigii, 
Turrihtes costatus, 

tuberculatus, 

undtdatus, 

Turritella conoidea. 



Page 

14 

- 21 

- 22 

- 22 

- 16 
63, 65 

- 73 
248. 251 

- 32 

- 207 

- 209 

- 131 

- 208 

- 210 

- 209 

- 131 

- 130 

- 130 

- 211 

- ISO 

- 132 

- 194 

- 48 

- 233 

- 57 

- 38 

- 42 

- 47 

- 47 

- 47 

- 73 

- 73 

- 109 

- 268 

- 161 

- 85 

- 123 

- 124 

- 124 

- 269 



INDEX. 



327 



Turritella elongata, - 
multisidcata, 

Vegetables in limestone, 

aments or cones in marl, 

• in chalk, - 

-— ^ in the Plastic clay, 

Venericardia, 

acuticosta, 

planicosta, 

squamosa, 

Ventriculites alcyonoides, 

Beiiettice, 

quadi-angularis, 

■ radiatus, 



Venus, 



1U% 



smeriensis. 



Vermicularia Bognoriensis, 

Sowerbii, 

itmbonafa. 

Vertebrae, fossil of crocodiles, 
, of the Maestricht 



Monitor, 



Page 

269 
269 

42 
103 
158 
262 
126 
270 

73 
270 
176 
177 
177 
168 

73 
126 
272 
111 
111 

50 

242 



Voluta ambigua, 

bicoro7ia, 

luctator, 

Uckfield rocks, 

Waldron, coal of, 

Weald clay, 

Weald of Sussex, 

Webster, Mr., researches of, 

Wellingham, green sand of. 

Whin-stone, 

Willingdon, fossil wood of. 

Wood in chalk, 

in grey marl, 

in green sand, 

— in plastic clay, 

in sandstone. 



WooUgar, Thomas, Esq., notice of the 
late, ... 



-, of a species of Squalus, 225 - 



108 
268 



26 

36 
61 
16 

250 
75 
71 
76 

157 

102 
76 

262 
42 

198 



Vivipara extensa, 
Jluviorum, 



45 
45 



Zoophytes of the chalk, - . 159 

branched, silicified, - - 163 

• of the grey marl, - - 105 

— - ramose, epidermis of, - 164 



DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER. 

Tab. VI. to be placed opposite the Title Page. 

The other plates to follow immediately after the " Description of the Plates," and before 
the Index. 

The Map is to be considered as Tab. I. 



WORKS PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION. 



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